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  1. 1. Spanish Inquisition
  2. 5. To what extent did the inquisition strengthen the Spanish church? Why has the inquisition caused controversy among historians? How effectively did the Spanish inquisition fulfil its role in mainland Spain?
  3. 6. Aims <ul><li>Understand the aims , methods, historical development and historical debate surround the Inquisition </li></ul>
  4. 7. Motley <ul><li>‘ A bench of monks without appeal, having familiars in every house, diving into the secrets of every fireside, judging and executing its horrible decrees and practising torture without responsibility.’ </li></ul>
  5. 8. Background
  6. 9. Background <ul><li>1478 –Aragon – root out heresy </li></ul><ul><li>1480 - Anti-Semitic origins – conversos under F&I </li></ul><ul><li>1518 unified under Inquisitor General </li></ul><ul><li>Controlled by Spanish crown rather than Rome </li></ul><ul><li>Head/officials appointed by crown </li></ul><ul><li>Appeals not permitted to Rome </li></ul><ul><li>Authorisation ran throughout all of Spain unlike Cortes. But did have inquisitional districts. </li></ul><ul><li>Eradication of heresy </li></ul>
  7. 11. Methods
  8. 12. Punishments – which is the worst? <ul><li>Penance </li></ul><ul><li>Reconciled </li></ul><ul><li>Relaxed </li></ul>
  9. 13. Punishments <ul><li>Penance – swore never again / fined / banished / wear a special garment </li></ul><ul><li>Reconciled – flogging / galley / prison </li></ul><ul><li>Relaxed – auto de fe </li></ul><ul><li>Ceremony of auto de fes important </li></ul>
  10. 14. Historical Development
  11. 15. Kamen Views – 5 periods of activity <ul><li>1) Tense activity under F&I </li></ul><ul><li>2) Relatively quiet early 16 th Century </li></ul><ul><li>3) 1560-1614 – Protestant Panic and Moriscos </li></ul><ul><li>4) Remainder of 17 th Century – moral crimes </li></ul><ul><li>5) 18 th Century decline </li></ul>
  12. 16. Historical Debates
  13. 17. Historical Controversy
  14. 18. Cruel not in doubt but level of cruelty and repression debated
  15. 19. Ruthless Persecution <ul><li>Black Legend centre piece </li></ul><ul><li>John Foxe – ‘dreadful engine of tyranny’ </li></ul><ul><li>Fear of it being intro in Low Countries contributed to Dutch revolt </li></ul><ul><li>Cruel repression </li></ul><ul><li>Motley / Watson / Cadoux </li></ul><ul><li>Predominant view until 20 th century </li></ul>
  16. 20. Revised view <ul><li>Kamen – softer view – Why? </li></ul><ul><li>Executions smaller only 3 burnings per year 2% of accused 16 th century </li></ul><ul><li>Not purely a Spanish prerogative </li></ul><ul><li>Use of torture in line with practices of the time – e.g. rack </li></ul><ul><li>Few died under torture </li></ul><ul><li>Granada only 7% tortured 1573-1577 </li></ul><ul><li>View today repulsive yet inline with methods of the time </li></ul><ul><li>Limited resources peak 47-50 inquisitors, reliance on locals etc </li></ul><ul><li>Sir Charles Petrie – compared positively to NKVD and Gestapo </li></ul>
  17. 21. Victims <ul><li>Changing pattern </li></ul><ul><li>Until 1525 – conversos </li></ul><ul><li>The moriscos </li></ul><ul><li>Less protestants – why? </li></ul><ul><li>Regional variations </li></ul><ul><li>More evidence of moral reform e.g. thought crimes , solicitation, blasphemy </li></ul>
  18. 22. Effect?
  19. 23. Assessment of effect <ul><li>Inquisition – corner stone of black legend </li></ul><ul><li>Repressive </li></ul><ul><li>Philip seen as a religious fanatic </li></ul><ul><li>Racial policy – contributed to morisco revolt 1568 </li></ul><ul><li>May have closed off intellectual ideas to Spain </li></ul><ul><li>Yet index impossible to enforce even Escorial had banned literature </li></ul><ul><li>Internal ‘turf wars’ between orders </li></ul><ul><li>Clashes over ‘fueros’ </li></ul>
  20. 24. <ul><li>Inquisition limited resources – 15 inquisitor districts, 45 inquisitors, variety of unpaid assistants, 8 million people, relied on laity for denunciations </li></ul><ul><li>Limited budget, over reliance on local officials </li></ul>
  21. 25. <ul><li>Yet </li></ul><ul><li>Legally trained </li></ul><ul><li>Sarah Nalle inquisition were never ‘marginal’ to lives of Spaniards </li></ul><ul><li>Increase in denunciations illustrates support of inquisition. </li></ul><ul><li>Yet – no worse than in England or France. England 1570-1603 127 Catholic priests executed. Kamen claims only 100 burnt 1559-1562 </li></ul>
  22. 26. Historical Controversy