Introduction to the
Microscope
Care
Parts
Focusing
•
•
•
•
•

Always carry with 2 hands
Only use lens paper for cleaning
Do not force knobs
Always store covered
Keep objects...
• Place the Slide on the
Microscope
• Use Stage Clips
• Click Nosepiece to the lowest
(shortest) setting
• Look into the E...
•
•
•
•

Follow steps to focus using low power
Click the nosepiece to the longest objective
Do NOT use the Coarse Focusing...
•
•
•
•

Simple
Compound
Stereoscopic
Electron
Simple Microscope
• Similar to a magnifying glass and has only
one lense.
Compound Microscope
• Lets light pass through an object and then
through two or more lenses.
Stereoscopic Microscope
• Gives a three dimensional view of an
object. (Examples: insects and leaves)
Electron Microscope
•

Uses a magnetic field to bend beams of electrons; instead of using lenses
to bend beams of light.
A Lense
• Enlarges an image and bends the light
toward your eye.
Eyepiece Lense

Usually has a power of 10 x
Eyepiece Lense
X
Objective Lense
=
Total Magnification
Low Power = 4 x
Medium Power = 10 x
High Power = 40 x
CLASSIFICATIONS OF
MICROSCOPE

•OPTICAL
•ELECTRON
OPTICAL MICROSCOPE
• MAGNIFICATION POWER IS
LIMITED BY THE SMALLEST WAVE
LENGTH ( 4000 ANGSTROMS)
• 1 ANGSTROM= 1 X 10-10 ...
• ANTON VAN
LEEUWENHOEK• Invented the first
optical microscope
ELECTRON MICROSCOPE
• USES ELCTRON TO LIGHT
AN OBJECT. THIS TYPE OF
MICROSCOPE CAN
RSOLVE MUCH SMALLER
OBJECTS DOWN TO A
W...
LOUIS DE BROGLIE

• DEVELOPED
ELECTRON
MICROSCOPE
• TOGETHER WITH
GEORGE THOMSON
ERNST RUSKA

• MADE THE FIRST
CRUDE
ELECTRON
MICROSCOPE .
TYPES OF OPTICAL
MICROSCOPE
• 1. SIMPLE MICROSCOPE
–TH SIMPLEST FORM OF
MICROSCOPE WHICH
CONSISTS OF ONE DOUBLE
CONVS LENS WITH A SHORT
FOCAL LENGTH ....
COMPOUND MICROSCOPE
• USES VISIBLE LIGHT TO PRODUCE
A MAGNIFID IMAGE OF AN OBJECT
• COMPOSED OF OBJECTIVE LENS
AND OCULAR ...
SPECIAL PURPOSE OF
OPTICAL MICROSCOPE
• STEOREOSCOPIC M
ICROSCOPE
– PRODUCES A 3DIMENSIONAL IMAGE
THAT HAS ITS RIGHT SIDE
...
ULTRAVIOLET
MICROSCOPE
• USES ULTRAVIOLET
Wavelength OF THE
SPECTRUM INSTAD OF
VISIBLE WAVELENGTH.
PETROGRAPHIC
MICROSCOPE

• USED TO IDENTIFY
AND ESTIMATE THE
MINERAL CONTENT OF
IGNEOUS AND
MTAMORPHIC ROCKS.
DARK FIELD MICROSCOPE
• USES LIGHTING IN THE
FORM OF A HOLLOW
INTENSE CONE OF LIGHT
CONCENTRATD ON TH
SPECIMEN.
TYPES OF ELECTRON
MICROSCOPE
• 1. SCANNING ELECTRON
MICROSCOPE

- USING ELECTRONS TO
MAGNIFY OBJECTS.
- 100000 UP TO A MIL...
TRANSMISSION ELECTRON
M ICROSCOPE

• CAPABLE UP TO 1
MILLION TIMES
MAGNIFICATION
Eyepiece
Body Tube
Revolving Nosepiece
Objective Lens
Stage Clips
Diaphragm
Light

Arm
Stage
Coarse Focus
Fine Focus
Base
Microscope
One or more lense that makes an enlarged image of an
object.
STAND

• MADE OF HEAVY
FOOT AND A HORSESHOE SHAPED BASE
THAT SUPPORTS THE
MICROSCOPE
BODY TUBE
• CYLINDRICAL PART
WHERE THE LENSES ARE
ATTACHED AND CAN BE
RAISED OR LOWERED FOR
BETTER FOCUSING.
COARSE
ADJUSTMENT KNOB

• THIS IS DONE
AFTR THE
OBJECTIVE LENS
IS LOWERE NEAR
THE OBJECT.
FINE ADJUSTMENT
KNOB

•FOR FURTHER
FOCUSING OF
AN OBJECT
STAGE
• A PLATFORM WITH AN
OPENING TO LET THE
LIGHT PASS WHERE THE
SPECIMEN IN A GLASS
SLID IS PLACED.
STAGE CLIPS

• KEEP THE
GLASS SLIDE IN
PLACE SO THAT
IT WILL NOT
MOVE.
ARM
• CONNECTS THE
BAS AND STAGE
WITH THE TUBE
OPTICAL PARTS

•1. DRAW
TUBE
•- HOLDS THE
EYEPIECE
EYEPIECE
• LOCATED AT THE TOP
OF THE BODY TUBE. IT IS
THE PART WHER YOU
PEEP DURING AN
OBSERVATION
OBJECTIVES

• LENS LOCATED
NEAR TH OBJCT
MAGNIFIS UP TO
90 X
• 4X- LOW POWRED
• 10 X- MEDIUM POWERED
• 40 X- HIGHPOWERED
• 100X- OIL IMMERSION
REVOLVING NOSE
PIECE
LOCATED AT THE
BOTTOM OF THE
BODY TUBE WHICH
CARRIES THE
MAGNIFYING LENSES
OBJECTIVES
MIRROR

• USED TO FOCUS
RAYS OF THE
LIGHT SOURCE
TOWARD THE
OBJECT
DIAPHRAGM
• CONTROLS THE
AMOUNT OF
LIGHT THAT NTRS
TH STAGE
OPENING
CONDENSER LENS

• USED TO FURTHER
CONTROL THE LIGHT
AS NEEDED.
• OTHER TOOLS
USED IN
SCIENTIFIC
INVESTIGATIONS
AUTOCLAVE

• LIKE AN OVEN USED
TO STRELIZE
CONTAINERS ,
INSTRUMENTS AND
OTHER MATRIALS
USED IN EXPERIMENT
CENTRIFUGE
• A MACHINE USED
TO SEPARATE
COMPONENTS OF A
MIXTURE SOLIDS
AND LIQUIDS
• IT ROTATES VERY
FAST AND BY
CENTRIFUGAL FORCE
THE SOLIDS ARE
EITHER PRECIPITATED
OR SEPARATED FROM
THE MIXTURE
COMPUTER
• THIS IS AN INDESPENSABLE
TOOL IN ANY RESEARCH. IT
CAN STORE DATA, ACQUIR
INFORMATION FAST VIA
INTERNET, MAKS
IN...
SPECTROPHOTOMETER
• SPECTROMETER- PRODUCE
LIGHT OF ANY COLOR
• PHOTOMETER- MEASURES
INTNSITY OF LIGHT
Microscope
Microscope
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  • Students will have their microscopes out, for reference as we go through each of the steps. As an introduction, students will be asked what kinds of things they can do with this tool.
  • Teacher demonstrates how to hold the microscope, where the lens paper is located and how to use it. Students will be invited to turn the knobs and observe the stage as it moves up and down. Teacher will demonstrate how to store the microscope.
  • Give students a slide from the “common things” set, each student will practice focusing and changing objectives.
  • Have students exchange slides so they can look at different things, walk them through using the high power objective to focus slides. Emphasize not using the coarse objective during this process, as it will crack the slides.
  • This is the exact version of the microscope used in class. Students will be identifying the parts on the microscopes at their desks as we go along and what their functions are.
  • Microscope

    1. 1. Introduction to the Microscope Care Parts Focusing
    2. 2. • • • • • Always carry with 2 hands Only use lens paper for cleaning Do not force knobs Always store covered Keep objects clear of desk and cords
    3. 3. • Place the Slide on the Microscope • Use Stage Clips • Click Nosepiece to the lowest (shortest) setting • Look into the Eyepiece • Use the Coarse Focus
    4. 4. • • • • Follow steps to focus using low power Click the nosepiece to the longest objective Do NOT use the Coarse Focusing Knob Use the Fine Focus Knob to bring the slide What can you find on your slide?
    5. 5. • • • • Simple Compound Stereoscopic Electron
    6. 6. Simple Microscope • Similar to a magnifying glass and has only one lense.
    7. 7. Compound Microscope • Lets light pass through an object and then through two or more lenses.
    8. 8. Stereoscopic Microscope • Gives a three dimensional view of an object. (Examples: insects and leaves)
    9. 9. Electron Microscope • Uses a magnetic field to bend beams of electrons; instead of using lenses to bend beams of light.
    10. 10. A Lense • Enlarges an image and bends the light toward your eye.
    11. 11. Eyepiece Lense Usually has a power of 10 x
    12. 12. Eyepiece Lense X Objective Lense = Total Magnification
    13. 13. Low Power = 4 x Medium Power = 10 x High Power = 40 x
    14. 14. CLASSIFICATIONS OF MICROSCOPE •OPTICAL •ELECTRON
    15. 15. OPTICAL MICROSCOPE • MAGNIFICATION POWER IS LIMITED BY THE SMALLEST WAVE LENGTH ( 4000 ANGSTROMS) • 1 ANGSTROM= 1 X 10-10 m.
    16. 16. • ANTON VAN LEEUWENHOEK• Invented the first optical microscope
    17. 17. ELECTRON MICROSCOPE • USES ELCTRON TO LIGHT AN OBJECT. THIS TYPE OF MICROSCOPE CAN RSOLVE MUCH SMALLER OBJECTS DOWN TO A WAVELENGHT OF 0.5 ANGSTROM
    18. 18. LOUIS DE BROGLIE • DEVELOPED ELECTRON MICROSCOPE • TOGETHER WITH GEORGE THOMSON
    19. 19. ERNST RUSKA • MADE THE FIRST CRUDE ELECTRON MICROSCOPE .
    20. 20. TYPES OF OPTICAL MICROSCOPE
    21. 21. • 1. SIMPLE MICROSCOPE –TH SIMPLEST FORM OF MICROSCOPE WHICH CONSISTS OF ONE DOUBLE CONVS LENS WITH A SHORT FOCAL LENGTH . THE LENS IS CAPABEL OG MAGNIFYING AN OBJECT FROM 15 X TO 2000X
    22. 22. COMPOUND MICROSCOPE • USES VISIBLE LIGHT TO PRODUCE A MAGNIFID IMAGE OF AN OBJECT • COMPOSED OF OBJECTIVE LENS AND OCULAR LENS.
    23. 23. SPECIAL PURPOSE OF OPTICAL MICROSCOPE • STEOREOSCOPIC M ICROSCOPE – PRODUCES A 3DIMENSIONAL IMAGE THAT HAS ITS RIGHT SIDE UP
    24. 24. ULTRAVIOLET MICROSCOPE • USES ULTRAVIOLET Wavelength OF THE SPECTRUM INSTAD OF VISIBLE WAVELENGTH.
    25. 25. PETROGRAPHIC MICROSCOPE • USED TO IDENTIFY AND ESTIMATE THE MINERAL CONTENT OF IGNEOUS AND MTAMORPHIC ROCKS.
    26. 26. DARK FIELD MICROSCOPE • USES LIGHTING IN THE FORM OF A HOLLOW INTENSE CONE OF LIGHT CONCENTRATD ON TH SPECIMEN.
    27. 27. TYPES OF ELECTRON MICROSCOPE • 1. SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPE - USING ELECTRONS TO MAGNIFY OBJECTS. - 100000 UP TO A MILLION TIMES.
    28. 28. TRANSMISSION ELECTRON M ICROSCOPE • CAPABLE UP TO 1 MILLION TIMES MAGNIFICATION
    29. 29. Eyepiece Body Tube Revolving Nosepiece Objective Lens Stage Clips Diaphragm Light Arm Stage Coarse Focus Fine Focus Base
    30. 30. Microscope One or more lense that makes an enlarged image of an object.
    31. 31. STAND • MADE OF HEAVY FOOT AND A HORSESHOE SHAPED BASE THAT SUPPORTS THE MICROSCOPE
    32. 32. BODY TUBE • CYLINDRICAL PART WHERE THE LENSES ARE ATTACHED AND CAN BE RAISED OR LOWERED FOR BETTER FOCUSING.
    33. 33. COARSE ADJUSTMENT KNOB • THIS IS DONE AFTR THE OBJECTIVE LENS IS LOWERE NEAR THE OBJECT.
    34. 34. FINE ADJUSTMENT KNOB •FOR FURTHER FOCUSING OF AN OBJECT
    35. 35. STAGE • A PLATFORM WITH AN OPENING TO LET THE LIGHT PASS WHERE THE SPECIMEN IN A GLASS SLID IS PLACED.
    36. 36. STAGE CLIPS • KEEP THE GLASS SLIDE IN PLACE SO THAT IT WILL NOT MOVE.
    37. 37. ARM • CONNECTS THE BAS AND STAGE WITH THE TUBE
    38. 38. OPTICAL PARTS •1. DRAW TUBE •- HOLDS THE EYEPIECE
    39. 39. EYEPIECE • LOCATED AT THE TOP OF THE BODY TUBE. IT IS THE PART WHER YOU PEEP DURING AN OBSERVATION
    40. 40. OBJECTIVES • LENS LOCATED NEAR TH OBJCT MAGNIFIS UP TO 90 X
    41. 41. • 4X- LOW POWRED • 10 X- MEDIUM POWERED • 40 X- HIGHPOWERED • 100X- OIL IMMERSION
    42. 42. REVOLVING NOSE PIECE LOCATED AT THE BOTTOM OF THE BODY TUBE WHICH CARRIES THE MAGNIFYING LENSES OBJECTIVES
    43. 43. MIRROR • USED TO FOCUS RAYS OF THE LIGHT SOURCE TOWARD THE OBJECT
    44. 44. DIAPHRAGM • CONTROLS THE AMOUNT OF LIGHT THAT NTRS TH STAGE OPENING
    45. 45. CONDENSER LENS • USED TO FURTHER CONTROL THE LIGHT AS NEEDED.
    46. 46. • OTHER TOOLS USED IN SCIENTIFIC INVESTIGATIONS
    47. 47. AUTOCLAVE • LIKE AN OVEN USED TO STRELIZE CONTAINERS , INSTRUMENTS AND OTHER MATRIALS USED IN EXPERIMENT
    48. 48. CENTRIFUGE • A MACHINE USED TO SEPARATE COMPONENTS OF A MIXTURE SOLIDS AND LIQUIDS
    49. 49. • IT ROTATES VERY FAST AND BY CENTRIFUGAL FORCE THE SOLIDS ARE EITHER PRECIPITATED OR SEPARATED FROM THE MIXTURE
    50. 50. COMPUTER • THIS IS AN INDESPENSABLE TOOL IN ANY RESEARCH. IT CAN STORE DATA, ACQUIR INFORMATION FAST VIA INTERNET, MAKS INTRPRETS GRAPHS VERY FAST
    51. 51. SPECTROPHOTOMETER • SPECTROMETER- PRODUCE LIGHT OF ANY COLOR • PHOTOMETER- MEASURES INTNSITY OF LIGHT

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