ELECTIVE 1 (Elements of Culture)


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Elective 1- Elements of Culture
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ELECTIVE 1 (Elements of Culture)

  1. 1. Elements of Culture
  2. 2. Surface Culture - include the tangible things related to group of people.
  3. 3. Food - food and culinary contributions. Holidays - patriotic holidays, religious observations, and personal rites and celebrations
  4. 4. Arts -traditional and contemporary music, visual and performing arts, and drama. Folklore - folk tales , legends, and oral history.
  5. 5. History -historical and humanitarian, contributions, and social and political movements . Personalities -historical, contemporary, and local figures
  6. 6. Deep Culture - deals with the feelings and attitudes that we learn by being members of particular groups.
  7. 7. Ceremony -what a person is to say and do on particular occasions. Courtship and Marriage - attitudes toward dating, marriage, and raising a family.
  8. 8. Aesthetics - the beautiful things of culture: literature, music, dance, art architecture, and how they are enjoyed. Ethics - how a person learns and practices honesty, fair play principles, moral thought, etc..
  9. 9. Family ties - how a person feels toward his or her family, friends, classmates, roommates, and others. Health & Medicine - how a person reacts to sickness, death, soundness of mind and body, medicine, etc.
  10. 10. Folk Myths - attitudes toward heroes, traditional stories, legendary characters, superstitions, etc. Gestures & Kinesics - forms of nonverbal communication or reinforced speech, such as the use of the eyes, the hands, and the body.
  11. 11. Grooming & Presence - the cultural differences in personal behaviour and appearance, such as laughter, smile, voice quality, gait, poise, hair style, cosmetics, dress, etc. Ownership - attitudes toward ownership of property, individual rights, loyalties, beliefs, etc.
  12. 12. Precedence - accepted manners toward older persons, peers, and younger persons. Rewards & Privileges - attitudes toward motivation, merit, achievement, service, social position, etc.
  13. 13. Rights & Duties - attitudes toward personal obligations, voting taxes, military service, legal rights, personal demands, etc. Religion -attitude toward the divine and the supernatural and how they affect a person’s thoughts and actions.
  14. 14. Sex roles - how a person views, understands, and relates to a member of the opposite sex and what deviations are allowed and expected. Space & Proxemics - attitudes toward self and land; the accepted distances between individuals within a culture.
  15. 15. Subsistence - attitudes about providing for oneself, the young, the old, and who protects whom. Taboos - attitudes and beliefs about doing things against culturally accepted patterns.
  16. 16. Concepts of Time - attitudes toward being early, on time, or late. Values - attitudes toward freedom, education, cleanliness, cruelty, crime, etc.
  17. 17. Ethnic Tribes/ Groups
  18. 18. Badjao/ Bajau
  19. 19. They are an indigenous ethnic group of Maritime Southeast Asia. They continue to live a seaborne lifestyle, making use of small wooden sailing vessels (such as the perahu and vinta).They are also known as Sama or Samal. Demographics and religion The various Bajau sub-groups vary culturally, linguistically, and religiously. Religion can vary from a strict adherence to Sunni Islam, forms of folk Islam, to animistic beliefs in spirits and ancestor worship.There is a small minority of Christians. Sub-groups Commonly, many sub-groups of Badjao are named after the place or island they live-in for many years. Even though they are called Bajau, each sub-groups has their own unique language, cultures and tradition. However, certain sub-groups are able to understand the languages of other sub-groups. For example, some Bajau understand the Bajau Ubian language, and the Bajau Ubian and Simunul in Sabah are able to understand and speak the Tausug language called the Suluk language in Sabah. The general terms for the native languages of the Bajau is Вahasa Вajau or Sinama.
  20. 20. Lists of Bajau sub-groups: •Ubian •Bannaran •Sama •Samah/Sama Sulawesi Selatan' (Malaysia) •Simunul •Samal (Philippines, Malaysia) – •Bajau Suluk •Tando' Bas •Ungus Matata •Tolen •Pala'u or Bajau Laut •Tabawan (Philippines, Malaysia) •Sikubung •Banguingui or Balangingi Samal (Philippines, Malaysia)
  21. 21. RELIGION Religions of Bajaus Religion Percent Islam 95.26% Christianity 0.52% Folk religion / 0.08% Other religions No religion / 4.14% Unknown
  22. 22. CULTURE •Many Bajaus of the east coast retain their seaborne lifestyle, together with remnants of traditional pre-Islamic beliefs. •Traditional Bajau communities may have a dukun (i.e. a shaman) and may adhere to taboos concerning the treatment of the sea and other cultural aspects. •Among the boat-dwellers in particular, community spirit mediums are consulted at least once a year for a public séance and nightly trance dancing. In times of epidemics, the mediums are also called upon to remove illness causing spirits from the community. They do this by setting a "spirit boat" adrift in the open sea beyond the village or anchorage. •Bajau fishermen make use of wooden sailing vessels known as perahu lambo for voyages to the Timor and Arafura seas •Bajau people are also well known for weaving and needlework skills. •Bajau have a unique type of dance called the Pangigal. It is common in wedding ceremonies for native communities throughout Malaysia and the Philippines.
  23. 23. Muslim
  24. 24. Sociopolitical Life The datu was ordained as God’s viceregent or deputy whose power was sacred. He was assisted by the pandita (one learned in religious matters), and he administered justice according to the law of Islam and adat. Courtship and Marriage Dowry- the man to court and marry a woman who comes from the same status of his family. Arranged marriage is mainly due to prestige and the parents’ wish to enable their children to enjoy a better social and economic life. Child Rearing •A ceremonial preparation of the child for adulthood called pagislam(meaning, what Islam has required) or circumcision follows Islamic rites. It may be a simple or elaborate ceremony done by an imam or another religious personality who performs prayers and chants. •Another ceremony marking a boy’s intellectual initiation is called pagtammat (referring to “ending” study of the Qur’an). This is an occasion which is disappearing because most parents send their children to madaris(religious schools).
  25. 25. Food Dishes Tiyula sugis beef cooked in water with roasted coconut wheat and a mixture of salt, garlic and flavoring herbs called pamapa The well-known kiyoning or yellow rice is made by mixing rice, coconut milk and powdered kalawag (turmeric). Desserts Tiyateg is made of rice flour, coconut oil and brown sugar. It is strained for thinness, dropped in hot oil and rolled or folded. It is eaten with the fingers. Doldol, a thick pudding made of coconut milk, rice flour and dark sugar cooked for three hours. It is served cut into small pieces. •Food is generally eaten with bare hands while sitting on the floor. On special occasions, the floor is covered with woven colorful mats, and food is served on brass trays called talam or tabak.
  26. 26. Clothes The most prominent traditional wear is the malong, a large, colorful woven cloth wrapped around the body. One common way women wear it is around the waist with its folds draped over the left arm. Men wrap it around the waist like a skirt. The malong has many uses depending on the need of the wearer. It can be used as a cape, coat, blanket or umbrella. Amusement and Leisure Activities Color, excitement and various activities mark the Maranao festival calledkalilang. It is usually held to welcome Mecca pilgrims home or to celebrate the coronation of a new sultan. . It can go on the whole day or last for several days. Literature Islamic religious and ritual literature •adhan (call to prayer) •salat (ritual prayer) •khutbah(sermons) •tafsir (Qur’anic exegesis) •tasawwuf (literature focusing on the Prophet Mohammad
  27. 27. •Hadis is religious oral literature on locally produced commentaries on specific items of Muslim tradition and jurisprudence. •Darangen (epic poetry) •Tarsila (also called salsila, sarsila or salasila, meaning “link”) Music Kulintang (brass gongs), kagandang (war drums), ceremonial dances andkambaioka (singers or chanters of improvised poetic compositions) are played on various occasions. The gabbang is similar to a xylophone, whilesuling and saunay are wind instruments. The biyula is a string instrument, and the kulintangan is an ensemble of gongs and drums. The kudyapi is a two-stringed lute plucked to make beautiful sounds. The kubing (jew’s harp) is made of bamboo and believed to make words and tell stories, if the audience could understand the language of music. Moro musicality is also seen in songs and dances. For the Tausug, there are songs called kissa which tell about the love of datus and princesses, while heroic songs are contained in parang sibil. The Maranao kandidiagaois a melodious lament over the dead.
  28. 28. five major types of songs •The kambaiok is the free rhythmic rendering of the baiok, which is improvised poetry. •Kandarangen is accompanied by a gong or other similar instruments. •Kadikir is sung by singers in slow, free rhythm and speaks of verses from the Qur’an and Maranao compositions with topics on Islam, morals, life, and death. •Kandomana is a combination of styles of Kandarangen and Kadikir •kapranon is a song of private sentimentality sung softly. Dance •Pagipat (7 days) and pangubad (3 days)- animistic rituals for healing. •Sagaian- war dance. •Singkil- speaks of a princess trying to escape from an earthquake by running and leaping on shaking stones and trying not to get her feet caught. •kapagasik,- agraceful dance of beautiful maidens. •kaganat sa darangen- a song and dance that shows ways of wearing the malong. •kapiil sa musala,- a handkerchief dance usually performed by girls.
  29. 29. Decorative and Industrial Arts •Ukir (Maranao) or ukkil (Tausug) means to carve or engrave. •Moro artistry is applied to woodworking, from decorative carving to boat-building to house architecture and construction. •Skill and artistry in metalwork is applied to tools, weapons, jewelry, and brassware. •Clothweaving and matweaving are important crafts for Moros.
  30. 30. Mandaya
  31. 31. Economy Agriculture is the main source of living. Rice, tubers, and other cultigens are cultivated in pawa (swidden) farming) along with bananas, vegetables and root crops. Hunting for wild pig, deer, chicken, monkeys, lizards, birds and other animals complement farming. At an early age, children are taught how to hunt using spears and traps. The Mandaya are freshwater fishing experts. Individual, family and cooperative fishing are done using several methods like traps, stun rods, draining, spearing and also bare hands. Environmental destruction and degradation together with rapid urbanization have drastically reduced hunting and fishing. Culture and Arts The Mandaya have one of the richest cultural heritage among ethnic groups. They are very close to their families. Christianized Mandaya still retain some of the past beliefs creating a syncretic form of religion.
  32. 32. Dagmay, an abaca handwoven cloth with intricate designs revolving around man and crocodile, is one of the most popular material culture. Its mud-dyeing technique is believed to be the only one existing in the Philippines. Interestingly, dagmay weaving has also become a pasttime of women as they cooperate in tie-designing while making pleasantries. Bayok, a highly tonal art of delivering messages in the form of figurative speeches, passages, and even euphemism usually done in pairs and in continuous answering pattern. Like a debate, each of the bayok artist stands on opposite sides. Bayok chanting is indispensable in important celebration and events like proposal for marriage. settlement of conflicts, welcoming of visitors and also in common merrymaking. Any topic like funny personal traits, food, offering of drinks and many more could be derived for a bayok.
  33. 33. Kudlong, a two-stringed zither with only one string with frets, deliver music with historical, eventful, and important meanings. Kudlong is played before hunting, staging the deadly pangayao (vendetta killing) or farming. It could also be for simply entertainment. One popular instrument also is the gimball or gimbao, a large drum made using deer hide from a doe on one side and from a stag on the other side to produce different tone and pitch. The drum is played to accompany the Balyan in her performance in summoning the spirits. During celebrations, gimbao is indispensable in dances and any celebration, ritual and assembly. It is played by one of two players. The Mandaya also plays a meter-long flute called bonabon made of a slender bamboo. Its music ranges from sentimental to jolly ones with deep emotional expression. The suding, jew's harp made of bamboo, add more range to the music of the Mandaya.
  34. 34. Traditional governance The traditional governance of the Mandaya displays a strong leadership. Customary laws are observed and stiff penalties are imposed. Acceptance and respect by the community makes a tribal governance work. In some areas, the elders and leaders approve holding of pangayao to exact justice and revenge. In the hinterlands, the government imposed systems in the lowlands has little effect on their practice of customary laws, however, Mandaya's have to compete with migrants from Luzon and Visayas who were brought by Americans and later, by government programs. Slowly, the ethnic people are being left behind. Beadcraft The beadcraft technique of the Mandaya is something to marvel at. For beads, aborigines had long used teeth coming from crocodiles, wild cats and other wild animals, tusk of boar, bones, seeds, shells, stones, wood, even skulls of small animals. After grouping the strands into the desired number, usually in two's or three's, the artist rubs the fibers end with bees wax. Basically, the Mandaya uses the color red, black, white, and yellow. In some instances, but very rarely, greens and blues are added to it.
  35. 35. Bagobo
  36. 36. Economy The primary means of subsistence is swidden agriculture. Rice and corn are rotated. Other products are copra, coffee and cacao, fruits, and vegetables. The traditional economic system ensured that every household was selfsufficient, producing for itself not only the staple food, rice, but also clothes, farming and domestic implements, and weapons. Hence, there was no clear division of labor, with the exception of the blacksmith, the bagani/magani (warrior), and the mabalian (priestess). Today, however, trade has opened intertribal and interracial relations. The money economy, while decreasing the level of self-sufficiency, has helped improve production, transportation, and communication. Both men and women strip hemp for the abaca trade and for domestic purposes. Blacksmithing, house building, and the making of kitchen utensils like rice mortars and meat blocks are done by the men. Basketry is done by both sexes. Some old men manufacture small shell disks used to decorate their clothing.
  37. 37. Political System Traditional Bagobo society was divided into three classes. The bagani was the warrior class; the datu was the chief bagani and he inherited his position. However, he enjoyed no special privilege, except for the possession of his title and rank. His main function was to be a judge, an arbiter, and a defender of the tribe. As the bagani was held in high esteem, so his opposite, the matalo or a man who has never killed a person and has no desire to fight, was scorned. The bagani who has killed at least two persons was allowed to wear blood-red clothes and tangkulu (headkerchief) and a small bag for betel nut and lime, which was considered a property of the spirits. The next class consisted of the mabalian or priestesses, elderly women who were usually distinguished as skilled weavers. They had first been selected through a dreamor vision from a benign spirit who revealed the secret of a new cure for an ailment. Then they were apprenticed to the mabalian, from whom they learned, among other things, how to weave the clothes of the bagani. Like the bagani, they wore special clothes that signified their position. The slave class was composed of women and children taken during raids. Slave women sometimes became concubines of their masters; if so, their children were considered free because their fathers were freemen.
  38. 38. Religious Beliefs The Bagobo are polytheistic. They have a wide pantheon of diwata (gods) who reside in nine heavens above the skies, and to whom they allude in their songs and myths. Tiguiama, the creator, is assisted by the lesser gods like Mamale, creator of the earth;Macoreret, creator of the air; Domacolen, creator of the mountains; and Macaponguis,creator of water. Other gods are, dispenser of reward and punishment, and Todlai,patron of marriage and to whom are offered buyo and rice. The Bagobo also believe in a pantheon of demons: the great demon is Darago; lesser demons are Colambusan, Comalay, Tagamahng, Siring,Abac.
  39. 39. Traditionally, Bagobo society is dominated by a warrior class called magani, that includes the community leader, usually a datu who wields no real power except his influence as senior arbiter and judge, qualities, which derive from his being a magani. He exerts influence over a community composed of households organized through kinship principles, whether by blood or by marriage. The houses are scattered near swidden fields. The scattered neighborhood is organized into a district or political domain under the datu who functions as a temporal head of a group. It is said that several domains identified as Bagobo with its datu or chief, recognize the political authority of the datu of Sibulan, as a higher level of hierarchy. The house of the datu has been said to be able to accommodate several hundreds of people, and it is the ceremonial and defense center for the community. Specific domains are controlled by magani. The magani is identified by his blood-red clothing, which he earns in successful combats. Abaca used to grow wild in the Davao provinces. These are usually stripped for the fibre for which are used for commercial purposes especially during the early 1900s when the demand for hemp was great. Domestically the fibre is used for weaving tie-dyed cloth. Both men and women use the abaca for clothing which usually are heavily decorated with multi-colored beads and embroidery over the woven designs on the cloth. The Bagobo is also known for the production of cast brass ornaments like bells using the lost-wax process.
  40. 40. They subsist largely with upland rice cultivated in a dry regime in swiddens. This crop is supplemented by corn, sweet potato, bananas, sago and coconut. Food gathering and hunting, and fishing are regularly done when the environment was not yet degraded. The Bagobo pantheon is composed of a number of spirit beings that interfere in the affairs of men. The principal being is the creator called Eugpamolak Manobo or Manama. There are a large number of lesser nature spirits who have to be shown respect and others who take pleasure in being irritants. The mabalian who are usually women, are the ritual practitioners which include healing. It is not rare that mabalians are also skilled as weavers.
  41. 41. Bicolano
  42. 42. Language These migrations plus the isolation of certain areas led to the formation of diverse dialects. The Bicol dialect in Camarines Norte is interchangeably used with Tagalog, while the one used in Masbate and Sorsogon is mixed with northern Visayan language. On the other hand, the Catanduanes dialect had been influenced by Samar-Leyte language. In the so-called Rinconada towns (which includes Buhi, Bula, Baao, Iriga, Bato and Nabua), the dialects differ from the Naga language as well as from one another. Though this is so, the Bicolanos can communicate with one another with the "Bicol proper" language in Naga City and the lower Bicol valley.
  43. 43. History According to a folk epic entitled Ibalong, the people of the region were formerly called Ibalong or Ibalnong, a name believed to have been derived from Gat Ibal who ruled Sawangan (now Legaspi) in ancient times. Ibalong used to mean the "people of Ibal;" eventually, this was shortened to Ibalon. The word Bikol which replaced Ibalon was originally bikod (meaning ‘meandering"), a word which supposedly described the principal river of that area. Archeological diggings which date back to as early as the Neolithic and accidental findings resulting from the mining industry, road-building and railway projects in the region reveal that the Bicol mainland is a rich storehouse of ceramic artifacts. Burial cave finding also point to the prehispanic practice of using burial jars. The Spanish influence in Bicol resulted mainly from the efforts of Augustinian and Franciscan Spanish missionaries. Through the Franciscans, the annual feast of the Virgin of Peñafrancia, the Patroness for Bicolandia, was started. Fr. Miguel Robles asked a local artist to carve a replica of the statue of the Virgin in Salamanca; now, the statue is celebrated through an annual fluvial parade in Naga City. Bicolano actively participated in the national resistance to the American and Japanese colonization through two known leaders who rose up in arms namely Simeon Ola and Governor Wenceslao Q.Vinzons.
  44. 44. Material Culture To suit the tropical climate, the Bicolanos use light material for their houses; others now have bungalows to withstand the impact of strong typhoons. Light, western styled clothes are predominantly used now. The typical Bicolano wears light, western styled clothes similar to the Filipinos in urban centers. Seldom, if ever, are there Bicolanos weaving sinamy or piña for clothing as in the past; sinamy is reserved now for pillow cases, mosquito nets, fishing nets, bags and other decorative items. Coconut and abaca are two dollar-earning products that are grown in the coastal valleys hillsides or slopes of several fertile volcanoes respectively. The Bicol River basin or rice granary provide the peasants rice, corn, and root crops for food and small cash surplus when crops evade the dreaded frequent typhoons. For land preparation, carabaodrawn plow and harrow are generally used; sickles are used for cutting rice stalks, threshing is done either by stepping on or beating the rice straws with basbas and cleaning is done with the use of the nigo (winnowing basket).
  45. 45. Meals are generally rich in carbohydrates and viands of vegetables, fish and meat are cooked in various ways. Bicolanos almost always cook their vegetables in coconut milk; for meat recipes such as pochero, adobo and tapa. A special meat dish is the dinuguan. Fish that serve as common viand are mackerel and anchovy; in Lake Buhi, the sinarapan or tabios (known as the smallest fish in the world) is common. Except for those living in Rinconada, Bicolanos are not extraordinarily fond of eating hot or peppery. Copra processing and abaca stripping are generally done by hand. Fishing is also an important industry and fish supply is normally plentiful during the months of May through September. Organized or big-time fishing makes use of costly nets and motor-powered and electric-lighted boats or launches called palakaya or basnigan. Individual fishermen, on the other hand, commonly use two types of nets – the basnig and the pangki as well as the chinchoro, buliche and sarap. In Buhi Lake, the sarap and sumbiling are used; the small fishes caught through the former is called sinarapan. The bunuan (corral) of the inangcla, sakag, sibi-sibid and sakag types are common. The banwit, two kinds of which are the og-og and kitang, are also used. Mining and the manufacture of various items from abaca are important industries. The former started when the Spaniards discovered the Paracale mines in Camarines Norte.
  46. 46. Non-Material Culture Close family ties and religiosity are important traits for survival in the typhoon-prone physical environment. Some persisting traditional practices are the pamalay, pantomina and tigsikan. Beliefs on god, the soul and life after death are strongly held by the people. Related to these, there are annual rituals like the pabasa, tanggal, fiestas and flores de mayo. Side by side with these are held beliefs on spiritual beings as the tawo sa lipod, dwende, onglo, tambaluslos, kalag, katambay, aswang and mangkukulam. On the whole, the value system of the Bicolanos shows the influence of Spanish religious doctrines and American materialism merged with the traditional animistic beliefs. It is thus, a multi-cultural system which evolved through the years to accommodate the realities of the erratic regional climatic conditions in a varihued geographical setting. Such traits can be gleaned from numerous folktales and folksongs that abound, the most known of which is the Sarong Bangui. The heroic stories reflect such traits as kindness, a determination to conquer evil forces, resourcefulness and courage. The folksong come in the form of awit, sinamlampati, panayokyok, panambitan, hatol, pag-omaw, rawit-dawit and children’s song and chants.
  47. 47. MARAMING SALAMAT  …
  48. 48. Presented By: ALCASID, Paulene Joy EVARDO, Orville Jr. SISTER, Darlene Mae VILLEJO, Archie QUIMPAN, Roselyn LISBOS, Cesar Ian MATURA, Jenas BOLO, Kristine Joy BSEd- Mathematics III