Photo hot spring

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Photo hot spring

  1. 1. •The water issuing from a hot spring is heated by geothermal heat, essentially heat fromthe Earths interior. In general, the temperature of rocks within the Earth increases withdepth. The rate of temperature increase with depth is known as the “geothermalgradient”. If water percolates deeply enough into the crust, it will be heated as it comesinto contact with hot rocks. The water from hot springs in non-volcanic areas is heated inthis manner.•In volcanic zones, such as Yellowstone National Park, water may be heated by cominginto contact with magma (molten rock). The high temperature gradient near magmamay cause water to be heated enough that it boils or becomes superheated. If the waterbecomes so hot that it builds steam pressure and erupts in a jet above the surface of theearth, it is called a geyser; if the water only reaches the surface in the form of steam, it iscalled a fumarole; and if the water is mixed with mud and clay, it is called a mud pot.There are no geysers, fumaroles, or mud pots at Hot Springs National Park. One thermophile, Pyrolobus fumarii, has been found at temperatures of 113° C /235° F
  2. 2. Vocabulary wordsaquifer - a water-bearing stratum of permeable rock, sand, or gravelcalcareous - resembling calcite or calcium carbonate especially in hardness; consisting ofor containing calciumchert - rock resembling flint and consisting of quartz and amorphous silicafault - a fracture in the crust of the Earth accompanied by a displacement of one side ofthe fracture with respect to the other, usually in a direction parallel to the fracturefissure - a narrow opening or crack of considerable length and depth usually occurringfrom some breaking or partinggradient - change in the value of a quantity (as temperature, pressure, or concentration)with change in a given variable and especially per unit distance in a specified directionhybrid - an offspring of two animals or plants of differentraces, breeds, varieties,species, or generahydrothermal - of or relating to hot waterisotope - any of two or more atoms of a chemical element with the same atomic numberand nearly identical chemical behavior but with differing atomic mass or mass numberanddifferent physical properties
  3. 3. magma - molten rock material within the Earth from which igneous rock results bycoolingmeteorite - any of the small particles of matter in the solar system that are directlyobservable only by their incandescence from frictional heating on entry into theatmospherenovaculite - a very hard fine-grained siliceous chert used for whetstonespercolate - to ooze or trickle through a permeable substanceprotozoa - any of a phylum or subkingdom (Protozoa) of chiefly motile andheterotrophic unicellular protists (as amoebas, trypanosomes, sporozoans, andparamecia) that are represented in almost every kind of habitatpseudopod - temporary protrusion or retractile process of the cytoplasm of a cell thatfunctions (as in an amoeba) especially in a locomotor or food gathering capacityseismic - of, subject to, or caused by an earthquake; or relating to an earth vibrationsiliceous - of, relating to, or containing silicasuspension - the state of a substance when its particles are mixed with but undissolvedin a fluid or solidtufa - a porous rock formed as a deposit from springs or streams
  4. 4. History: Pre 19th Century• Believed aquatic plants and animals cannot live at temperatures above 37˚C• 1862 – Ferdinand Cohn first observed organisms living in hot springs in Sicily, Italy• 1875 – Felix Hoppe-Seyler recorded algae in hot springs in Naples, Italy at temperatures above 60˚C
  5. 5. History 1900 to Present• 1903 – William Setchell observed algae in hot springs at ~ 75˚C and 89˚C in Yellowstone National Park• 1978 – Thomas Brock found cyanobacteria in hot springs at 75- 77˚C, and observed growth at temperatures up to 95.5˚C• Early 1990s –Thermus aquaticus discovered, utilized this organism’s thermotolerant polymerase (“Taq”) in PCR reactions• Recently – discovery of archaea, bacteria and viruses in hot springs continue
  6. 6. General Hot Springs Ecology• Photosynthetic microorganisms dominate, ranging from 102 to 108/ml, found mostly in euphotic surface layers or on rock surfaces• Heterotrophic microorganisms are also found, but in lower concentrations (101 to 106/ml), and consume DOM from terrestrial and biological sources (dead photosynthetic organisms)
  7. 7. ArchaeaMost archaea grow at temperatures of 80-85ºC• Methanogens (Methanobacterium thermophilicum)• 2 distinct lineges present? in Yellowstone hot springs (small-subunit rRNA analysis)• A little is known; research continues. A microbiologist collecting water sample at Yellowstone hot spring.
  8. 8. Bacteria I• Cyanobacteria (Synechococcus) – Thermophile photoynthetic autotrophs – Grow up to 74ºC. – “Algal mat” (Yellowstone) • Many distinct species living in vertically stratified mats based on 16S rRNA phylogenetic studies Algal mat in Yellowstone
  9. 9. Bacteria II• Heterotrophic bacteria (thermophiles)• Chemolithotrophs – H2S & sulfur oxidizers (e.g. Thiobacilus thiooxidans, Sulfolobus acidocaldarius: found in highly acidic hot springs) – Sulfate reducers (e.g. Desulfovibrio thermophilus) – Methane oxidizers (e.g. Methylococcus capsulatus)
  10. 10. Viruses Electron micrographs of viruses found in Little Hot Creek, OR (Breibar et al. 2004)• Absence of eukaryotes… but viruses are there• Thermophilic bacteriophages observed living at up to 92ºC: extreme thermophiles• Predators of bacteria• “Microbial loop” in hot springs
  11. 11. ml TT media (ATCC medium 697

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