WEATHER RADAR FOR URBAN PLUVIAL FLOOD FORECASTING Professor Chris Collier National Centre for Atmospheric Science, Head of...
Impact of Flash Floods in Cities Commercial district of Istanbul, September 2009 At least 20 people died in Istanbul 7 dro...
Urban drainage <ul><li>In many urban areas of England the UDS is complex, and in parts old and in need of refurbishment. <...
Flood protection and forecasting
Why radar? <ul><li>Wide area measurements of precipitation from a single location. </li></ul><ul><li>High resolution. </li...
Rainfall totals measured at Ruislip, London and discharge from Yeading Brook West Branch on 8 May 1988 Bank full 1 in 100 ...
How radar works Courtesy Met Office
The passage of line convection over London as observed by the Chenies C-band radar 7 December 2006, 1053UTC Chenies tornad...
X-band radar <ul><li>Ease of siting </li></ul><ul><li>Cost </li></ul><ul><li>Mobility </li></ul><ul><li>Less ground clutte...
Polarization techniques offer increased accuracy for measuring heavy rain 60 dBZ core could be torrential rain or hail Con...
Examples of mobile Doppler dual polarisation X-band radar Selex Gematronik  University of Auckland, NZ, Ardmore
Why do (some) hydrologists still distrust radar estimates of rainfall? Comparison with raingauges
Why we need to merge rainfall data?
Amplification of radar errors Discharge bias using radar data input to a stochastic model of the urban River Croal, UK cat...
Fundamental Limitation of Widely Spaced Long Range Radars gap
 
High resolution numerical forecasts <ul><li>1-2 km grid lengths now beginning to be used operationally. </li></ul><ul><li>...
Illustrating Cobbacombe radar 5 hour total rainfall (mm) (left panel) and 1 km UM forecast rainfall (mm) for 12-17 UTC 16 ...
The problem of issuing an alert under flood forecasting uncertainty (courtesy E. Todini)
Example of the exploitation of new data sources, data assimilation and ensemble techniques for storm and flood forecasting...
Concluding remarks <ul><li>Radar data are likely to be the basis of forecasts for 1-2 hours ahead. However for longer lead...
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Weather radar for urban pluvial flood forecasting - By Chris Collier - University of Leeds

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WEATHER RADAR FOR URBAN PLUVIAL FLOOD FORECASTING :
- Impact of Flash Floods in Cities
- Urban drainage
- Flood protection and forecasting
- Why radar?
- Rainfall totals measured at Ruislip, London and discharge from Yeading Brook West Branch on 8 May 1988
- The passage of line convection over London as observed by the Chenies C-band radar 7 December 2006, 1053UTC
- Polarization techniques offer increased accuracy for measuring heavy rain
- Examples of mobile Doppler dual polarisation X-band radar
- Why do (some) hydrologists still distrust radar estimates of rainfall? Comparison with raingauges
- Why we need to merge rainfall data?
- Amplification of radar errors Discharge bias using radar data input to a stochastic model of the urban River Croal, UK catchment compared to a model of the Baron Fork River USA catchment
- Fundamental Limitation of Widely Spaced Long Range Radars
- High resolution numerical forecasts
- The problem of issuing an alert under flood forecasting uncertainty
- Concluding remarks

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Weather radar for urban pluvial flood forecasting - By Chris Collier - University of Leeds

  1. 1. WEATHER RADAR FOR URBAN PLUVIAL FLOOD FORECASTING Professor Chris Collier National Centre for Atmospheric Science, Head of Strategic Partnerships University of Leeds, UK
  2. 2. Impact of Flash Floods in Cities Commercial district of Istanbul, September 2009 At least 20 people died in Istanbul 7 drowned in a minibus going to work
  3. 3. Urban drainage <ul><li>In many urban areas of England the UDS is complex, and in parts old and in need of refurbishment. </li></ul><ul><li>Sewage discharges to natural water courses </li></ul><ul><li>Accurate high resolution (1km x 1km) rainfall measurements and forecasts needed. </li></ul><ul><li>Changes in rainfall patterns and amounts may cause problems in UDS management. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Flood protection and forecasting
  5. 5. Why radar? <ul><li>Wide area measurements of precipitation from a single location. </li></ul><ul><li>High resolution. </li></ul>Courtesy Met Office Green on this map of Hull UK indicates areas that are prone to flooding
  6. 6. Rainfall totals measured at Ruislip, London and discharge from Yeading Brook West Branch on 8 May 1988 Bank full 1 in 100 yrs 1 in 25 yrs 63.5 mm in 2.5 h 34.2 mm in 75 min
  7. 7. How radar works Courtesy Met Office
  8. 8. The passage of line convection over London as observed by the Chenies C-band radar 7 December 2006, 1053UTC Chenies tornado Courtesy Met Office
  9. 9. X-band radar <ul><li>Ease of siting </li></ul><ul><li>Cost </li></ul><ul><li>Mobility </li></ul><ul><li>Less ground clutter provided one degree beamwidth used. </li></ul><ul><li>Can detect smaller particles including the detection of light precipitation such as snow. </li></ul>Advantages Disadvantages <ul><li>Attenuation through rain, snow and ice (hail) but can correct if polarisation capability exists. </li></ul><ul><li>Very limited clear air measurements. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Polarization techniques offer increased accuracy for measuring heavy rain 60 dBZ core could be torrential rain or hail Conventional Radar Reflectivity Differential Phase Shift Phase shift indicates torrential rain Rain gauge confirmed 250mm/hour
  11. 11. Examples of mobile Doppler dual polarisation X-band radar Selex Gematronik University of Auckland, NZ, Ardmore
  12. 12. Why do (some) hydrologists still distrust radar estimates of rainfall? Comparison with raingauges
  13. 13. Why we need to merge rainfall data?
  14. 14. Amplification of radar errors Discharge bias using radar data input to a stochastic model of the urban River Croal, UK catchment compared to a model of the Baron Fork River USA catchment
  15. 15. Fundamental Limitation of Widely Spaced Long Range Radars gap
  16. 17. High resolution numerical forecasts <ul><li>1-2 km grid lengths now beginning to be used operationally. </li></ul><ul><li>Realistic forecasts now being produced, but problems remain e.g. Representing sub-grid scale processes, although grid lengths of less than 1 km are also possible. </li></ul><ul><li>These forecasts are expected to replace radar-based nowcasts for lead times beyond two hours or so. </li></ul><ul><li>However the assimilation of radar data is likely to become an essential part of operational procedures. </li></ul>
  17. 18. Illustrating Cobbacombe radar 5 hour total rainfall (mm) (left panel) and 1 km UM forecast rainfall (mm) for 12-17 UTC 16 August 2004 (from Golding et al, 2005) [performance due in part to the dynamic impact of the sea breeze with orography which introduced a level of stationarity to the convection]
  18. 19. The problem of issuing an alert under flood forecasting uncertainty (courtesy E. Todini)
  19. 20. Example of the exploitation of new data sources, data assimilation and ensemble techniques for storm and flood forecasting Boscastle storm Case study: Boscastle storm (a) a ‘pseudo-ensemble’ of high-resolution 1 km NWP rainfall, (b) an ensemble of distributed hydrological model simulations of river flow using the Grid-to-Grid (G2G) model, (c) comparison of G2G ensembles with observations for the River Tamar at Gunnislake (location and 1 km catchment boundary is given in (a) and (b)). (courtesy R. Moore and S. Cole) (a) (b) (c)
  20. 21. Concluding remarks <ul><li>Radar data are likely to be the basis of forecasts for 1-2 hours ahead. However for longer lead times high resolution NWP forecasts assimilating radar data, offer the best hope of improvement to hydraulic and hydrological forecasts. </li></ul><ul><li>It will be necessary to constrain uncertainty using both rainfall and hydrological model ensembles with statistical procedures. </li></ul><ul><li>Rain Gain will produce a significant step forward in using X-band radar data within the context of operational radar networks. </li></ul>

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