Why do Scientists use classification systems? Scientists need to organize materials. A part of a Scientist's job is to make sense of the world around us. He can do that much easier if everything is arranged in a system on paper at least. A cook can do better if each pan or tool is exactly where she put it and expects it to be. She can grab her mixer and put it on the counter instead of saying, "Where is that mixer?" and running all around looking for it. The same with everything else. Likewise with a mechanic, look at his tools. They are all arranged and ready for use. They are arranged in a system. They are classified by size. He does not have to search to get to the part he wants to get to and repair. When a scientist is examining something he has the terminology. If it is an animal, he can use very few words and all other scientists using the same classification system know what he is talking about. He does not have to describe how to find some particular muscle in some particular animal, or he does not need to describe some of the chemicals used in a process. His classification system contains that information. Scientific classifications systems contain a lot of information.
ORGANISMS CLASSIFICATION The first individual to propose an orderly system for classifying the variety of organisms found on our planet was Linnaeus (1753). In his system of classification, the finest unit in the organization of life is the species. Linnaeus suggested that every organism should be classified with a unique binomial name. The first term in this classification system is the organism's generic name or Genus . The second term is the organism's specific name or species designation. Current classification systems have developed from Linnaeus ' original work. However, modern classification systems are much more complicated having many levels of hierarchical organization. These systems are also taxonomic (structural and physiological connections between organisms), phylogenic (classification based on genetic connections between organisms), and are structurally based on Darwin's theory of evolution . Modern classifications of organisms are standardized in a hierarchical system that go from general to specific.
BINOMIAL NOMENCLATURE Binomial nomenclature is the system used to identify all organisms on Earth, from elephants to algae. A binomial or scientific name identifies an organism by its genus and species, ensuring that everyone understands which organism is under discussion. Binomial nomenclature fits within the larger framework of taxonomy, the science of categorizing living organisms and assigning traits to them to understand the links and differences between them. The scientific name of an organism could be considered its definitive name, with scientific names being understood by scientists all over the world.You may also hear scientific names being referred to as “Latin names,” in a reference to the heavy use of Latin in taxonomy. However, it is also common to see Latinized names, typically honoring the person who discovered the organization, or the region in which it was discovered; for example, Branta canadensis is the Canadian Goose. Greek is also used in scientific names, often in a jumble with Latin which brings some classical scholars to tears.
The Six Kingdoms: Plants, Animals, Protists, Fungi, Archaebacteria, Eubacteria. Plants You are probably quite familiar with the members of this kingdom as it contains all the plants that you have come to know - flowering plants , mosses, and ferns. Plants are all multicellular and consist of complex cells. With over 250,000 species, the plant kingdom is the second largest kingdom. Plant species range from the tiny green mosses to giant trees. In addition plants are autotrophs, organisms that make their own food.
Animals The animal kingdom is the largest kingdom with over 1 million known species . All animals consist of many complex cells. They are also heterotrophs.
Archaebacteria In 1983, scientists tool samples from a spot deep in the Pacific Ocean where hot gases and molten rock boiled into the ocean form the Earth’s interior. To their surprise they discovered unicellular (one cell) organisms in the samples. These organisms are today classified in the kingdom, Archaebacteria. Archaebacteria are found in extreme environments such as hot boiling water and thermal vents under conditions with no oxygen or highly acid environments.
Eubacteria Like archaebacteria, eubacteria are complex and single celled. Most bacteria are in the EUBACTERIA kingdom. They are the kinds found everywhere and are the ones people are most familiar with. Eubacteria are classified in their own kingdom because their chemical makeup is different.
Fungi Mushrooms, mold and mildew are all examples of organisms in the kingdom fungi . Most fungi are multicellular and consists of many complex cells. Fungi are organisms that biologists once confused with plants, however, unlike plants, fungi cannot make their own food. Most obtain their food from parts of plants that are decaying in the soil.
Protists Slime molds and algae are protists. Sometimes they are called the odds and ends kingdom because its members are so different from one another. Protists include all microscopic organisms thatare not bacteria, not animals, not plants and not fungi. Most protists are unicellular. You may be wondering why those protists are not classified in the Archaebacteria or Eubacteria kingdoms. It is because, unlike bacteria, protists are complex cells.
Plants Animals Sunflower Tree Kingfisher Ray Lizard
MAJOR PLANT GROUPS <ul><li>1) m osses are found in moist areas and do not grow vertically too high but can spread out to be a yard long. </li></ul><ul><li>2) This plant division bears cones, instead of real fruits </li></ul><ul><li>3)This plant division can mostly be found in they are found throughout the world. They are mostly found in tropical rain forests. </li></ul><ul><li>4) The four basic parts of this plant division are Sepals, Petals, Stamens and Carpels. </li></ul>