About Pumps, Valves, & Fans By Deva

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Glands on Pumps, Valves

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About Pumps, Valves, & Fans By Deva

  1. 1. ENGINEERING LESSON GUIDE 4 PUMPS, VALVES, AND FANS
  2. 2. VALVES
  3. 3. TYPES OF VALVES <ul><li>Globe valves - common type of stop valve </li></ul><ul><ul><li>the disk seats on the seating ring </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>commonly used in, steam, air, water, and oil lines </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>also used as throttle valves </li></ul></ul>
  4. 5. TYPES OF VALVES <ul><li>Gate valve - used for straight line flow and when minimum flow restriction are needed </li></ul><ul><ul><li>not used for throttling </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>rising stem or nonrising stem </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>steam systems have flexible gates </li></ul></ul>
  5. 9. TYPES OF VALVES <ul><li>Butterfly valve - light weight, relatively small and quick-acting </li></ul><ul><ul><li>has a body, resilient seat, butterfly disk, a stem, packing, a notched position plate, and a handle </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>very versatile - can be used for fresh water, salt water, JP-5, lube-oil, and chill water systems </li></ul></ul>
  6. 11. Relief Valve
  7. 12. VALVE OPERATING DEVICES <ul><li>Manual </li></ul><ul><li>Hydraulic </li></ul><ul><li>Motor (electric or air operated) </li></ul><ul><li>Solenoid </li></ul>
  8. 13. PUMPS
  9. 14. PUMP COMPONENTS <ul><li>Drive </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Steam, electric, or gear </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Pump Shaft </li></ul><ul><li>Impeller or Piston </li></ul><ul><li>Casing </li></ul>
  10. 15. PUMP TYPES <ul><li>CENTRIFUGAL </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Single Stage </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Multi-staged centrifugal pumps </li></ul></ul><ul><li>POSITIVE DISPLACEMENT </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reciprocating </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rotary Gear </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Screw </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Moving vane </li></ul></ul><ul><li>JET PUMP </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Eductor </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ejector </li></ul></ul>
  11. 16. POSITIVE DISPLACEMENT PUMP <ul><li>Fixed Volume </li></ul><ul><li>Volumetric Flow rate is proportional to speed of the pump </li></ul><ul><li>A relief valve will always be on the discharge end of the pump </li></ul>
  12. 17. EXAMPLES
  13. 19. NON-POSITIVE DISPLACEMENT PUMPS
  14. 20. BERNOULLI’S THEOREM <ul><li>Z 1 + P 1 /D + 1/2(V 1 2 /g) =Z 2 +P 2 /D + 1/2(V 2 2 /g) + g c /g(wk) + H L </li></ul>Where: Z : Elevation (ft) P : Pressure (lbs/ft 2 ) D : Density (lb/ft 3 ) V : Velocity (ft/sec) g : acceleration (32.2 ft/sec 2 ) wk: work (ft-lbs) H L : Head Loss = f(L/D)(V 2 /2Zg) where f : friction factor L: Length D: Diameter
  15. 21. BERNOULLI’S PRINCIPLE <ul><li>Basically: as the velocity (speed) of a fluid increases, its pressure decreases, and visa versa </li></ul>
  16. 22. PUMPS <ul><li>Net Positive Suction Head: that pressure required at the suction of a pump to prevent cavitation. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>cavitation : the formation of bubbles due to area where P < P SAT , and the subsequent collapse of those bubbles. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>causes noise and damage due to erosion and fatigue failure. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  17. 25. PUMPS <ul><ul><li>Centrifugal: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Parallel pumps: </li></ul></ul></ul>1 pump 2 pumps H P V GPM V 2 = 2V 1 H P2 = H P1
  18. 26. PUMPS <ul><ul><ul><li>Series (called staging): </li></ul></ul></ul>H P V GPM 1 pump 2 pumps
  19. 28. Fans <ul><li>Same Principle as Non-positive displacement pumps </li></ul><ul><li>Types: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Centrifugal: majority used for compressors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Axial (like propeller): cooling fans </li></ul></ul>
  20. 30. QUESTIONS

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