This presentation helps us to know, why BRT is important in Delhi and how it can curb the traffic on Delhi roads. It also tells us the implementation of BRT in Delhi. It also tells us the various advantages of BRT.
Delhi: NOx levels Rising steadily 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 60 30mebuagocrt/i 0 Res. Areas Ind. Areas Source: CSE computation based on CPCB 3 data
Delhi: at risk of losing gains After a short respite the curve turns upward 180 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 120 60mebuagocrt/i 0 4 Res. Areas Ind. Areas CPCB Source:
Present Scenario & Statistics S o u r c e s o f A ir P o llu t io n in D e lh i: D G s e t s , c o o k in g , In d u s t r ia l b io m a s s E m is s io n 10 % 20% 70% V E H IC U L A R Source: M P D 2021, p57 E M IS S IO N Our Air is killing 21 people every day. Since vehicles are the major pollution source, they are the major cause of respiratory fatalities in Delhi.
NOx = 84,200 kg/day NOx = 84,200 kg/day2011 201669 LAKH Vehicles 93 LAKH Vehicles We are already at risky/ fatally high levels of Pollution, even without looking at future projections, Therefore time has come for drastic paradigm change.
Present Scenario & StatisticsAnnual Average* of Critical Pollutants at Five Stations in Delhi (in µg/ m3) Prescri Parameter Punjabi Mandir R K Civil bed s Bagh Marg Puram Airport Lines Limit 50 SO2 7.81 9.40 6.34 19.53 23.26 NO2 38.51 43.29 44.87 70.27 97.05 40 PM10 294.59 250.76 314.89 265.80 213.56 100 PM2.5 153.07 127.16 151.53 135.73 84.39 60 Benzene 0.75 1.18 0.93 22.01 14.83 5 Highlighted Data in red indicates Crossing of prescribed limit *Average data from January 2011 to October 2011
Mass Emission Standards for Bharat Stage –IVategory M and Category N vehicles manufactured after the 1st April 2010 with gross vehicleweight not exceeding 3500 kg, shall be as under:
Emission norms for different categories of vehiclesNorms Passenger car Two wheelers Heavy Vehicles (Diesel) (gm/Km Hr) (Gasoline (Gasoline) (gm/Km) (gm/Km) CO HC + CO HC + CO HC NOx PM NOx NOxBS I 2.72 0.97 2.0 2.0 4.5 1.1 8.0 0.36BS II 2.2 0.5 1.5 1.5 4.0 1.1 7.0 0.15BS III 2.3 0.35 1.0 1.0 2.1 0.66 5.0 0.10 (COMBINED )BS IV 1.0 0.18 - - 1.5 0.96 3.5 0.02 (Combined )
Projected growth of different categories of vehicles between2012-2017 Vehicle Growth Rate 2012 2017 Category 2- Wheelers 50% 4976488 7464732 3-Wheelers 10% 83163 91480 4-Wheelers 50% 2402548 3603823 (Pass Cars) 4-Wheelers 100% 51018 102036 (Taxis, cabs) LCVs (Tata 50% 123237 184856 407 etc) Trucks 30% 76785 99820 Buses and 30% 56600 73581 Others Number of vehicles registered in Delhi upto 31st March 2011 : 6889996
Baseline and next 5 year Projected Vehicular emission load Pollutants Emission Load Kg/d 2007 2012 2017 (baseline) (Business as (Business as Usual) Usual) Vehicular Emissions PM 9747 12587 15425 CO 217791 277069 336207 HC 66741 85686 104608 Nox 84194 111124 138096 SO2 722 1057 1393
Air Quality Improvement Strategies:Since Vehicles are the major source of NOx and PM pollution in Delhi, bothof which are major causes of cancer and respiratory diseases, the followingPlans are to be implemented in order to undice a mode shift in favour ofPublic Transport, in the next 5 years.The following Modal Shift Strategies are to be implemented: Move more People, not Vehicles – Augment usability, reliability of Public Transport System by Implementing BRT Network. Parking Pricing to discourage car use. Cycling Masterplan – to make cycling safe in Delhi.AIR
Strategy 1: Move more People, in lesser vehicles One Mixed Traffic Lane carries approx. A dedicated BRT lane carries minimum of 2600 Passengers per lane per hour 6000 Passengers per lane per hour Street without Street with Dedicated Bus lanes Dedicated Bus lanesMAXIMUM capacity of a Mixed Lane = (2.2x1200) = MINIMUM capacity of a Dedicated Bus Lane2640 Passengers/ Lane/ hour = 6000 - 20,000 Passengers/ Lane/ hour
• It is FASTER (possible only if there is Congestion for private vehicles) • It is CHEAPER (possible with fuel price rise, hike in parking fee, etc.) People will move to Public Transport from Car – only if:Car = 2.2 people Bus = 60 people
Which mode to take, if not car?• Short car trips can shift to auto-rickshaws (if parking fee is hiked)• Medium to longer car trips can move to buses or Metro.• Shift form 2-wheelers to Buses possible only if bus-fares are made cheaper. AV. TRIP LENGTH Source: T ransport D emand F orecast Study, 2008 Survey D ata by R I T E S for D oT , GN C T D
Which mode to take, if not car?• If short trips in the city (2-10 km) are not made on Buses & NMT, then this would just mean more cars, more two-wheelers, more RTVs… Therefore every short trip will add to more pollution… AV. TRIP LENGTH Source: T ransport D emand F orecast Study, 2008 Survey D ata by R I T E S for D oT , GN C T D
Which mode to take, if not car?• People can buy cars but only use it on holidays or non-peak-hour trips. Private modes should NOT be a necessity for reliable peak hour travel. Other modes - Metro, BRT, local buses, rickshaws, cycling, walking - should be made more convenient, cheaper, safer and more reliable compared to car trips. AV. TRIP LENGTH Source: T ransport D emand F orecast Study, 2008 Survey D ata by R I T E S for D oT , GN C T D
Why is Bus System Augmentation critical, inspite of Metro BRT corridors take the buses out of the traffic jam, thus making the entire bus system many times more reliable and faster. Need for mode interchange removed at least at one end of the trip in BRT, because the local bus itself takes people to their home/final destination. Local bus routes Bus Corridor fully segregated For Metro, a feeder mode is required at both ends, requiring time, money, inconvenience. This interchange delay is more acceptable when trip lengths are longer. For example, for a 6 km trip, an interchage after 3 km is undesirable and a direct mode is more preferable. DESTINATION Metro Feeders Station Interchange ORIGIN point
Why is Bus System Augmentation critical, inspite of Metro Average Trip lengths in NCT is 10km. So bus is ideal and most convenient since it picks and drops door-to-door. Metro is best for 15-20km trip, as longer trip length neutralizes the interchange time & hassle for the commuter. • 80% of Trips in Delhi are below 10 KMs.
Why is Bus System Augmentation critical, inspite of Metro For trip lengths between 5-10 KM, Bus is the ideal mode of Public Transport in Delhi. MODE Average Trip Length (KM) •CAR 10.5 •2W 8.7 •AUTO RICKSHAW 4.7 •BUS 8.8 •METRO 13.8 •TRAIN (IR) 20.2 •BICYCLE 4.0 •CYCLE RICKSHAW 1.7 •WALK 1.1 By adding short trips to Metro (2-10km commuters), it makes Metro too crowded for long distance travellers, thus making them shift back to other modes. This has already happened in corridors like Vikas Marg, Gurgaon, etc. because bus commuter (instead of car ) have moved to the Metro!! Source: T ransport D emand F orecast Study, 2008 Survey D ata by R I T E S for D oT , GN C T D
FUTURE SCENARIOS – Business as Usual vs. Various Public Transport Scenarios.• Continuing current trends shows a “decrease” in PT share.• Implementing Metro & closed BRT only maintains the current Mode share.• Implementing an Open/Hybrid BRT Netork along wit higher Parking Charges – induces a positive shift towards Public Transport! Base 2007 Business as Metro + Open Network BRT/ (CURRENT) Usual (2021) few Closed BRT Bus System + (with Higher Higher Parking MODE Parking Charges) Charges 2021 Mode Share Mode Share Mode Share Mode Share (%) (%) (%) (%) CAR 15.5 23.4 17.1 14.6 2-Wheeler 27.1 21.9 20.0 8.7 Auto-rickshaw 4.4 5.1 3.2 4.1 Public Transport 53.0 49.6 59.7 72.6 TOTAL TRIPS 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 Source: T ransport D emand F orecast Study and I ntegrated R oad C um M ulti-modal P ublic T ransport N etwork F or N C T , 2010; by R I T E S for D oT , GN C T D
Combination of Metro + Open BRT System – Lowest Emission Lowest Emission ScenarioSource: T ransport D emand F orecast Study and I ntegrated R oad C um M ulti-modalP ublic T ransport N etwork F or N C T , 2010; by R I T E S for D oT , GN C T D
Hybrid BRT + Metro Public Transport Network Plan: 14 corridors in 5 years14 Integrated TransportCorridors (ITC) to be taken upin next 5 years – shown in redSYMBOLS: IIT- MUMBAI
Strategy 2: Increase Parking Charges to discourage Private Vehicle use.ackground Data:Results form “Willingness to Pay” Survey done by RITESwith private vehicle users at various parking locations:•84% are willing to shift to “good” public transportSystem•72% to shift if quality feeder system is available.•45% of car users to shift topublic transport if Parking fee isincreased by 50%.
Increased Parking Charges to increase Public Transport Ridership. The RITES Transport Model (GNCTD) shows that Increased Parking charges give an increased ridership (PHPDT) for Public Transport Modes. Business As UsualPHPDT Metro + BRT Metro + BRT + Parking Charges Various BRT/ ITC Corridors PHPDT = Peak Hour Per Direction Trips; Source: T ransport D emand F orecast Study and I ntegrated R oad C um M ulti-modal ITC = Integrated Transport Corridor P ublic T ransport N etwork F or N C T , 2010; by R I T E S for D oT , GN C T D
Strategy 3: Cycling Masterplan – Make Cycling Safe in Delhi!It is interesting to Note from the Data below that: Of the 19% car owning households of the city, 9% use their vehicles regularly fortravel; However out of the 35% Bicycle Owners, only 5% use them for travel!! Vehicle Ownership In Delhi Modal Share VEHICLE OWNED % OF HOUSEHOLDS MODE % of PERSON TRIPS •CAR WITH WALK TRIPS - 1 no. 16.4 (2007-08) - 2 nos. 2.5 •CAR/TAXI 9.09 - 3 nos. 0.4 •2W 14.07 ≥ 4 nos. 0.1 •AUTO RICKSHAW 2.36 TOTAL 19.4 •BUS 27.12 •2W •METRO 2.66 - 1 nos. 37.7 •TRAIN (IR) 0.42 - 2 nos. 5.1 •BICYCLE 4.46 - 3 nos. 0.5 •CYCLE RICKSHAW 5.16 ≥ 4 nos. 0.1 •WALK 34.67 TOTAL 43.4 •NO MOTOR VEHICLE 47.9 TOTAL 100 •BICYCLE 35.0 TOTAL TRIPS/DAY 219.87 LAKH
Promotion of NMT/ Cycling helps in drastic reduction in Emissions __ E (Better Vehicles) (High Cycling & NMT use.Data Source: www.unep.org
A complete City-wide Safe Cycling Network to be developed. Arterial Roads to have safe Cycle Tracks
A complete City-wide Safe Cycling Network to be developed. Nallahs can be Cycle-Ecomobility corridors, forming a City-wide Network.
Nallah Corridors become a shorter Cycling Connection to Stations NIZAMUDDIN STATION ISBT SARAI KALE KHAN JANGPURA METRO STATION 2.0 KMS 3.5 KMS BRT CORRIDOR 32
Air Quality Improvement Plans:Since Vehicles are the major source of NOx and PM pollution in Delhi, bothof which are major causes of cancer and respiratory diseases, the followingPlans are to be implemented in order to undice a mode shift in favour ofPublic Transport, in the next 5 years.The following Modal Shift Strategies are to be implemented: Move more People, not Vehicles – Augment usability, reliability of Public Transport System by Implementing BRT Network. Parking pricing to discourage car use. Cycling Masterplan – to make cycling safe in Delhi.AIR