- include the
related to group
- food and
personal rites and
music, visual and
- folk tales ,
- deals with the
feelings and attitudes
that we learn by being
members of particular
-what a person
is to say and do on
raising a family.
- the beautiful
things of culture:
dance, art architecture,
and how they are
- how a person
learns and practices
honesty, fair play
- how a person
feels toward his or
her family, friends,
Health & Medicine
- how a person
reacts to sickness,
death, soundness of
mind and body,
- attitudes toward
Gestures & Kinesics
- forms of nonverbal
speech, such as the use of
the eyes, the hands, and
Grooming & Presence
- the cultural
differences in personal
behaviour and appearance,
such as laughter, smile,
voice quality, gait, poise,
hair style, cosmetics, dress,
- attitudes toward
ownership of property,
loyalties, beliefs, etc.
- accepted manners
toward older persons,
peers, and younger
Rewards & Privileges
- attitudes toward
social position, etc.
Rights & Duties
- attitudes toward
voting taxes, military
service, legal rights,
personal demands, etc.
-attitude toward the
divine and the
supernatural and how
they affect a person’s
thoughts and actions.
- how a person views,
understands, and relates
to a member of the
opposite sex and what
deviations are allowed and
Space & Proxemics
toward self and land;
the accepted distances
within a culture.
- attitudes about
providing for oneself,
the young, the old,
and who protects
- attitudes and
beliefs about doing
Concepts of Time
toward being early,
on time, or late.
- attitudes toward
They are an indigenous ethnic group of Maritime Southeast Asia.
They continue to live a seaborne lifestyle, making use of small wooden sailing vessels
(such as the perahu and vinta).They are also known as Sama or Samal.
Demographics and religion
The various Bajau sub-groups vary culturally, linguistically, and religiously.
Religion can vary from a strict adherence to Sunni Islam, forms of folk Islam, to
animistic beliefs in spirits and ancestor worship.There is a small minority of Christians.
Commonly, many sub-groups of Badjao are named after the place or island
they live-in for many years. Even though they are called Bajau, each sub-groups has their
own unique language, cultures and tradition. However, certain sub-groups are able to
understand the languages of other sub-groups. For example, some Bajau understand
the Bajau Ubian language, and the Bajau Ubian and Simunul in Sabah are able to
understand and speak the Tausug language called the Suluk language in Sabah. The
general terms for the native languages of the Bajau is Вahasa Вajau or Sinama.
Lists of Bajau sub-groups:
•Samah/Sama Sulawesi Selatan' (Malaysia)
•Samal (Philippines, Malaysia) –
•Bajau Suluk •Tando' Bas
•Pala'u or Bajau Laut
•Tabawan (Philippines, Malaysia)
•Banguingui or Balangingi Samal (Philippines,
Religions of Bajaus
•Many Bajaus of the east coast retain their seaborne lifestyle,
together with remnants of traditional pre-Islamic beliefs.
•Traditional Bajau communities may have a dukun (i.e. a shaman)
and may adhere to taboos concerning the treatment of the sea and
other cultural aspects.
•Among the boat-dwellers in particular, community spirit mediums
are consulted at least once a year for a public séance and nightly
trance dancing. In times of epidemics, the mediums are also called
upon to remove illness causing spirits from the community. They
do this by setting a "spirit boat" adrift in the open sea beyond the
village or anchorage.
•Bajau fishermen make use of wooden sailing vessels known as
perahu lambo for voyages to the Timor and Arafura seas
•Bajau people are also well known for weaving and needlework
•Bajau have a unique type of dance called the Pangigal. It is
common in wedding ceremonies for native communities
throughout Malaysia and the Philippines.
The datu was ordained as God’s viceregent or deputy whose
power was sacred. He was assisted by the pandita (one learned in religious
matters), and he administered justice according to the law of Islam and adat.
Courtship and Marriage
Dowry- the man to court and marry a woman who comes from
the same status of his family. Arranged marriage is mainly due to prestige
and the parents’ wish to enable their children to enjoy a better social and
•A ceremonial preparation of the child for adulthood called pagislam(meaning, what Islam has required) or circumcision follows Islamic
rites. It may be a simple or elaborate ceremony done by an imam or
another religious personality who performs prayers and chants.
•Another ceremony marking a boy’s intellectual initiation is called pagtammat (referring to “ending” study of the Qur’an). This is an occasion
which is disappearing because most parents send their children to
Tiyula sugis beef cooked in water with roasted coconut wheat and a
mixture of salt, garlic and flavoring herbs called pamapa
The well-known kiyoning or yellow rice is made by mixing rice,
coconut milk and powdered kalawag (turmeric).
Tiyateg is made of rice flour, coconut oil and brown sugar. It is
strained for thinness, dropped in hot oil and rolled or folded. It is eaten with the
Doldol, a thick pudding made of coconut milk, rice flour and dark
sugar cooked for three hours. It is served cut into small pieces.
•Food is generally eaten with bare hands while sitting on the floor. On special
occasions, the floor is covered with woven colorful mats, and food is served on
brass trays called talam or tabak.
The most prominent traditional wear is the malong, a large, colorful
woven cloth wrapped around the body. One common way women wear it is
around the waist with its folds draped over the left arm. Men wrap it around
the waist like a skirt.
The malong has many uses depending on the need of the wearer. It
can be used as a cape, coat, blanket or umbrella.
Amusement and Leisure Activities
Color, excitement and various activities mark the Maranao festival
calledkalilang. It is usually held to welcome Mecca pilgrims home or to
celebrate the coronation of a new sultan. . It can go on the whole day or last
for several days.
Islamic religious and ritual literature
•adhan (call to prayer)
•salat (ritual prayer)
•tafsir (Qur’anic exegesis)
•tasawwuf (literature focusing on the Prophet Mohammad
•Hadis is religious oral literature on locally produced commentaries on
specific items of Muslim tradition and jurisprudence.
•Darangen (epic poetry)
•Tarsila (also called salsila, sarsila or salasila, meaning “link”)
Kulintang (brass gongs), kagandang (war drums), ceremonial dances
andkambaioka (singers or chanters of improvised poetic compositions) are
played on various occasions. The gabbang is similar to a xylophone, whilesuling
and saunay are wind instruments. The biyula is a string instrument, and the
kulintangan is an ensemble of gongs and drums. The kudyapi is a two-stringed
lute plucked to make beautiful sounds. The kubing (jew’s harp) is made of
bamboo and believed to make words and tell stories, if the audience could
understand the language of music.
Moro musicality is also seen in songs and dances. For the Tausug, there are
songs called kissa which tell about the love of datus and princesses, while
heroic songs are contained in parang sibil. The Maranao kandidiagaois a
melodious lament over the dead.
five major types of songs
•The kambaiok is the free rhythmic rendering of the baiok, which is
•Kandarangen is accompanied by a gong or other similar instruments.
•Kadikir is sung by singers in slow, free rhythm and speaks of verses from
the Qur’an and Maranao compositions with topics on Islam, morals, life, and
•Kandomana is a combination of styles of Kandarangen and Kadikir
•kapranon is a song of private sentimentality sung softly.
•Pagipat (7 days) and pangubad (3 days)- animistic rituals for healing.
•Sagaian- war dance.
•Singkil- speaks of a princess trying to escape from an earthquake by
running and leaping on shaking stones and trying not to get her feet caught.
•kapagasik,- agraceful dance of beautiful maidens.
•kaganat sa darangen- a song and dance that shows ways of wearing the
•kapiil sa musala,- a handkerchief dance usually performed by girls.
Decorative and Industrial Arts
•Ukir (Maranao) or ukkil (Tausug) means to carve or engrave.
•Moro artistry is applied to woodworking, from decorative carving
to boat-building to house architecture and construction.
•Skill and artistry in metalwork is applied to tools, weapons,
jewelry, and brassware.
•Clothweaving and matweaving are important crafts for Moros.
Agriculture is the main source of living. Rice, tubers, and other
cultigens are cultivated in pawa (swidden) farming) along with bananas,
vegetables and root crops. Hunting for wild pig, deer, chicken, monkeys,
lizards, birds and other animals complement farming.
At an early age, children are taught how to hunt using spears
and traps. The Mandaya are freshwater fishing experts. Individual, family
and cooperative fishing are done using several methods like traps, stun
rods, draining, spearing and also bare hands. Environmental destruction
and degradation together with rapid urbanization have drastically
reduced hunting and fishing.
Culture and Arts
The Mandaya have one of the richest cultural heritage among
ethnic groups. They are very close to their families. Christianized
Mandaya still retain some of the past beliefs creating a syncretic form of
Dagmay, an abaca handwoven cloth with intricate designs
revolving around man and crocodile, is one of the most popular material
culture. Its mud-dyeing technique is believed to be the only one existing in
the Philippines. Interestingly, dagmay weaving has also become a pasttime
of women as they cooperate in tie-designing while making pleasantries.
Bayok, a highly tonal art of delivering messages in the form of
figurative speeches, passages, and even euphemism usually done in pairs
and in continuous answering pattern. Like a debate, each of the bayok
artist stands on opposite sides. Bayok chanting is indispensable in
important celebration and events like proposal for marriage. settlement of
conflicts, welcoming of visitors and also in common merrymaking. Any
topic like funny personal traits, food, offering of drinks and many more
could be derived for a bayok.
Kudlong, a two-stringed zither with only one string with frets,
deliver music with historical, eventful, and important meanings. Kudlong is
played before hunting, staging the deadly pangayao (vendetta killing) or
farming. It could also be for simply entertainment.
One popular instrument also is the gimball or gimbao, a large
drum made using deer hide from a doe on one side and from a stag on the
other side to produce different tone and pitch. The drum is played to
accompany the Balyan in her performance in summoning the spirits. During
celebrations, gimbao is indispensable in dances and any celebration, ritual and
assembly. It is played by one of two players.
The Mandaya also plays a meter-long flute called bonabon made of
a slender bamboo. Its music ranges from sentimental to jolly ones with deep
emotional expression. The suding, jew's harp made of bamboo, add more
range to the music of the Mandaya.
The traditional governance of the Mandaya displays a strong leadership.
Customary laws are observed and stiff penalties are imposed. Acceptance and
respect by the community makes a tribal governance work. In some areas, the
elders and leaders approve holding of pangayao to exact justice and revenge.
In the hinterlands, the government imposed systems in the lowlands has
little effect on their practice of customary laws, however, Mandaya's have to
compete with migrants from Luzon and Visayas who were brought by Americans
and later, by government programs. Slowly, the ethnic people are being left
The beadcraft technique of the Mandaya is something to marvel at. For
beads, aborigines had long used teeth coming from crocodiles, wild cats and
other wild animals, tusk of boar, bones, seeds, shells, stones, wood, even skulls of
After grouping the strands into the desired number, usually in two's or
three's, the artist rubs the fibers end with bees wax. Basically, the Mandaya uses
the color red, black, white, and yellow. In some instances, but very rarely, greens
and blues are added to it.
The primary means of subsistence is swidden agriculture. Rice and corn
are rotated. Other products are copra, coffee and cacao, fruits, and vegetables.
The traditional economic system ensured that every household was selfsufficient, producing for itself not only the staple food, rice, but also clothes,
farming and domestic implements, and weapons.
Hence, there was no clear division of labor, with the exception of the
blacksmith, the bagani/magani (warrior), and the mabalian (priestess). Today,
however, trade has opened intertribal and interracial relations. The money
economy, while decreasing the level of self-sufficiency, has helped improve
production, transportation, and communication. Both men and women strip
hemp for the abaca trade and for domestic purposes. Blacksmithing, house
building, and the making of kitchen utensils like rice mortars and meat blocks are
done by the men. Basketry is done by both sexes. Some old men manufacture
small shell disks used to decorate their clothing.
Traditional Bagobo society was divided into three classes.
The bagani was the warrior class; the datu was the chief bagani and he
inherited his position. However, he enjoyed no special privilege, except for the
possession of his title and rank. His main function was to be a judge, an arbiter, and
a defender of the tribe. As the bagani was held in high esteem, so his opposite, the
matalo or a man who has never killed a person and has no desire to fight, was
scorned. The bagani who has killed at least two persons was allowed to wear
blood-red clothes and tangkulu (headkerchief) and a small bag for betel nut
and lime, which was considered a property of the spirits.
The next class consisted of the mabalian or priestesses, elderly women who
were usually distinguished as skilled weavers. They had first been selected through a
dreamor vision from a benign spirit who revealed the secret of a new cure for an
ailment. Then they were apprenticed to the mabalian, from whom they learned,
among other things, how to weave the clothes of the bagani. Like the bagani, they
wore special clothes that signified their position.
The slave class was composed of women and children taken during raids.
Slave women sometimes became concubines of their masters; if so, their children
were considered free because their fathers were freemen.
The Bagobo are polytheistic. They have a wide pantheon of diwata
(gods) who reside in nine heavens above the skies, and to whom they allude in
their songs and myths. Tiguiama, the creator, is assisted by the lesser gods like
Mamale, creator of the earth;Macoreret, creator of the air; Domacolen, creator
of the mountains; and Macaponguis,creator of water. Other gods are, dispenser
of reward and punishment, and Todlai,patron of marriage and to whom are
offered buyo and rice. The Bagobo also believe in a pantheon of demons: the
great demon is Darago; lesser demons are Colambusan, Comalay, Tagamahng,
Traditionally, Bagobo society is dominated by a warrior class
called magani, that includes the community leader, usually a datu who wields no real
power except his influence as senior arbiter and judge, qualities, which derive from his
being a magani. He exerts influence over a community composed of households
organized through kinship principles, whether by blood or by marriage.
The houses are scattered near swidden fields. The scattered neighborhood is
organized into a district or political domain under the datu who functions as a
temporal head of a group. It is said that several domains identified as Bagobo with its
datu or chief, recognize the political authority of the datu of Sibulan, as a higher level of
hierarchy. The house of the datu has been said to be able to accommodate several
hundreds of people, and it is the ceremonial and defense center for the community.
Specific domains are controlled by magani. The magani is identified by his blood-red
clothing, which he earns in successful combats.
Abaca used to grow wild in the Davao provinces. These are usually stripped
for the fibre for which are used for commercial purposes especially during the early
1900s when the demand for hemp was great. Domestically the fibre is used for weaving
tie-dyed cloth. Both men and women use the abaca for clothing which usually are
heavily decorated with multi-colored beads and embroidery over the woven designs
on the cloth. The Bagobo is also known for the production of cast brass ornaments
like bells using the lost-wax process.
They subsist largely with upland rice cultivated in a dry regime in
swiddens. This crop is supplemented by corn, sweet potato, bananas, sago and
coconut. Food gathering and hunting, and fishing are regularly done when the
environment was not yet degraded.
The Bagobo pantheon is composed of a number of spirit beings that
interfere in the affairs of men. The principal being is the creator
called Eugpamolak Manobo or Manama. There are a large number of lesser
nature spirits who have to be shown respect and others who take pleasure in
being irritants. The mabalian who are usually women, are the ritual practitioners
which include healing. It is not rare that mabalians are also skilled as weavers.
These migrations plus the isolation of certain areas led to the formation
of diverse dialects. The Bicol dialect in Camarines Norte is interchangeably used
with Tagalog, while the one used in Masbate and Sorsogon is mixed with northern
Visayan language. On the other hand, the Catanduanes dialect had been influenced
by Samar-Leyte language. In the so-called Rinconada towns (which includes Buhi,
Bula, Baao, Iriga, Bato and Nabua), the dialects differ from the Naga language as
well as from one another. Though this is so, the Bicolanos can communicate with
one another with the "Bicol proper" language in Naga City and the lower Bicol
According to a folk epic entitled Ibalong, the people of the region were
formerly called Ibalong or Ibalnong, a name believed to have been derived from
Gat Ibal who ruled Sawangan (now Legaspi) in ancient times. Ibalong used to
mean the "people of Ibal;" eventually, this was shortened to Ibalon. The word
Bikol which replaced Ibalon was originally bikod (meaning ‘meandering"), a word
which supposedly described the principal river of that area.
Archeological diggings which date back to as early as the Neolithic and
accidental findings resulting from the mining industry, road-building and railway
projects in the region reveal that the Bicol mainland is a rich storehouse of
ceramic artifacts. Burial cave finding also point to the prehispanic practice of
using burial jars.
The Spanish influence in Bicol resulted mainly from the efforts of Augustinian
and Franciscan Spanish missionaries. Through the Franciscans, the annual feast of
the Virgin of Peñafrancia, the Patroness for Bicolandia, was started. Fr. Miguel
Robles asked a local artist to carve a replica of the statue of the Virgin in
Salamanca; now, the statue is celebrated through an annual fluvial parade in Naga
Bicolano actively participated in the national resistance to the American and
Japanese colonization through two known leaders who rose up in arms namely
Simeon Ola and Governor Wenceslao Q.Vinzons.
To suit the tropical climate, the Bicolanos use light material for their
houses; others now have bungalows to withstand the impact of strong
typhoons. Light, western styled clothes are predominantly used now.
The typical Bicolano wears light, western styled clothes similar to
the Filipinos in urban centers. Seldom, if ever, are there Bicolanos
weaving sinamy or piña for clothing as in the past; sinamy is reserved
now for pillow cases, mosquito nets, fishing nets, bags and other
Coconut and abaca are two dollar-earning products that are grown
in the coastal valleys hillsides or slopes of several fertile volcanoes
respectively. The Bicol River basin or rice granary provide the peasants
rice, corn, and root crops for food and small cash surplus when crops
evade the dreaded frequent typhoons. For land preparation, carabaodrawn plow and harrow are generally used; sickles are used for cutting
rice stalks, threshing is done either by stepping on or beating the rice
straws with basbas and cleaning is done with the use of the nigo
Meals are generally rich in carbohydrates and viands of vegetables, fish
and meat are cooked in various ways. Bicolanos almost always cook their
vegetables in coconut milk; for meat recipes such as pochero, adobo and tapa. A
special meat dish is the dinuguan. Fish that serve as common viand are mackerel
and anchovy; in Lake Buhi, the sinarapan or tabios (known as the smallest fish in
the world) is common. Except for those living in Rinconada, Bicolanos are not
extraordinarily fond of eating hot or peppery.
Copra processing and abaca stripping are generally done by hand. Fishing is
also an important industry and fish supply is normally plentiful during the months
of May through September. Organized or big-time fishing makes use of costly
nets and motor-powered and electric-lighted boats or launches called palakaya
or basnigan. Individual fishermen, on the other hand, commonly use two types of
nets – the basnig and the pangki as well as the chinchoro, buliche and sarap.
In Buhi Lake, the sarap and sumbiling are used; the small fishes caught
through the former is called sinarapan. The bunuan (corral) of the inangcla, sakag,
sibi-sibid and sakag types are common. The banwit, two kinds of which are the
og-og and kitang, are also used.
Mining and the manufacture of various items from abaca are important
industries. The former started when the Spaniards discovered the Paracale mines in
Close family ties and religiosity are important traits for survival in the
typhoon-prone physical environment. Some persisting traditional practices
are the pamalay, pantomina and tigsikan. Beliefs on god, the soul and life
after death are strongly held by the people. Related to these, there are
annual rituals like the pabasa, tanggal, fiestas and flores de mayo. Side by side
with these are held beliefs on spiritual beings as the tawo sa lipod, dwende,
onglo, tambaluslos, kalag, katambay, aswang and mangkukulam.
On the whole, the value system of the Bicolanos shows the influence
of Spanish religious doctrines and American materialism merged with the
traditional animistic beliefs. It is thus, a multi-cultural system which evolved
through the years to accommodate the realities of the erratic regional
climatic conditions in a varihued geographical setting. Such traits can be
gleaned from numerous folktales and folksongs that abound, the most
known of which is the Sarong Bangui. The heroic stories reflect such traits
as kindness, a determination to conquer evil forces, resourcefulness and
courage. The folksong come in the form of awit, sinamlampati, panayokyok,
panambitan, hatol, pag-omaw, rawit-dawit and children’s song and chants.