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Thesis Defense Presentation


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A Thesis submitted to the Landscape Architecture Department in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Landscape Architecture.Spring Semester 2009.

Published in: Design, Business, Technology

Thesis Defense Presentation

  1. 1. Green Roof Design: The Landscape Architecture of Intensive Green Roofs in Urban Settings<br />By: Delesia Hill<br />
  2. 2. Introduction<br /><ul><li>Thesis focus
  3. 3. "Intensive" green roof garden designs
  4. 4. Influence on Architecture
  5. 5. Vegetable Farming
  6. 6. Green roofs connecting to community gardens</li></li></ul><li>Problem Questions / Observations<br />Can the design of the garden help feed people? <br />Could there be direct access from ground level community gardens to roof top vegetable gardens? <br />Will an intensive vegetable roof garden design necessarily manipulate the architecture of the building?<br />Does the height, access issues, and material transport concerns of a rooftop garden change people’s psychological perception of the value of the garden to them?<br />Acros Fukuoka Building in Japan<br />
  7. 7. How can landscape architects (or architects) address the problem/observation?<br />Be cautious to the context of their green roof designs.<br />Learn that not all methods of planting, rowing, and cropping can be done the same way when placed on roof top. <br />Establish Design Guidelines to frame their design intent with limitations.<br />ASLA Headquarters in WA, D.C Green Roof Axon<br />
  8. 8. Literature Review <br /><ul><li>Extensive vs. Intensive
  9. 9. Green Roof Benefits
  10. 10. Vegetable farming methods on a green roof
  11. 11. Technical Considerations
  12. 12. Weight loads of intensive green roofs
  13. 13. Environmental considerations for intensive green roofs</li></ul>ASLA Headquarters<br />
  14. 14. Extensive vs. Intensive Green Roofs<br />Source: FLL (Forschungsgesellscharft Landschaftsentwicklung Landschaftsbau e.v.) Guideline for the planning, execution and upkeep of green roof sites, released in 2002.<br />
  15. 15. Green Roof Benefits<br />Reduces volumes of storm water runoff<br />Delays storm water runoff<br />Increases lifespan of roofing membranes<br />Conserves energy<br />Increases biodiversity and possibly provide habitats<br />Improve aesthetic value<br />Mitigation of air pollution <br />Noise reduction<br />LEED Certified<br />Source: BCIT Centre for Architectural Ecology, 2006<br />
  16. 16. Vegetable farming methods on a green roof<br />Square Foot Gardening <br />Containers<br />
  17. 17. Technical Considerations of intensive vegetable roof top gardens<br />Vegetation Substrate Structure<br />Garden Efficiency<br />Environment<br />Wildlife<br />Weather<br />
  18. 18. Weight loads of intensive green roofs<br /> Soil<br />Water<br />Snow<br />Plant Material<br />People<br />Wildlife<br />Storage & Mechanical Units<br />
  19. 19. Environmental Considerations for Intensive Green Roofs<br />Wildlife Desirables<br />Wildlife Un-Desirables<br />Weather Conditions <br />
  20. 20. Methodology<br /><ul><li>Qualitative research methods are utilized to interpolate and analyze the collected data.
  21. 21. In Depth Case Studies that explore new green roof design technology.
  22. 22. Intensive interviews with key informants in the fields of landscape architectural design, green roof design, and vegetable gardening.</li></li></ul><li>Case Studies of how landscape architects (or architects) have already engaged the problem/observation<br />Trent University Environmental and Resource Sciences Vegetable Garden in Petersburg, Canada<br />Center for Urban Agriculture in Seattle, WA<br />Carrabas Italian Grill in St. Petersburg, FL<br />
  23. 23. Results Facts from Research & Interviews<br />
  24. 24. Interview Results Chart<br />
  25. 25. Interview Results Chart Continue<br />
  26. 26. Design Oriented Results<br />Design Oriented Results Short List<br />Rat Prevention<br />Safety Issues<br />View of garden from inside<br />Storm water management<br />Irrigation System<br />Cistern application<br />Wind blocker structure<br />Weight Distribution<br />
  27. 27. Non-Design Oriented Results <br />Non-Design Oriented Results Short List<br />Severe Environmental Elements<br />Food Production & Distribution<br />Psychological Benefits<br />Pedestrian Accessibility <br />Material Transport Concern<br />
  28. 28. Professional Results<br />Professional Results Short List <br />No Landscape Architects involved with any of the case study projects.<br />Architects designed the green roofs.<br />Nurseries came up with planting designs.<br />Engineer handle weight distribution. <br />Understanding local climate.<br />
  29. 29. Results/Findings: Design Guidelines<br /> Conduct a site Analysis<br />Apply storm water management/ Irrigation systems<br />Use methods for pest control<br />Provide public pedestrian access<br />Use Square foot garden methods<br />Addressing pedestrian safety<br />Provide views to garden <br />Create a wind blocker system<br />Must have a reason for having edible plants<br /> Design Objectives/Programs<br />
  30. 30. Design Guidelines<br /> Conduct a site Analysis<br />“A solid understanding of the local climate, natural variability and growing season is critical. This can be left to the individual farmers or can be incorporated into the educational and site specific project elements” (CUA Designer, 2009). <br />“Some of the major constraints to rooftop farming are site specific – increased load (including live load of people actively using the rooftop space), water penetration and storage issues and infrastructure for transporting goods to and from the roof. None of these are unique to rooftop farming and are easily overcome. It’s a bit more challenging in existing buildings, but again, not impossible” (CUA Designer, 2009).<br />
  31. 31. Design Guidelines<br />Apply storm water management/ Irrigation systems<br /> ~Recycled & Purifying Water Systems<br />“Storm water management in order to retain as much water on the roof. Target level 80 %”( CF Professor, 2009).<br />“Make sure water flow to the cistern is successful in order to use for the irrigation on the roof” (CF Professor, 2009).<br />“Irrigation source of water in order to keep the plants alive” (CF Professor, 2009).<br />“Someone forgot to put irrigation on the roof and the plants die, so just supplying water” (CF Professor, 2009).<br />“I believe it could work with a proper drip system” (Landscape Designer, 2009).<br />
  32. 32. Design Guidelines<br />Use methods for pest control<br />“The ozone is an issue. Large mice, and birds are recent problems and we are trying to figure out what to do about this problem as we speak” (Trent U professor, 2009).<br />“Pesticide in native plants you don’t use much pesticides or herbicides. It’s just a lot of consideration I think a landscape architect would be very familiar with” (CF Professor, 2009).<br />“Birds can eat the food because it’s an open and high level resource” (Landscape Designer, 2009).<br />“Wildlife is an issue that’s handled appropriately in many urban and rural farm settings (to say nothing of green roofs) and given the right education and stewardship can be controlled in a non-invasive, healthy way” (CUA Designer, 2009).<br />“Some wildlife is encouraged. Not all wildlife”(Trent U professor, 2009).<br />
  33. 33. Design Guidelines<br />4. Provide public pedestrian access<br />“There has been quite a bit of research looking at the positive benefits of gardening on people’s health and well-being. Providing a space for this in our urban environments helps bring people together, connects them with nature and provides an opportunity to better understand our food systems” (CUA Designer, 2009).<br />“There will be access issues in many locations, but if community gardens are part of the original design intent, many of these challenges become opportunities” (CUA Designer, 2009).<br />“People are interested in what you can do with the roof garden. Want to see how successful and attractive it is” (Trent U professor, 2009).<br />
  34. 34. Design Guidelines<br />5. Use Square foot garden methods<br />“The medium can not be very high in organic because the organic takes away, and your left with lesser depth of roof support” (CF Professor, 2009).<br />“Very long growing seasons does require a seasonal shifting of plant types, but done properly, can result in a very healthy poly-culture” (CUA Designer, 2009).<br />“Containers are good, but you have to make sure that the containers provide the right size and depth for the appropriate plant material” (Trent U professor, 2009).<br />“Providing space for active composting and soil building needs to be a core part of the project design” (CUA Designer, 2009).<br />
  35. 35. Design Guidelines<br />Addressing pedestrian safety<br />“Obstacles that came across with regard to plant selection and care were Safety considerations and the roof settling” (Landscape Designer, 2009).<br />“Perhaps height, access issues, and material transport concerns of a rooftop garden change people’s psychological perception of the value of the garden to them, but that probably depends on what people want out of the garden” (CUA Designer, 2009).<br />“The only way to get to the roof is through maintenance” (Landscape Designer, 2009).<br />
  36. 36. Design Guidelines<br />Provide views to garden <br /> ~Health benefits are established from design<br />“People would rather look at a roof with plants on it than no plants” (CF Professor, 2009).<br />“Psychologically I think it helps if you’re looking at a green roof rather than an old membrane. I find it more pleasing to look at a roof which is colorful and green rather than drab and dark with electrical equipment all over the place. I would certainly feel more calm or peaceful” (CF Professor, 2009).<br />“My office overlooks the garden” (Trent U professor, 2009).<br />
  37. 37. Design Guidelines<br />8. Create a wind blocker system<br />“Weather conditions are more extreme on a roof. Vegetables take a lot more care” (Landscape Designer, 2009).<br />
  38. 38. Design Guidelines<br />9. Must have a reason for having edible plants<br />“You have to have a need for the vegetables” (CF Professor, 2009).<br />“Vegetables or edible plants are good plants for rooftop gardens particularly if they can be coupled with other community supporting elements such as farmers markets, CSA drop-off spots, and educational amenities. Ideally, rooftop farming should be designed to address the three major goals listed above – control and make positive use of storm water, reduce building energy use and reduce urban heat temperatures – but also provide a place for people” (CUA Designer, 2009).<br />
  39. 39. Design Guidelines<br />10. Design Objectives/Programs<br /> Any good design is planned ahead of time. Depending on the concept of the design you should have organized design objectives so that the design can reach all the concept goals. By doing this programs in the design will occur. Programs like a storage closet. A storage closet is just a good program to consider in the design dealing with high maintenance crops.<br />
  40. 40. Design Application Objectives<br /><ul><li>Use guidelines to design a vegetable roof top garden.
  41. 41. Manipulating existing architecture with garden design.
  42. 42. Connecting the green roof with a community park, and educational facility.</li></li></ul><li>Program<br />Square foot garden (Raised beds)<br />Water Irrigation System<br />Storm water system<br />Cistern<br />Storage closet<br />ADA Accessibility (Ramp)<br />Stairs/Elevator<br />Seating areas<br />Lilly pad pond<br />Vegetables<br />Snap Beans<br />Cabbage<br />Potatoes<br />Pumpkins<br />Sweet Corn<br />
  43. 43. Design Application<br />
  44. 44. Conclusions<br />Design Guidelines <br />Vegetable Farming<br />Green roofs connecting to community gardens<br />"Intensive" green roof garden designs<br />Influence on Architecture<br />
  45. 45. Implications for further research<br />Natural Communities <br />Psychological Effect<br />Roof top Community Gardens<br />
  46. 46. Thank You<br />Any Questions/Comments?<br />