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ELECTIVE 1 (The Iceberg Model of Culture)


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ELECTIVE 1 : The Iceberg Model of Cultutre
Reported by: Group 3

Published in: Education, Technology

ELECTIVE 1 (The Iceberg Model of Culture)

  1. 1. The Iceberg Model of Culture
  2. 2. Surface Culture Above the Surface Emotional Load: Relatively Low Deep Culture Unspoken Rules Just Below the Surface Behavior-Based Emotional Load: High Unconscious Rules Far Below Surface Value-Based Emotional Load: INTENSE
  3. 3. Surface Culture Above the Surface Emotional Load: Relatively Low Food * Dress * Music * Visual Arts * Drama * Crafts * Dance * Literature * Language * Celebrations * Games The kind of VISUAL elements of culture that are easily identifiable, easily shared, and easily accessed. “Everybody does it differently”
  4. 4. Surface-Culture Rules Example It is the third Thursday in November. What are you going to eat? In the United States, that date is Thanksgiving. Depending on your family, you may be eating Turkey, Ham, or nothing special at all. Even if you don’t celebrate, you may wish somebody “Happy Thanksgiving”. “Everybody does it differently”
  5. 5. Courtesy * Contextual Conversational Patterns * Concept of Time * Personal Space * Rules of Conduct * Facial Expressions * NonVerbal Communication * Body Language * Touching * Eye-Contact * Patterns of Handling Emotions Deep Culture Unspoken Rules Just Below the Surface Emotional Load: High Elements of culture that are perhaps not as easily pointed out, more ingrained into society. Behavior-based. “What are you DOING?”
  6. 6. Deep Culture Unspoken Rules Example You are in a major chain grocery store (Target, Kmart, etc), standing in line at the checkout. How do you know what to pay for your items? In that culture - we don’t haggle over low-cost, prepriced items. You just pay as is marked. BEHAVIOR-BASED “What are you DOING?”
  7. 7. Notions of Modesty * Concept of Beauty * Courtship Practices * Relationships to Animals * Notions of Leadership * Tempo of Work * Concepts of Food * Ideals of Childrearing * Theory of Disease * Social Interaction Rate * Nature of Friendships * Tone of Voice * Attitudes Towards Elders * Concept of Cleanliness * Notions of Adolescence * Patterns of Group Decision-Making * Definition of Insanity * Preference for Competition or Cooperation * Tolerance of Physical Pain * Concept of “self” * Concept of Past and Future * Definition of Obscenity * Attitudes toward Dependents * Problem-Solving Roles in Relation to Age, Sex, Class, Occupation, Kinship, and so forth The things that don’t get talked about, and often times aren’t even realized. Value-Based. “You just don’t DO that!” Deep Culture Unconscious Rules Far Below Surface Emotional Load: INTENSE
  8. 8. Deep Culture Unconscious Rules Example It is summer and your air conditioning has broken. Your family is lounging around the house and your children are playing in the family room. It is getting quite hot. How do you cool off? In the United States, you don’t take your clothing off around your children. It would be considered highly offensive for a father to walk around home completely naked, no matter how hot. VALUE-BASED “You just don’t DO that!”
  9. 9. Implicit Culture An agent whom operates in an environment with poor knowledge behaves sub optimally. If a group of agents act in the same environment, information about their actions can be used to improve the knowledge and the behavior of each agent.
  10. 10. Explicit Culture Explicit culture is culture out there for everyone to see, it is not hidden from anyone. It is the way we dress, worship, act in society. There is no secret in our explicit culture.
  11. 11. Layers of Culture
  12. 12. Layers of culture • Symbols are words, gestures, pictures or objects that carry a particular meaning which is only recognized by those who share the culture. The words in a language or jargon belong to this category, as do dress, hairstyles, Coca-Cola, flags, and status symbols. • New symbols are easily developed and old ones disappear: symbols from one cultural group are regularly copied by others. This is why symbols have been put into the outer, most superficial layer of the diagram.
  13. 13. • Heroes are persons, alive or dead, real or imaginary, who possess characteristics which are highly prized in a culture, and who thus serve as models for behavior. • Even fantasy or cartoon figures like Batman or, as a contrast, Snoopy in the USA [or] Asterix in France can serve as cultural heroes. In this age of television, outward appearances have become more important in the choice of heroes.
  14. 14. • Rituals are collective activities, technically superfluous in reaching desired ends, but which, within a culture, are considered as socially essential: they are therefore carried out for their own sake. Ways of greeting and paying respect to others, social and religious ceremonies are examples. • Business and political meetings organized for seemingly rational reasons often serve mainly ritual purposes, like allowing the leaders to assert themselves.
  15. 15. • The core of culture according to the diagram is formed by values. • Values are broad tendencies to prefer certain states of affairs over others. Values are feelings with an arrow to it: they have a plus and a minus side. • The deal with: evil vs. good; dirty vs. clear; ugly vs. beautiful; unnatural vs. natural; abnormal vs. normal; paradoxical vs logical; irrational vs. rational.