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Heather J. Leidy, PhDDept. Nutrition & Exercise Physiology; University of Missouri; Columbia, MO                          ...
• Breakfast was a staple in the         American Diet 50y ago       • Gradual decline has         mirrored the rise in obe...
Cross-sectional Studies          • Overweight/Obese are 2x more likely to skip breakfast          • Breakfast Skippers hav...
• Cross-sectional studies in >5,000 young people • Compared to breakfast consumers, skippers consume:                     ...
NHANES Data                                        Breakfast   RTE Cereal     Other                  (1999-2006)          ...
Breakfast Foods                                                                           Breakfast Foods                 ...
Westerterp-Plantenga, M.S., et al., Annu Rev Nutr, 2009; 21-41
11
•   Randomized Crossover; Clinical Trial•   Healthy, but overweight/obese teen girls (13-19y)      Habitual breakfast skip...
Dietary Characteristics       Normal Protein             Protein-rich              Breakfast                              ...
• 10 h Testing Days for Each Breakfast Pattern• Outcomes:    Appetite:   Perceived Hunger; Hunger-hormone Ghrelin    Satie...
Breakfast SkippingNormal ProteinHigh Protein
Breakfast SkippingNormal ProteinHigh Protein
Breakfast SkippingNormal ProteinHigh Protein
Breakfast SkippingNormal ProteinHigh Protein
•   13 blocks in 1 fMRI scan•   3 blocks of food, 3 blocks of animals, 7 blocks of blurred images•   Each block is 30 sec
Breakfast Skipping vs. Breakfast
Normal vs. High Protein Breakfast
Breakfast SkippingNormal ProteinHigh Protein
Snack Foods        BS         NP         HP                      Desserts (g) 110 ± 23      104 ± 24   87 ± 20Breakfast Sk...
Heather J. Leidy, PhDAssistant Professor; Dept. of Nutrition & Exercise PhysiologyUniversity of Missouri573-825-2620; leid...
Skipping your breakfast is stupid & consume sufficient proteins in the morning.
Skipping your breakfast is stupid & consume sufficient proteins in the morning.
Skipping your breakfast is stupid & consume sufficient proteins in the morning.
Skipping your breakfast is stupid & consume sufficient proteins in the morning.
Skipping your breakfast is stupid & consume sufficient proteins in the morning.
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Skipping your breakfast is stupid & consume sufficient proteins in the morning.

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The addition of a protein-rich breakfast tot improve appetite control and combat obesity

Heather J. Leidy, PhD

IFT 2012

(with permission of H.J. Leidy)

Published in: Technology, Health & Medicine
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Skipping your breakfast is stupid & consume sufficient proteins in the morning.

  1. 1. Heather J. Leidy, PhDDept. Nutrition & Exercise Physiology; University of Missouri; Columbia, MO © 2012 Institute of Food Technologists
  2. 2. • Breakfast was a staple in the American Diet 50y ago • Gradual decline has mirrored the rise in obesity • Current trends: 30-60% of young people skip breakfast on a daily basisSiegra-Riz , 1998; AJCN; 67(supp): 748S-756S; Haines, 1996; JADA; 96(5): 464-470; Deshmukh-Taskar, 2010; JADA; 110(6): 869-878; McLynn, 2011; The NPD Group; Morning Mealscape
  3. 3. Cross-sectional Studies • Overweight/Obese are 2x more likely to skip breakfast • Breakfast Skippers have an increased -Prevalence of being obese -Higher BMI percentile -Higher BMI z-score 5-yr Prospective Study in Young People • 2,216 Adolescents • Increased BMI (-) associated with decreased breakfast frequency (in a dose-dependent relationship)Siegra-Riz , 1998; AJCN; 67(supp): 748S-756S; Haines, 1996; JADA; 96(5): 464-470; Deshmukh-Taskar, 2010; JADA; 110(6): 869-878; McLynn, 2011; Timlin, 2008; Pediatrics; 121: e638-e645
  4. 4. • Cross-sectional studies in >5,000 young people • Compared to breakfast consumers, skippers consume: 45% LESS Vegetables 30% LESS Fruit 60% LESS Milk (-100 kcal) 65% LESS Whole-grain 40% MORE Sweets (+60 kcal) 55% MORE Chips (+100 kcal) 55% MORE Soft Drinks (+200 kcal) 40% MORE White Bread • Majority of breakfast was RTE cerealsSjoberg, 2003; European J Clin Nutrition; 57: 1569-1578; Savige, 2007: Int J Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity; 4(36): 1-9; Haire-joshu, 2011; JADA: 111: 124-130
  5. 5. NHANES Data Breakfast RTE Cereal Other (1999-2006) Skippers Breakfast Breakfast (n=2547) (n=2,856) (n=4,256) Prevalence of Obesity (%) 23 ± 1 15 ± 1 18 ± 1* 13 Micronutrients (MAR) 75 ± 2 88 ± 2 80 ± 2* 5 Shortfall Nutrients (MAR) 51 ± 2 59 ± 2 54 ± 2* Dietary Fat (g) 85.4 ± 1 78 ± 1 85 ± 1* Cholesterol(mg) 222 ± 7 217 ± 6 287 ± 8* Dietary CHO (g) 297 ± 3 316 ± 2* 297 ± 2 Sugars (g) 153 ± 3 165 ± 3* 150 ± 3 Dietary Protein (g) 76 ± 1 78 ± 1 78 ± 1*RTE vs. OtherDeshmukh-Taskar PR, et al. 2010; J Am Diet Assoc; 110 (6) 869-878
  6. 6. Breakfast Foods Breakfast Foods 1960s 2000s High Protein Low ProteinNutrition Reviews; 65(6): 268-281; FIC Review; 2011; Breakfast and Health; Moshfegh, 2005; What We Eat in America 2001-02; USDA.gov; Breakfast in America
  7. 7. Westerterp-Plantenga, M.S., et al., Annu Rev Nutr, 2009; 21-41
  8. 8. 11
  9. 9. • Randomized Crossover; Clinical Trial• Healthy, but overweight/obese teen girls (13-19y) Habitual breakfast skippers• 3 Breakfast Patterns (6 d acclimation + 1 d testing/pattern) Breakfast Skipping Normal Protein Breakfast Participants were blinded to protein focus Higher Protein Breakfast
  10. 10. Dietary Characteristics Normal Protein Protein-rich Breakfast Breakfast* Breakfast* Skipping Meal Characteristics RTE Cereals ‘Other Foods’ 0 Energy Content (kcal) 350 350 0 CHO/Protein/Fat (%) 65/15/20 40/40/20 0 PRO (g) 13 35 0 CHO (g) 57 35 0 Fat (g) 8 8 0 *Also matched for Energy Density (1.3g/kcal), Sugar (18g), & Fiber (6g) 13
  11. 11. • 10 h Testing Days for Each Breakfast Pattern• Outcomes: Appetite: Perceived Hunger; Hunger-hormone Ghrelin Satiety: Perceived Fullness; Satiety-hormone PYY Reward: Brain Scans in response to visual food stimuli before dinner Snacking: Evening
  12. 12. Breakfast SkippingNormal ProteinHigh Protein
  13. 13. Breakfast SkippingNormal ProteinHigh Protein
  14. 14. Breakfast SkippingNormal ProteinHigh Protein
  15. 15. Breakfast SkippingNormal ProteinHigh Protein
  16. 16. • 13 blocks in 1 fMRI scan• 3 blocks of food, 3 blocks of animals, 7 blocks of blurred images• Each block is 30 sec
  17. 17. Breakfast Skipping vs. Breakfast
  18. 18. Normal vs. High Protein Breakfast
  19. 19. Breakfast SkippingNormal ProteinHigh Protein
  20. 20. Snack Foods BS NP HP Desserts (g) 110 ± 23 104 ± 24 87 ± 20Breakfast SkippingNormal Protein Candy (g) 33 ± 13a 37 ± 12a 16 ± 6bHigh Protein Salty (g) 45 ± 15 58 ± 17 51 ± 18 High Fat (g) 164 ± 29a 142 ± 28b 105 ± 24b Chocolate (g) 94 ± 22 99 ± 24 82 ± 20
  21. 21. Heather J. Leidy, PhDAssistant Professor; Dept. of Nutrition & Exercise PhysiologyUniversity of Missouri573-825-2620; leidyh@missouri.edu © 2012 Institute of Food Technologists

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