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Career Cities: A Way ForwardAarhus University, Denmark


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This presentation sets out examples of Deirdre Hughes' ongoing work on shaping experiences of learning and work within cities. It begins by setting out the rationale for building a careers offer for everyone young person that can be applied both within and outside of cities. The issues associated with child poverty are presented with a call for greater emphasis on career learning for all. The second part focuses on the evidence-base underpinning career education and its impact on pupil's skills and outcomes. It highlights findings from research designed to locate robust casual evidence on career education impact, drawing on experimental and quasi-experimental design.

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Career Cities: A Way ForwardAarhus University, Denmark

  1. 1. Career Cities: A Way Forward Aarhus University, Denmark 11th November 2016
  2. 2. Overview Shaping experiences of learning and work City perspectives International evidence Opportunities and challenges Where next?
  3. 3. Preparing … for a future we cannot clearly describe…..
  4. 4. Mindful of… Operation of the youth labour market and expectations of young people Technological change and the forces of globalisation, BREXIT and US Presidential Election result Nature of jobs available and skills required by employers Infra-structure change Ageing societies Skills shortages/ skills mismatch
  5. 5. Key themes What people think about their life and work opportunities matters Career uncertainty Career misalignment Experiences of and exposure to the world of work Independent and impartial career guidance
  6. 6. Geography matters….. economy population centre labour market education centre
  7. 7. IMD 2010
  8. 8. Poverty in London The majority of people living in poverty are in a working family. As employment has increased so has the number of people in a working family in poverty - from 700,000 to 1.2 million in the last decade, an increase of 70%. Almost 700,000 jobs in London (18%) pay below the London Living Wage. This number has increased for five consecutive years, particularly among men working full-time. At 860,000 there are more people in poverty in private rented housing than there are in social rented or owner-occupied homes. A decade ago it was the least common tenure among those in poverty. The number of children in poverty in private rented housing has more than doubled in ten years. In 2015, 10,500 families were affected by the overall benefit cap including 2,400 losing more than £100 per week. The cap has been lowered further, so families will lose another £58 a week and a further 20,000 families will be affected. Half of 0 to 19-year-olds in London (1.1. million) live in a family that receives tax credits. 640,000 children benefit from in-work tax credits and are likely to be worse off when these are cut in April 2016. London’s Poverty Profile 2015 (
  9. 9. Career learning matters………
  10. 10. London Ambitions Framework Young People Access to impartial, independent and personalised careers education, information, advice and guidance At least 100 hours of experiences of the world of work for all young Londoners and a digital portfolio Leadership and accountability An explicit publicised careers policy and careers curriculum in every secondary school and college A governor with responsibility for ensuring the institution supports all students to relate their learning to careers and the world of work from an early age
  11. 11. Learning Outcomes, Activities & Lesson Plans
  12. 12. London Ambitions Framework Support for high quality careers work Up-to-date, user-friendly labour market intelligence/information (LMI) Formation and development of ‘careers clusters’ to share resources A London Ambitions Portal – linking education to business and the careers community LONDON CAREERS CURRICULUM: KEY STAGES 2 – 5 Stimulate careers dialogue, connect to learning outcomes and provide resources for teaching and learning
  13. 13. Research Sharing knowledge and evidence Does careers education make a positive difference? Is it worth the investment?
  14. 14. Remit • To provide an overview of the evidence-base underpinning careers education and its impact on pupils’ skills and outcomes • To examine robust casual evidence on careers education impact assessment from a wide range of studies using experimental and quasi-experimental designs Definition: Careers education “Careers-focused school and/or college mediated provision designed to improve students’ education, employment and/or social outcomes”
  15. 15. 1. Identification studies 4. In-depth review Initial Search in online databases Additional Studies Provided by Personal contacts Papers excluded N = Papers excluded N = Re-screening following import into reference manager N = Papers excluded N = Papers excluded N = Re-screening following import into reference manager N = Abstracts and Titles Screened in Endnote n = 359 Papers excluded N = Papers excluded N = Re-screening following import into reference manager N = CritCritCriterion 2*: N = N = Criterion 1*: N = N = n 3*: N = N = CritCritCriterion 2*: N = N = Criterion 1*: N = N = Total Number of Studies Excluded n = 160 N = 2. Application of inclusion and exclusion criteria 3. Coding of all screened documents Studies included in the In- Depth Review n = 96 Papers excluded N = Duplicates: n = 39 N = Unable to obtain n= 13 N = Full document screened n = 147 Broad outcome measure · Education n = 80 · Economic n = 64 · Social n = 55 n.b. documents could be coded against one or more outcomes Level of Evidence · Level 1 n = 38 · Level 2 n = 13 · Level 3 n = 62 · Level 4 n = 34 Key Stages: methodology
  16. 16. Careers education • Aims to enable students to acquire the knowledge, skills and attitudes that will allow them to understand and succeed within and beyond their schooling • Research literature over the last twenty years on the impact of careers education on student outcomes is often considered weak and fragmented, due mainly to the complexity of differing elements identified and reported in differing ways
  17. 17. Country Studies Australia Canada England Finland Netherlands UK USA Figure 2 Representation of broad outcome measures by country of study
  18. 18. Dimensions • Careers provision • Enterprise • ICT and careers education • Job Shadowing • Mentoring • Transformative leadership • Volunteering • Work experience • Work-related learning
  19. 19. Outcomes • Educational outcomes, e.g. attainment level, participation in education and/or training, sustainable progression • Economic and employment outcomes, e.g. earnings, employee retention, likelihood of finding work and/or congruence with the work environment, transition from education to work, social mobility • Social outcomes, e.g. cultural capital, community engagement, confidence, resilience, self-esteem, improved non-cognitive skills and/or mental health well-being, reductions in those not engaged in education, employment or training (NEET), those not engaging in criminal activity.
  20. 20. Figure 3 Representation of broad outcome measure and combinations of measures
  21. 21. Table 6 Broad outcome measure by intervention
  22. 22. WHAT WORKS? EDUCATION OUTCOMES • Does careers education improve educational outcomes? • What difference can it make? • Why does it make a difference? • Which interventions can be expected to be most effective?
  23. 23. WHAT DIFFERENCE CAN IT MAKE TO EDUCATIONAL OUTCOMES? • Examination results, academic course-taking behaviour i.e., selection of more advanced courses (Dalton et al., 2013) • Progression to, and completion of, higher education and type of institution and courses successfully undertaken (Bragg et al., 2002) (Neild); (Fletcher & Zirkle, 2009; MacAllum et al., 2002, p.9); • GCSE or equivalent qualifications results – eight highest grades achieved; • Staying on rates (UK) at 16 (Golden et al., 2005); • High school graduation rates (US) (Kemple, 2001; Nield et al., 2015; Bishop, 2004) • Grade Point Average (US) (MacAllum et al., 2002); • Credit accumulation (Nield et al., 2015).
  25. 25. WHICH INTERVENTIONS CAN BE EXPECTED TO BE MOST EFFECTIVE? • Job shadowing (80%) of 5 assessments indicating largely positive outcomes); • Work experience (75% of 8 assessments); • Careers provision (67% of 10 assessments); • Mentoring (67% of 6 assessments); • Work-related learning (55% of 11 assessments).
  26. 26. WHAT WORKS? SOCIAL OUTCOMES • Measurements of social outcomes vary considerably across the literature • Use of measurement or inventory tools • Degree of exposure to work experience • Not a single approach – multi-dimensional
  27. 27. Drilling down • Some evidence to suggest that impacts on attainment can be expected to be relatively modest, recognising that impacts can be expected to vary, perhaps considerably, by individual circumstance and character of intervention delivery • Good evidence to show that earnings premiums are commonly sizeable for young adults especially when they engage with employers within teenage careers focused provision • Good evidence that careers education also underpins a wide range of beneficial social outcomes
  28. 28. Career learning
  29. 29. Lifelong learning
  30. 30. Greater use of technology and LMI LMI in schools & colleges LMI for All
  31. 31. Practice Sharing our experiences
  32. 32. Practical activities • Career reflection • Career exploration • Career action • Networking • Learning environment • Career dialogue • Career conversations individuals have in and outside the workplace
  33. 33. Employment levels by occupation How many jobs are there? How many in my area? What are the past trends? What are likely future trends? Labour Force Survey, Working Futures Average earnings by occupation How much do people get paid for this job? How much at the start of their career? How much in my area? Annual Survey of Hours and Earnings Unemployment by occupation What proportion of people in this occupation are currently out of work? Annual Population Survey Profile of qualification level by occupation What level of qualification do people have in this job and what am I likely to need? Labour Force Survey, Working Futures Vacancies by occupation How many vacancies are there for this job? What proportion are hard to fill? Employer Skills Survey Big questions…
  34. 34. JobHappy, by Harry Jones 2IHLUAecElK3lzOi
  35. 35. Tuesday March 28, 2017 Major upcoming events Massive Open Online Course The Changing World of Work Policymakers Friday September 28, 2017 (tbc)
  36. 36. • Hughes, D. & Meijers (in press) New School for Old School: Guidance and Counselling, Editors, International Symposium Series, British Journal for Guidance and Counselling, Vol, 45, No.2, April 2017 • Lengelle, R., Meijers, F., & Hughes, D. (2016). Creative writing for life design: reflexivity, metaphor and change processes through narrative. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 95-96. ISSN 0001-8791. • Hughes, D., Adriaanse, K., & Barnes, S-A. (2016a) Adult Education: Too important to be left to chance, commissioned by the All Parliamentary Group for Adult Education in England, London: House of Commons, Westminster. • International Literature Review: Careers Education with Education and Employers, London. Visit: Careers_review.pdf CONTACT: Deirdre Hughes Email: or Tel: 07533 545057 Thank you!