FND deltatwerken - Sustainability & Food


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FND deltatwerken - Sustainability & Food

  1. 1. Sustainability It’s no longer optionalFND Delta Werken no. 3
  2. 2. Table of contentsForeword 4Chapter 1 Introduction 6Chapter 2 Environment 10 2.1 Introduction 10 2.2 Energy/CO2 11 2.3 Water 13 2.4 Residual waste 16 2.5 Raw materials: soybeans 18 2.6 Regional products: local is beautiful 20 2.7 Protein transition 21Chapter 3 People 22 3.1 Introduction 22 3.2 Cacao: an exploration of the market 23 3.3 Excessively low prices 23 3.4 Inexpensive or free labour 24 3.5 Sector on life support 24 3.6 Quality marks 25Chapter 4 Animals (and their welfare) 28 4.1 Introduction 28 4.2 Most important issues 28 4.3 Market statistics/consumer trends 31Chapter 5 Consumers 34 5.1 Introduction 34 5.2 Market figures 36 5.3 The sceptical consumer 38 5.4 Logos, one logo or no logo? 40
  3. 3. SustainabilityIts no longer optionalJune 2011
  4. 4. Fo r e w o r d Improving the sustainability of the agri-food chain is no longer optional. The sector can no longer afford to sit still. Major players such as Unilever and FrieslandCampina have announced ambitious goals. However, these multinationals will not make it on their own. Small and medium-sized companies, a force to be reckoned with in terms of the number of businesses and combined turnover, will also have to make a substantial contribution. This is not only necessary from an economic standpoint - retailers are becoming more sustainable to an increasing degree in terms of the ranges they sell - but also from an ecological perspective. The third part of the Deltawerken ‘Sustainability. It’s no longer optional’ provides tools to help companies improve their sustainability. The motto is: get started! Kees de Gooijer Director of Food & Nutrition Delta 4 S ustaina b ilit y. it s no longer optional
  5. 5. sustaina b ilit y. it s no longer optional 5
  6. 6. IntroductionChapter 1 In late 2010, Unilever presented its Sustainable Living Plan. This ambitious plan came as a real bombshell. In this plan, the British-Dutch multinational announced its intent to cut CO2 emissions, water consumption and waste production (for example, packaging) by half over the next ten years. However, it is important to note that the company does aim to realise twice as much turnover by 2020 as it earned in 2010. According to CEO Paul Polman, sustainable business offers his company a competitive advantage in the market. “Consumers want more,” according to Polman. “Issues such as climate change, malnutrition and starvation are high on consumers’ agendas. The only problem is that governments aren‘t doing enough. Companies can fulfil a positive role in this regard.” Unilever’s plan may certainly be described as a revolutionary one. Additionally, there are numerous other companies, often multinationals but also SMEs such as Gulpener or suppliers such as Bunzl, that have made fundamental changes in their operational management activities. It appears that sustainability, or improving or increasing sustainability - illustrating that it is a continuous process - has made a definite breakthrough. Brundtland the originator of the concept, Freer Spreckley, was This breakthrough has been a long time coming, referring to the social and ecological consequences at least in the agri-food sector. The concept of of a company’s actions. In other words, auditing a sustainability dates back to the 1980s. In 1987, company purely based on its financial results is too the Brundtland report was published by the World limited. Commission on Environment and Development (WCED). One of the conclusions reached in the Nearly 20 years later, the author John Elkington report was that the global environmental problem came up with a catchier version of TBL: people, was the result of poverty in developing countries, planet and profit, or Triple P. The idea behind Triple and the non-sustainable consumption and P is more or less the same as TBL: companies production in developed countries. The so-called should not only be accountable to shareholders, but Brundtland definition, named after the WCED also to other stakeholders. This last group includes chairman at the time, Gro Harlem Brundtland, is governments, citizens, suppliers, NGOs and so on still in use today: “Sustainable development meets and so forth. the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own This means that striving for the maximisation of needs.” profit (‘profit’) cannot and may not be a company’s sole objective. Companies must also take human From TBL to PPP capital (‘people’) into account. Issues such as a During that same decade, the concept ‘triple bottom decent wage or offering a safe working environment line (TBL)’ started to gain a firm foothold. With TBL, are part of this domain. The third P (for ‘planet’) 6 S ustaina b ilit y. it s no longer optional
  7. 7. Chapter 1refers to the environmental impact companies have floods, etc.) are central themes in Gore’s arguments.as well as the entire chain in which they operate. Due in part to Gore, former Vice President of theExamples include energy and water consumption, United States, both the film and the theme were inrecycling, CO2 emissions, etc. Issues such as animal the spotlight worldwide.welfare and biodiversity - take overfishing, forexample - also fall under the planet umbrella. In spite of the fact that the film and other sources, such as the IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel onAn inconvenient truth Climate Change)’s report, were the objects of severeAn interesting question of course is why criticism, the message still appears to remain intact:sustainability has led a dormant existence for so man and his actions are largely responsible forlong and why it now appears to be emerging as a climate change, and mankind is thus also capablehot issue in record time? It is impossible to provide of exerting its influence to limit the consequencesa conclusive explanation for this. One thing that of this. This not only applies to the climate, butis certain is that Al Gore’s film An Inconvenient certainly also to the approach to scarce rawTruth and the lecture tour that followed played materials and natural resources, such as water oran important role. Global warming as a result of energy, or doing business in a fair manner withhuman actions (CO2 emissions) and the potential suppliers in emerging economies.consequences of this for the climate (droughts,sustaina b ilit y. it s no longer optional 7
  8. 8. Chapter 1 NGOs Dutch Catering Organisations), in order to make NGOs are a necessary element in improving the processes and products more sustainable. Several sustainability of the food chain. There are various pilot projects have also been set up which will organisations within the meat sector in particular possibly be scaled up in the future. which have put certain issues on the social and political map. Varkens in Nood (Pigs in Peril) LNV as the driving force for example, protested against the castration The creation of the PVV was more or less a result of piglets without using an anaesthetic. This of the Sustainable Food Policy Document (Nota procedure is supposedly necessary in order to Duurzaam Voedsel) published in mid-2009 by the prevent boar taint. This malodorous scent may former Dutch Ministry of Agriculture, Nature and be released when the meat is heated. Recently, Food Quality (Landbouw, Natuur en Voedselkwaliteit, an EU-wide declaration was made that as of 1 LNV). This policy document states that in fifteen January 2012, all piglets will have to be anaesthe- years, the Netherlands must be a leader in the tised for castration. In the Netherlands, the meat field of sustainability in food production and sector has promised that it will stop castrating consumption. all piglets in 2015. Inspections performed on the To realise this goal, the Ministry of Agriculture, slaughter line can prevent boar taint. Nature and Food Quality (LNV, which was recently absorbed by the current Ministry of Economic Affairs, Agriculture & Innovation [EL&I]) aims to Important role for SMEs stimulate sustainable innovation, entice consumers National and international businesses - of which to implement a more sustainable consumption Unilever is certainly not the only one - have since pattern in their lives, and promote international embraced sustainability. It goes without saying cooperation (WTO, EU, etc.). The Ministry also took that the ambitions in this regard vary. Up to now, several concrete measures of its own; these include Unilever has been the most ambitious company in setting the goal to serve a fully sustainable range of the agri-food sector. This does not mean however products in its own restaurants. Meanwhile, various that the impact of a large number of less-ambitious local and regional governments have also taken SMEs would be any lower. In fact, in terms of steps to make their catered product ranges more turnover in the agri-food sector in the Netherlands, SMEs generate a higher turnover than the combined turnover of giants such as Unilever and Top-of-mind issue FrieslandCampina. Over the past five years, sustainability has developed to become a ‘top-of-mind’ issue. Each These days, most SMEs do not have the know- year, the Consumer Goods Forum (formerly how, resources or economies of scale necessary to CIES, the International Committee of Food Retail make their processes or chain more sustainable. Chains) publishes a list ranking issues that are To support these smaller companies, industry-wide high on the agenda of executives working in and supra-industry initiatives have been set up. For European retail and industry. In 2006, corporate example, various industry organisations operate social responsibility (CSR) was only ranked 11. In within the Platform Verduurzaming Voedsel or PVV 2010, CSR, another word for doing business in a (Alliance for Sustainable Food) such as the FNLI sustainable manner, occupied a solid second place (Dutch Food Industry Federation), the CBL (Central on the list. Bureau of Food Trade) and Veneca (Association of 8 S ustaina b ilit y. it s no longer optional
  9. 9. Hoofdstuk 1sustainable, for instance by switching to Fair Trade In this issue of Deltawerk, the spotlight is on man, thecoffee. environment and animals. These are important topics for the agrofood sector. The consumer also occupiesLicence to produce a prominent position in this report. This is no surpriseIn short, the agri-food sector will undergo major since consumer acceptance is a key success factor.changes over the next few years. The actors in all of The measurability of sustainability is also deservingthe links in the chain - farmers, suppliers, producers of special mention. But how does one quantify this?and retailers - will have to make their processes and Which parameters should be included? How do youproducts sustainable. If they fail to do this, they may weigh conflicting interests, such as animal welfarebe gambling with their ‘license to produce’. and the environment, against one another? In the long run, it will become necessary to objectifyIn 2010, Ahold CEO Dick Boer pronounced the sustainability in order to make this concept clearcompany’s goal of making its entire private label and comprehensible for producers, retailers andrange sustainable by 2015. In other words, as a consumers. The risk of greenwashing is a verysupplier of private label products, you must also keep real, worrisome one, and this a rather alarmingup with the competition. Even a smaller player like development. A sceptical consumer will be morePlus is profiling itself in the market with a sustainable likely to hinder sustainability in the sector rather thanrange. The expectation is that other supermarket benefit it.chains cannot and will not be able to lag behind thetrendsetters.The food industry players, whether they are private-label suppliers or brand-name producers, mustchange their ways. In this report, we hope to providean overview of the options available to companiesmaking their business more sustainable. A key themehere is what is happening in practice, or, to put itbluntly: “who is doing what”. As the saying goes, “agood example sets the tone”!Delineating and quantifyingAs it happens, sustainability or making things moresustainable is a broad concept, so broad in factthat this edition of Deltawerk would be the size ofa telephone book if it were to cover it all. However,this is not the case. Food & Nutrition Delta wants toeducate SMEs, and help them on their way to makingtheir products and processes more sustainable. Thebest way to do this is in a short, concise report ratherthan an enormous document that often goes unread,and disappears in a desk drawer.sustaina b ilit y. it s no longer optional 9
  10. 10. EnvironmentChapter 2 2.1 Introduction Biodiversity For the time being, ‘we’ refers to the wealthy In 2006, the ecological footprint for the entire West. The ecological footprint of an American is world population was already at 1.4. This means approximately nine global hectares (productive land that at that time, all of us together (seven billion and marine area). In China, this is 1.8 gha. We can inhabitants) needed a globe one and a half times assume that this footprint will increase considerably the size of the one we now inhabit in order to live. in the coming years. In 2050, the global population will have grown to nine billion. In addition, increasing prosperity in Another thorny topic is biodiversity. The Millennium the BRIC countries (Brazil, Russia, India and China) Ecosystem Assessment has shown that mankind is leading to a greater strain on scarce resources (and its activities) disrupts ecosystems. In concrete (animal proteins, food, water, agricultural land, terms, this means that animal species are dying etc.). As already mentioned in the introduction, the out and that these may also be species on which environmental impact in terms of CO2 emissions mankind is (partly) dependent, such as fish for and waste will only increase if we continue down the human consumption. It goes without saying that it is path we are now on. high time to make a change. Actors in the chain 10 S ustaina b ilit y. it s no longer optional
  11. 11. Chapter 2(agriculture, industry, retail and consumers) must More energy-efficient production processall be more efficient in how they handle scarce Unilever Benelux, as an example, decided to useresources. only sustainable energy in all of its factories and offices in the Netherlands and Belgium (via EssentChain approach in the Netherlands and via Electrabel in Belgium). By taking this step, Unilever hopes to lower its CO2 emissions by 31,000 tonnes. Another option for companies is to reduce the energy consumed during the production process. This applies to storage and to the production process itself, for example. Numerous suppliers have taken steps to ensure that their machinery uses less energy (and water and cleaning agents). On its website, Tetra Pak claims that over the last 30 years it has improved theIn this chapter, we will discuss several relevant topics energy efficiency of its filling machines by aboutsuch as energy, water, residual waste and (some) 60%.raw materials. In doing so, we will address initiativesfrom individual companies as well as partnerships Mild processing methods, such as pascalisation orbetween companies and/or other organisations PEF (pulsed electric field processing), are forms(NGOs). In some cases companies are able to of production which are still in their infancy, yetoperate on their own, for example, in reducing which score very high in terms of low energyenergy consumption at production locations. In the consumption. This type of preservation alsomajority of the cases, a chain approach is necessary, contributes to an improved economic value of theand to which all of the relevant partners in the chain product since it causes less degradation of micromust commit. and macro nutrients (compared with pasteurization). Pascalisation is now applied in the production of2.2 Energy/CO2 a select number of products such as fruit juices, meats and shellfish (lobsters and oysters).Reducing energy consumption is directly relatedto CO2 emissions. As was previously mentioned, a Re-use of dry gasesreduction in CO2 is necessary in order to prevent Optimising conventional processes, such asfurther global warming. A system has been set up at drying, can lead to substantial energy savings. AEU level whereby companies obtain emission rights. good example of this is the absorption dryer thatThis system aims to use financial elements (rights FrieslandCampina developed together with TNO.may be purchased and sold) to steer companies The dryer can be mounted on a spray tower andin the direction of limiting their CO2 emissions. ensures that the dry gases are re-used. This resultsCompanies can limit their energy consumption (and in a process that not only consumes less energyresulting CO2 emissions) in a variety of areas. (less heat loss), but also limits the loss of valuable ingredients, such as essential oils.sustaina b ilit y. it s no longer optional 11
  12. 12. Chapter 2 Another area in which producers can save energy (and thus reduce CO2 emissions) is distribution. One interesting initiative is the so-called ‘Green Order’. Several producers including Mars and Arla are already applying this system. Green Order means that producers report their CO2 emissions on their delivery notes; this is designed to make their customers more aware of their ordering behaviour. Frans van den Boomen, Outbound Logistics Manager at Mars Nederland: “The customers’ account managers lay the CO2 objectives on the table and make them negotiable. They look at the order sizes, the stock levels and the number of truck movements. We make it possible to measure the CO2 emissions which are linked to the filling and delivery The objective is to increase customer awareness, of the orders, and report this on the delivery note. and to encourage other customers to cooperate. With this concept we want to inspire companies to start using this system and to start combining Natural resources shipments with other suppliers, for example.” Apart from saving on their energy consumption, The transport sector itself has recognised the companies can also use natural resources, such importance of ‘cleaner’ transport for quite some as solar and wind energy. A less obvious option time. In 2002, Transport & Logistiek Nederland is geothermal energy. This type of energy uses a (an industry organisation) published the report well from which hot water (75 °C) is pumped up Licht op Groen. In this report, TLN explained how from a depth of approximately 2.5 kilometres and shippers and transport companies could reduce piped into a heat exchanger. their CO2 emissions (and other emissions such as Pieter Wijnen of the Limburg company Wijnen fine particulate matter). The TLN emphasises that Square Crops is already using geothermal energy. more efficient transport, in terms of a reduction in Using the new system, Wijnen expects to be the number of kilometres per kilo of product, will able to save a total of five to six million m3 of also save the sector money. In other words, the knife natural gas per year for the heating of three cuts both ways. sweet pepper greenhouses. “To be able to heat all of our greenhouses, we would actually have to Soft drink vending machines have two wells. But first we’ll wait and see if this There are some 80,000 (refrigerated) soft drink one is a success, and how fast we can recover machines or refrigerators in the Netherlands that our investment. Our business case has allowed are operated by Coca-Cola. According to the soft 15 years for this, and though this may seem like drink manufacturer, these machines account for a a long time, of course it also depends on the considerable proportion of the company’s energy current price of gas. Plus the life of this system consumption and CO2 emissions. Coca-Cola now is 70 years. In addition, we really do have to do wants to make this equipment more energy efficient. something to reduce global warming. If you can One of the things it is doing to achieve this goal is reduce the production of CO2 this way, that’s an to install a ‘sleep mode’ in the vending machines. added bonus.” This device responds to people’s movements and the opening of the door. If it is ‘quiet’ in and around the 12 S ustaina b ilit y. it s no longer optional
  13. 13. Chapter 2machine, the lighting will switch off and the intensity 2.3 Waterof the refrigeration will be adjusted automatically.The machines can also be programmed to Water, or rather a lack of water, is one of theautomatically switch off during the hours that most critical issues in the global agri-foodthe buildings in which they are placed are closed. business. Several years ago, José Lopez, ViceSystems with these types of modifications are an President of Operations for Nestlé, warned aboutamazing 35% more energy efficient according to the water shortages in certain regions in which thesoft drink manufacturer. multinational is active. Compared with other sectors, the agri-food sector is a huge guzzler. The main LED: the future? culprit is agriculture, which, on its own, accounts for approximately 70% of the fresh water consumption on earth. One cup of coffee = 140 litres of water Each product has a ‘water footprint’. This is the total quantity of water that is used during the production process (including the primary sector). In the case of coffee, we look at how much water Multi-layered cultivation in a completely condi- the plant uses and the quantities which are used tioned environment where nutrition and light are during harvesting, processing, transport, storage precisely tailored to the crops. The Center for and sales. This comes to a total of 140 litres for Growing Concepts (CGC), an initiative of PlantLab just one cup. and HAS Den Bosch, has succeeded in growing cucumbers without daylight, free from pesticides Product Litres of and by using much less water. Started from seeds, water required cucumbers, courgettes, aubergines and other Apples (1 kg) 700 plants were grown in an office over the past few months. All of the fruit-bearing crops flowered Beef (1 kg) 15.500 nicely and formed fruit. Bread (1 kg) 1.300 Rob Baan of Koppert Cress has already put the Cabbage (1 kg) 200 LED lamps and the multi-layered cultivation into Cheese (1 kg) 5.000 production. The use of the lamps, in combination Chicken (1 kg) 3.900 with the free daylight, has resulted in a major Chocolate (1 kg) 24.000 reduction in Koppert’s energy bill. Baan: “Our Coffee (125 ml) 140 energy consumption has dropped by about 80%. Lettuce (1 kg) 130 We won’t know the exact percentage until 2012. Milk (250 ml) 250 With the subsidy, we will recover this investment Pork (1 kg) 4.800 within five years. The greatest benefit of the LED Potatoes (1 kg) 250 lighting however is the improvement in product Rice (1 kg) 3.400 quality. The seedlings have more flavour and Tomatoes (1 kg) 180 colour.” Wine (125 ml) 120 The water footprint of food, Twente Water Centre, University Twente.sustaina b ilit y. it s no longer optional 13
  14. 14. Chapter 2 Rising water prices together with the fertilisers through a system Given the increase in population growth, the of pipes, hoses and drip units. This saves water, resulting water consumption and global warming partly by keeping evaporation from the ground to a (evaporation), the strain on the available sources minimum. Unilever also shares these initiatives with of water will only increase. The expectation is that other companies. In 2002, the Dutch multinational this will rise so high that the price of water will set up the SAl (Sustainable Agriculture Initiative), also increase substantially. This is bad news for together with Nestlé and Danone. Focusing on the industry, which must naturally pass this price numerous aspects of sustainability, this non-profit increase on to its customers. The news is just as bad organisation currently has more than 30 members. for people who live in areas where the pressure on The SAI is also open to small and medium-sized the water supply is high (and will only continue to companies; the membership fee they have to pay increase). Among other things, this means that the depends on their turnover. life expectancy will decrease, and infant mortality will rise. The local flora and fauna will also suffer Although encouraging farmers in arid areas to from the rising demand for water. reduce their water consumption is a commendable goal, it is subject to limitations. After all, the farmers Considering the economic and humanitarian interest or cooperatives are autonomous parties, and it is in a sufficient supply of fresh water in certain open to question whether they even want to invest geographic regions (including Italy, India, and South in other irrigation methods. America), various multinationals have started initiatives in which they educate local farmers or Grolsch and Gulpener cooperatives on efficient irrigation methods. Lakes running dry There are numerous lakes in the world that are slowly running dry, and this doesn’t just apply to lakes in Africa or Russia. In the U.S., Lake Superior, the world’s largest freshwater reservoir, was at its lowest point three years ago. Because the average water temperature has risen by 4.5 degrees over the last 20 years, the surface water evaporates much more readily. This phenomenon combined with the long periods of drought has led This issue is not at play when companies aim to do to an extremely low water level. This has naturally something about the water consumption within their had consequences for the various plant and factory walls, for example, during the production animal species living in the area around the lake. process. Various companies, such as brewery sector companies Grolsch and Gulpener, have made drastic reductions in their water consumption over Drip irrigation the past year. A subsidiary of SAB Miller, Grolsch Unilever has set up a project in Italy that has helped aims to reduce its water consumption by 35% per spinach farmers make the switch to drip irrigation litre of beer by 2015 (as compared with its 2008 systems. In this type of irrigation, water is circulated consumption levels). The brewer plans to achieve 14 S ustaina b ilit y. it s no longer optional
  15. 15. Chapter 2this target by putting a biological waste water allowed. Together with the Aa and Maas Districttreatment system into operation that removes 80 to Water Board, Peka Kroef is now going to study how85% of the contamination from waste water, and by it can reduce the phosphate flow in particular. Oneimplementing water- saving projects for the rinsing of the possibilities is a system in which phosphatemachines and crate washers. can be precipitated as struvite. This last component can then be re-used for fertiliser.There are a few different ways to save water duringthe crate-washing process. One system that is used Companies can also save on their waterin the meat industry is based on a cascade concept. consumption during the production process itself.This concept involves using the same water for the There are suppliers of lubricants that offer anthree steps involved in the process: pre-rinsing, alternative for water and soap lubrication for certaincleaning and rinsing. In concrete terms, this means machine components.that the rinsing water is used during the pre-rinsephase. Heritage The question that many companies ask is “Why doRe-use we need to conserve water in a country where thereAnother way to save water is to rework waste water, is no real threat to the supply of fresh water?” Thewhich will allow companies to use the same volume answer is simple: treating natural resources in aof water several times. Peka Kroef wants to start re- responsible manner, even if they are available inusing waste water after it has undergone a reverse abundance, is an integral part of a sustainabilityosmosis treatment. The potato processing company policy. In addition, the European Water Frameworkwants to use this water for washing the potatoes in Directive encourages the sustainable use of water,its facility. and the Netherlands is therefore no exception. Among other things, this directive states that waterOne disadvantage of this approach is that the is not an ordinary commodity, but that it is part ofremaining waste water (30% of the original our cultural heritage. Given the deterioration in bothflow) contains a higher concentration of certain quality and quantity of the groundwater in the EU,substances (sulphate, chloride, phosphate) than is this heritage must be protected.sustaina b ilit y. it s no longer optional 15
  16. 16. Chapter 2 2.4 Residual waste seems to be anything but a simple task. Companies “Consumers and industry throw away € 3 billion offering residual waste often need partner each year.” This headline caused quite a commotion companies to treat and process these waste flows. a few years ago. While part of the world population If these flows are used for products for human or is suffering from starvation, the rich West is animal consumption, the companies must take into throwing food and valuable components onto the account compliance with the legislation that is in compost heap. There is simply no clear relationship force. In the case of products destined for animal between food that is thrown away in welfare states consumption, the relevant legislation became much and the lack of food elsewhere in the world. Even more stringent as a result of the BSE crisis. This can if ‘we’ reduce waste, this does not mean that the limit the number of application possibilities. starvation problem in poorer countries will be solved. Finally, there must also be a customer for a particular residual waste flow. This means that the Return on residual waste is too low companies that supply and process this residual One thing is crystal clear: businesses must take a waste must involve potential end users in the smarter approach to how they deal with residual upgrading of the waste. It goes without saying that waste. In other words, if companies could find other the increased value of these flows must offer certain destinations for their waste than the rubbish dump, advantages (price, functionality) compared to more they could assign a higher value to residual waste, commonly available flows. both for consumers and themselves. Researchers at Wageningen UR have concluded that companies in the food industry do not derive high enough returns Bakers against wasted bread from their residual waste. Of the ten million tonnes One good example of a sector-wide approach is that the industry generates annually, approximately the Broodnodig project. In this project, the bakery 80% is used for feed, and 20% for soil improvers. industry finds another destination for the annual In practice, to increase the value of residual waste residual waste flow of 70 million kilos of bread. This is often processed and used in low-quality applications such as breadcrumbs or pig feed. No Waste Dinner One alternative is packaging materials (bread In 2011, the No Waste Dinner was held in paper and bread plastic). These uses double the Maarssen. At this event, where top chefs value of stale bread from eight to sixteen cents prepared dishes with ‘rejected’ ingredients per kilo. (including mozzarella whey and stale bread), In the sub-project FlourPower, bio-energy is discussions were held about the food that is generated using stale bread. Two loaves of bread wasted in this country. The No Waste Dinner can produce up to 3 KwH of energy, and do so was the kick-off for the No Waste Network efficiently. (www.nowastenetwork.nl). Consisting of There are also plans in place to limit overpro- government organisations and businesses, this duction by improving the coordination between network aims to achieve a 20% reduction in the ordering systems of supermarkets and food waste by 2015. bakeries, as well as plans for transforming stale Various stakeholders can exchange ideas and bread into a snack product. tips on the website and via social media. 16 S ustaina b ilit y. it s no longer optional
  17. 17. Chapter 2Biocascading multi-national’s expectations. The concept alsoCompanies looking to upgrade or valorise their had to endure the necessary criticism from theresidual waste should, ideally, first study the highest Voedingscentrum (Netherlands Nutrition Centre)possible upgrading (read: the highest price per kilo). and the NGO Foodwatch, among others, since theWageningen UR has developed the biocascading value that Unilever attached to the product - an easymodel for this very purpose. This model more or less way for people to get half the recommended dailyprescribes that economic and environmental factors amount of fruit and vegetables - was challenged by(CO2 and water consumption) should be included in these organisations.a decision model. According to this model, everyresidual waste flow should be able to be ranked. The The question remains whether it was this criticismhighest economic value is pharmaceuticals, followed that ultimately finished off Knorr Vie. Accordingby food, feed and bio-fuel. In the dairy and meat to Unilever, this was not the case. However, it is asectors, this way of thinking has been commonplace wise lesson for producers interested in upgradingfor some time now. One example is VION Food residual waste to a consumer product. Ultimately,Group, which has set up a separate activity, Sonac, the value must also be obvious to consumers.the goal of which is to give animal by-products the After all, they will not buy a product because anhighest possible value. Sonac processes pig and optimally upgraded residual value is better for thecattle blood to produce high-functional proteins, environment, but because the product offers themamong other products, which are applied in the an added value.pharmaceutical industry. In its processed form,blood may also be used as a colouring agent, or as abinder for compound meat products. Finally, blood is Cradle-to-cradlealso used as a source of protein in animal feed and Cradle-to-cradle is a concept that was thefertilisers. brainchild of William McDonough and Michael Braungart. Both authors introduced this conceptKnorr Vie in their book published in 2002, Cradle to Cradle:In the dairy sector, some residual waste flows Remaking the Way We Make Things. The ideahave even evolved to become main flows. While behind C2C is that products, including food andconsumer dairy products have become increasingly packaging, can be re-used after their first lifemore commoditised, the isolated components have cycle.increased in value. Immunoglobins, for example, are The difference between this and recycling is thatused in toothpaste, and peptides, produced from C2C products must not suffer from any loss incasein, are used in medicines. quality. Examples include plastic bottles recycled to make flower pots, and then later as bollards.Pharmaceutical applications are of course the Holy Ultimately, these are burned; this, however, isGrail. A consumer product that is manufactured cradle-to-grave. In the C2C scenario, the plasticusing residual waste can also be quite a lucrative bottles would be able to be used ad infinitum as…undertaking. In 2006, Unilever even won the bottles.prestigious Wheel of Retail award – a retail prize –for its Knorr Vie product line, vegetable and fruitjuices produced using residual waste. From biomass to packaging materials Apart from food products, residual waste flowsUnilever has since taken Knorr Vie off the shelves from food also offer possibilities for non-foodin the Netherlands because sales fell below the applications, such as packaging, or bio-energy.sustaina b ilit y. it s no longer optional 17
  18. 18. Chapter 2 The company Avantium is active in the processing to a disruption of the ecological balance as a result of biomass, sugars and other carbohydrates, of deforestation, or disruptions to the soil and water converting them into bioplastics and biofuel. In balance. In the case of soybeans, the global demand 2009, the company made a deal with Cosun in has nearly doubled over the last ten years. Used in which the latter party will be selecting and isolating food for human consumption as well as animal feed, suitable components from residual agricultural soybeans is profiting primarily from the dramatically waste. Avantium will be working on a chemical- increased demand for animal proteins. Confronted catalytic production process to convert these with an increasing domestic demand for animal processed residual waste flows into packaging and proteins (meat), China is now the world’s largest bio-energy. importer. In the case of packaging, bioplastics offer a more The largest suppliers of soybeans are located sustainable alternative to conventional packaging on the American continents: the U.S., Brazil and which is manufactured on the basis of petroleum. Argentina. As a result of the expansion of acreage This reduces our dependence on petroleum, and has in these countries, valuable natural areas such as a favourable effect on reducing CO2 emissions. Since the Amazon or certain savannah landscapes in bioplastics can readily be composted, the burden Brazil and Paraguay (Chaco) are now endangered. on the environment is much less than that from Although the percentage of the Amazon region that conventional plastics. is used for soybean cultivation is limited (1 to 2%), there is still an indirect impact in terms of former 2.5 Raw materials: soybeans grasslands being used for soybean cultivation. Since livestock farming must then move in the direction The cultivation of crops can have a considerable of the savannah and rainforest regions, these areas impact on the environment. This definitely applies to now face real threats. countries where the expansion of acreage can lead 18 S ustaina b ilit y. it s no longer optional
  19. 19. Chapter 2 meet. These guidelines are embodied in a standard Amazon Moratorium which players in the chain must follow in order to In June 2006, together with the European qualify for a certificate. Conditions are stipulated for industry and social organisations such as farming practices, treatment and remuneration of Greenpeace, Brazilian soybeans processing employees and dealing with land rights. companies and traders decided to stop buying soybeans grown on land that was deforested in the Amazon rainforest after 24 July 2006 for a Cono chooses sustainable feed minimum period of two years. This agreement It is not only the large multinationals which have is also known as the Amazon Moratorium. In the access to sustainable soybeans for use in animal interim, the protected areas are being mapped feed. Cono and Ben & Jerry’s, for example, have out, an adequate monitoring system is being set signed a cooperative agreement with Solidaridad up, and regulations for land use in the Amazon and Stichting Natuur en Milieu (Netherlands are being drafted. Society for Nature and the Environment). This contract provides for assistance to local soybeans cultivators for investments in sustainableHuman rights cultivation methods and help with certification.Apart from environmental aspects such as They can also be sure of an honest price for theirdeforestation, biodiversity and soil and water products.balance, there are other factors that play a role The project is part of the four-year old Soyin the cultivation of soybeans. Examples include Producer Support Initiative (SOYPSI), an interna-employees’ and land rights, and the well-being of tional programme set up by Solidaridad, the WWFthe indigenous population. In some areas, the right and the Round Table on Responsible Soy.of ownership is not laid down in the law, causingsituations in which various groups can make aclaim to land. In some cases, these disputes are Controversialaccompanied by violence towards and intimidation This document is also designed to provide thoseof the local population. buyers with the guarantee that the soybeansGiven the fact that the Netherlands is the largest they are buying were cultivated in a sustainableimporter of soybeans (second only to China), manner. Since the demand for sustainable soybeansthe business community can fulfil a pivotal role exceeds the supply, a transitional arrangement hasin making the soybean chain more sustainable. been set up in which customers initially guaranteeSeveral of these companies, including Cargill, sustainable cultivation by purchasing certificatesFrieslandCampina and Unilever, have joined (see the Green Energy principle). Ultimately, thisforces within the context of the Round Table on will cause supply to rise, thus enabling customers toResponsible Soybeans (RoRS) association. This is actually purchase sustainable soybeans.an international group; the Taskforce Duurzame None of this means that the RoRS programmeSoja (Task Force for Sustainable Soybeans) was has gone unchallenged. In early 2011, severalset up specifically for the Dutch market. Within the farmers and environmental organisations raisedRound Table, which in addition to food producers objections to the standard. According to Ninaalso includes cultivators, processors and NGOs as its Holland of Corporate Europe Observatory (CEO),members, guidelines have been drawn up specifying a pan-European organisation that investigatesthe criteria sustainable soybeans (cultivation) must corporate lobbies, “the RTRS criteria are weak. Thesustaina b ilit y. it s no longer optional 19
  20. 20. Chapter 2 expansion of soybean monocultures can simply 2.6 Regional products: local is beautiful continue at the cost of small farming companies and ecosystems. Large-scale spraying with herbicides Local products play a meaningful role in making and the resulting damage to public health and the food more sustainable. As a result of the discussion environment simply continues under the RTRS on food miles, products which are cultivated or criteria,” according to CEO. produced close to home were suddenly portrayed in a positive light. In the opinion of CEO, the Nederlandse Melkvee- houders (Dutch dairy farmers association), Friends Beans flown in from Egypt, strawberries from Spain, of the Earth and a few other parties, the RTRS and so on and so forth: since consumers want to standard is a typical example of ‘green-washing’. be able to put seasonal products on their plates all This is a practice in which companies claim that they year-round, these products are transported over are taking measures to protect the environment, but many hundreds of kilometres. It goes without saying these measures are not sufficient. We will return to that transport brings with it CO2 emissions which this topic in the chapter on consumers. can be added to the price of the product. In view of the fact that the distance that food, GMO responsible? raw materials and fresh products must travel has The ‘case’ of sustainable soybeans illustrates that increased considerably over the last 25 years sustainability is a matter about which differences (as a result of the globalisation of trade, among in insight can easily arise. Take genetically other things), the discussion about food miles modified soybeans for example. The RTRS has developed. This has meanwhile diminished to remains non-committal in this regard: ‘Based some degree, due in part to studies which have on their customers’ wishes, the participating appeared showing that the production/cultivation companies are considering whether or not to organisations are taking the lion’s share of the supply products made using genetically modified responsibility for CO2 emissions, thus making the soybeans.’ In other words, it is possible for GMO transport factor less of a weighty one. soybeans to qualify for a certificate. For some NGOs, this is unacceptable; they claim that the Man and the environment use of genetically modified soybeans leads to Whatever the case may be, local products are now monocultures. here to stay in the supermarket. They are also being In the meantime, industry is also putting in its positioned as sustainable products in terms of two cents. According to Peter Brabeck, former marketing. Take Gulpener, for example, that brews CEO of Nestlé, a ban on GMO crops in food is its beer using only regional ingredients. not only unscientific, but also immoral. In his view, it is simply not possible to feed the world The reasoning behind this is that these products without transgenic crops. It appears to be a make a contribution to the regional economy. devil’s dilemma (or at least in Brabeck’s eyes): They also usually contribute to the preservation ‘should part of the world’s population suffer from of typical cultural landscapes, and to improving starvation or should the environment (biodi- the environment. These are arguments that easily versity) benefit?’ win supporters in a time of globalisation and giant, anonymous companies. 20 S ustaina b ilit y. it s no longer optional
  21. 21. Chapter 2Local products in the Netherlands also have their vegetable proteins has been prompted partly byown quality mark which has been developed by environmental considerations, and partly by reasonsthe Stichting Streekeigen Producten Nederland related to health. Generally speaking, the Dutch(Foundation for Regional Products of the consume more animal proteins (and protein inNetherlands). This seal of approval, Erkend general) than they actually need. Consumption ofStreekproduct (certified local product), places animal protein also means consumption of saturateddemands on the raw materials, the processing fats. The environmental impact of animal proteinslocation, environment (no crop protection products and the quantities of water, land and vegetableused, agro-biodiversity), animal welfare and proteins that are necessary to produce them hasreduction in transport. also been documented extensively. Alternative Gijs Yes, it is true, ‘we’ (read: the rich West) could The umbrella quality mark ‘Gijs’ was an idea consume fewer animal proteins. However, this option developed by Streekselecties BV. An initiative does not seem very marketable. The concept of of Agro en Co and ZLTO, among others, this consuming less is not high on most consumers’ list company was set up to bridge the gap between of priorities. Meat substitutes are one alternative; small, local products and supermarket retail these are also referred to as Novel Protein Foods. chains. According to director Rene Bink, this These products attempt to imitate the taste and gap developed because retailers paid too much texture of primarily meat-based products. These attention to name brands and their own private- days, there are numerous options on the market label ranges. “Even if they wanted to, consumers which may be used in combination with meat could hardly find any local products in their (compound products) or as ‘stand-alones’. supermarkets.” There are currently about 100 products sold According to MVO Nederland (the CSR association under the Gijs label at the Plus supermarkets of the Netherlands), suppliers are having increasing in the Netherlands. At the Deen supermarkets, success in developing meat substitutes which more the range is sold under the in-house brand, Het closely approach the real thing, in terms of flavour Beste van Deen. According to Bink, taste is the and texture. One of these products, ‘Meatless’, won most important distinguishing factor for the Gijs a taste contest in 2011, even beating 100% meat products. Consumers have to be able to taste products. Beeter van Ojah, a 100% vegetable-based the traditional aspect of a Gijs product. The story product, has a fibre-like texture, giving it the same behind the product - the origin and/or the method ‘bite’ as real meat. of production/cultivation - is also important.2.7 Protein transitionProtein transition - the shift from animal tovegetable proteins - has been an important themefor dozens of years now. In recent years, thisdevelopment has gained in importance on politicaland social agendas. The desirability of a shift tosustaina b ilit y. it s no longer optional 21
  22. 22. People (cacao case study)Chapter 3 3.1 Introduction Since that time, numerous players in the cacao chain have made their sourcing practices more In 2007, journalist Teun van der Keuken, also known sustainable. The manufacturer Verkade, for example, from the Dutch television show Keuringsdienst van made the switch to sustainable cacao in 2008, Waarde (Food Inspection Department), launched under the Max Havelaar quality mark. Another the Tony Chocolonely line on the market. With this player, De Ruyter (sweet sandwich toppings), chose chocolate brand, Van der Keuken wanted to show, the Utz quality mark in 2010 to make its chocolate among other things, that most chocolate processing flakes and sprinkles more sustainable. In 2009, Mars, companies and producers could not prove that they one of the largest producers of chocolate products incorporate ‘slave-free’ cacao in their final products. worldwide, announced that by 2020, it intends to use exclusively sustainable cacao in its products. One of the first products was a chocolate letter under the Tony Chocolonely brand, which bore More than just (child) slavery the Max Havelaar quality mark. Van der Keuken’s The issue of human rights and fair pay for farmers initiative, in cooperation with Oxfam Novib, has been pushed to the foreground in recent demonstrated that a small-scale enterprise can truly years. The above campaign of Van der Keuken’s make an impact. focused primarily on forced labour, and pressure 2 4 2 S ustaina b ilit y. it s no Zlonger optional out op de kaart
  23. 23. Chapter 3from various NGOs have placed this matter higher 3.3 Excessively low priceson the social agenda. And, of course, it is not only The economies of scale and profitability of theseabout slavery or child labour. Aspects such as a multinationals stand in stark contrast to the positionsafe work environment, the optimisation of yield of the millions of farmers and employees who have(quantitatively and qualitatively), fair pay or the to earn a living from the harvest of cacao beans.promotion of a healthy socio-economic climate These are usually small farmers who have two to(education, political stability) all play an important five hectares at their disposal. Since the productionrole. per hectare is also still far below the mark, these farmers and their families lead a marginal existence.The above sub-areas will all be discussed in thischapter as they relate to the cacao chain. It Price structure of a chocolate bar.goes without saying that these sub-areas are all Source: Newsletter FNV Bondgenoten 2009. traderinterconnected; education, for example, leadsto higher productivity. This in turn yields higher manufacturer supermarket r + ta olesale rt , profi ge, tradeincome, thus providing farmers with the time and nspomoney for investments in seeds, machines or h x t, tra in W aeducation, for example. processor Stor Marg buye3.2 Cacao: an exploration of the market ginThe world market for cacao is approximately 3.5 sts mar Profi ateria +million tonnes per year. Important producers in t ma ls+ g co osts p rk-u iler + osts ketinthe primary sector are the Ivory Coast and Ghana. ion c ods Reta 2% ng c mOver 70% of the global production originates d go Mar iffer roduct rs 3, raw essi ishefrom West Africa; other exporting countries are rme ent P Proc i-finIndonesia, Brazil and Ecuador. The aforementioned to fa t semvolume is processed to create consumer products of d oing profi(chocolate and candy bars) and semi-finished hase re ggoods for sale to the industry. With a processing Purc Shacapacity of 25% (globally), the Netherlands fulfils apivotal role in this chain. Large processors such asCargill, and producers (Mars) have a presence in the An additional problem is that the African countriesNetherlands. This production (both semi-finished have liberalised the cacao market. This means thatgoods as well as consumer products) is then sold the price is determined on the futures markets inboth within the Netherlands and abroad. London and New York. Since the farmers are at the beginning of the production chain, they haveOne noteworthy factor is that the cacao sector a weak negotiating position with respect to theis consolidated to an extreme degree: the world intermediaries. Additionally, the farmers lack themarket for grinders is dominated by ADM and insight into the chain they would need to be able toCargill. Barry Callebaut, producer of chocolate for demand a higher price per kilo. In spite of the factfinal processing companies, is also a multinational. that the market demand for cacao has grown (and isProducers of final products are usually multi-billion expected to continue to grow), according to Oxfamdollar companies such as Nestlé, Mars and Kraft. Novib, the farmers’ position has not improved as asustaina b ilit y. it s no longer optional 23
  24. 24. Chapter 3 result. This is not only because the prices they are getting for their products are too low, but also as a ILO result of disappointing harvests (plant diseases) and The ILO (International Labor Organisation) the lack of a professional approach (low degree of identifies several standards which are designed organisation and not enough knowledge of market to ensure that labourers are treated properly and and price information). paid fairly for their efforts. These standards have achieved the status of universal human rights. 3.4 Inexpensive or free labour The standards can be divided into four groups: • the right to be a member of an organisation Since farmers/plantation owners are able to (trade union, professional association), and the influence the labour factor, some of them rely on right to participate in collective negotiations less expensive workers; in other words, children or in • the elimination of forced and/or mandatory some cases, (child) slaves. The use of child slaves by labour cacao growers in Sierra Leone and the Ivory Coast • the elimination of child labour has been documented extensively by some media • the elimination of discrimination in the labour channels in the past, including CBS News. A negative market side effect of this is that in the past, conflicts were financed with the proceeds from these activities. While there are many countries that have legis- lation in place, some of it based on ILO standards Apart from slavery, child labour is also a frequently which regulate the factors above, there are also occurring problem. These children usually work countries that prefer to ignore this. Companies excessively long days, and do physically demanding, acquiring raw materials in these countries dangerous work (carrying heavy loads, working with can have their suppliers audited and certified pesticides, etc.). Since these children spend nearly under the SA8000 standard. Set up by Social all their time working, there is no time for education. Accountability International (SAI), this interna- This means that these children cannot develop, and tional standard is based on such conventions as get trapped in poorly paid, unskilled jobs. the UN declaration on human rights and various ILO conventions. Another problem is the marginal position of women in cacao cultivation. They play an important role in the processing of the cacao beans after the 3.5 Sector on life support harvest, a crucial step that affects the final quality of products. These ‘invisible cacao farmers’ also One result of the aforementioned developments have to keep a household running. These roles are is that the primary cacao sector is slowly being however not acknowledged by men; they are still the eroded. Farmers do not get paid enough for their ones who determine what happens with the income cacao beans, and as a result, do not have enough earned from the cacao. It is usually also primarily resources to invest in new plants or (environmentally men who own the land. Women often inherit only a friendly) technology which would enable them to small part of the land; buying land (via a bank loan) raise their production and quality. is nearly impossible. For this reason, many farmers make the switch to crops which will allow them to earn enough to live on. The remaining cacao farmers are forced to fall 24 S ustaina b ilit y. it s no longer optional
  25. 25. Chapter 3back on overcropping, causing them to ultimately 3.6 Quality marksexhaust their acreage. The consequences of thesedevelopments are already visible. In a growth Players such as Mars have the economies of scalemarket, an annual 2 to 3% worldwide, production and the know-how necessary to conduct researchis declining in West Africa by 2% a year. Howard into cacao plants which are resistant to certainShapiro, chief agronomist at Mars, had already diseases, or to develop cultivation methods whichissued a warning about cacao shortages on the lead to higher yields. This does not mean howeverworld market if the farmers in Ivory Coast continued that smaller manufacturers cannot exercise anyto exhaust their land. influence on the process whereby cacao farmers (such as those in West Africa, among others) areThis is why companies, such as the players offered a more sustainable future. As mentionedmentioned earlier, have committed to making previously, Van der Keuken started his own brand,cacao cultivation more sustainable in recent years. together with Oxfam Novib. Although a smallerAccording to Shapiro, the significantly improved player in a global context, Verkade incorporated Faircacao cultivation industry in Brazil could serve as a Trade cacao beans (under the Max Havelaar qualitymodel for the changes in the pipeline in West Africa. mark) into all of its chocolate products.In Brazil, cacao cultivation has been elevated to aconsiderably higher level by taking steps such as There are currently four quality marks for certifiedmaking nutrient-deficient soil suitable for cacao cacao ‘on the market’ that are associated withcultivation. Since the yield from the new cacao standards related to man and the environment. Theplants is relatively higher, farmers can work with scope of these standards varies from one qualityfewer plants and part of the acreage may be used mark to another. Some quality marks, for example,for other crops. The farmers are less dependent on do not apply a minimum price to farmers to protectthe prices of a crop as a result, and in the event of them from price fluctuations on the global market.an emergency (failed harvest), they can consumethe other crops themselves. Max Havelaar The Max Havelaar Foundation is a quality mark organisation Man and the environment that focuses on small farmers It goes without saying that the aspects of man in developing countries. The and the environment are closely linked to one foundation aims to provide another. This is only logical, after all, since man is farmers’ cooperatives with direct dependent to a great degree on the environment access to the Western market in which he lives. Insufficient or poor quality under good trade conditions, or Fair Trade. This drinking water, the presence of pesticides in the fair-trade mark not only guarantees that the raw soil, on crops or in the drinking water, or soil materials are cultivated under good ecological and erosion have consequences for the well-being of social conditions, but also that the farmers have the population. For this reason, well-known quality received a fair price for them. Part of the premium marks such as Utz Certified or Rainforest Alliance, goes to the local community. apply standards when it comes to man and the See: www.maxhavelaar.nl. environment.sustaina b ilit y. it s no longer optional 25
  26. 26. Chapter 3 EKO Utz Certified The EKO quality mark is Utz Certified is a quality intended for products that mark for sustainable are grown without the use products such as coffee, of artificial fertilisers, crop cacao and tea. The farmers protection products or affiliated with this mark chemical additives. These profit from better quality, farmers respect biodiversity cost effectiveness and and the natural environment in the cultivation of productivity by implementing sustainable methods their cacao. Organic farmers usually receive a higher on their farms. Farmers negotiate a premium price since the market will pay a higher price for in addition to the market price that buyers pay these products. A fixed premium does not apply as an acknowledgement of the added value of to this mark. The organic products produced or Utz certification. Farmers do not receive price processed in the Netherlands are certified by Skal. guarantees. See: www.utzcertified.org See: www.skal.nl Rainforest Alliance Rainforest Alliance is a quality mark that was developed by environmental organisations in Latin and North America. This organisation’s objective is to protect ecosystems and the people and animals that depend on them. In order to be allowed to bear the Rainforest Alliance logo, farmers must satisfy a variety of requirements with regard to nature conservation, water management and forestry management. In addition, the labourers working on these plantations must be paid at least minimum wage and have good employment benefits, including a safe living environment. Rainforest Alliance does not give farmers price guarantees. See: www.rainforestalliance.org 26 S ustaina b ilit y. it s no longer optional
  27. 27. sustaina b ilit y. it s no longer optional 27
  28. 28. Animal (welfare)Chapter 4 4.1 Introduction coming years. Supermarket chain Albert Heijn’s decision to sell only animal-friendly pork starting The attention and concern for animal welfare is mid 2011 will undoubtedly lead to a further increase not something that just developed out of the blue. in the market share of animal-friendly meat in This topic has been on the social and political map supermarkets. since the early 1980s. In the Nota Rijksoverheid en Dierenbescherming (Animal Welfare Policy This section provides a brief summary of the most Document) published in 1981, the government important issues at work in the various sectors. This acknowledged the intrinsic as well as the economic will be followed by a focus on the various initiatives, value of animals. This policy document ultimately brand concepts and quality marks, and finally, a led to an amendment to the Dutch Animal Health presentation of the market figures. Act, which was later renamed the Animal Health and Well-being Act in 1993. Well-being vs. the environment: conflicting It may be said that over the last 10 to 15 years, interests animal welfare has grown to become an issue which Sustainability is and will remain a complex neither the primary and processing sector nor the subject. Take animal welfare versus the supermarket retail trade can avoid any longer. A environment, for instance. According to a report perfect example of this is the castration of piglets from the Planbureau voor de Leefomgeving (without the use of an anaesthetic) to prevent so- (Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency), called ‘boar taint’ from occurring in pork. Thanks in fine particulate emissions have been increasing part to the campaign carried out by the Wakker Dier since 2004. The assessment agency blames this organisation protesting this method, measures have increase on the growth in the free-range chicken been taken to prevent this procedure. In addition contingent, among other factors. The agency also to castration under anaesthetic, detection methods asserts that the production of ammonia from have also been developed for application before animal-friendly poultry farms and the land use and after slaughter which can reduce the chance of (per chicken) are higher than the more standard buying a pork cutlet with boar taint to a minimum. farms. There are now various products on the market (chicken, pork, beef, eggs) which have been 4.2 Most important issues produced in an animal-friendly manner. The market share of these products, approximately 3%, is still The problem with animal welfare is that there rather modest at present. It may be assumed that is no clear definition of this available. There are this percentage will increase considerably in the various definitions in use, each of which is based 28 S ustaina b ilit y. it s no longer optional
  29. 29. Chapter 4on developing insights and which apply diverse The passages below address the most prominentcriteria. An essential document in this discussion is welfare problems affecting dairy cows, calves, pigsthe report from the Brambeel Commission, which and poultry. Initiatives are also discussed which areformulates the five freedoms for animals. These are designed to eliminate these problems once and forthe following: all.• freedom from hunger, thirst or improper nutrition• freedom from thermal and physical discomfort Pasturing• freedom from pain, injury or disease According to an analysis performed by Wageningen• freedom from fear and chronic stress UR, the most important welfare problems found• freedom to be able to display natural, species- among dairy cows are the pressure of infection specific behavioural patterns at the farm (mastitis and foot rot), hard, wet and slippery floors; and a lack of exercise. In addition,As is set out in the Animal Welfare policy document, the aspects of stall climate and resting comfort areanimals who are suffering from pain or stress are not always satisfactory.not necessarily cases of ‘poor animal well-being’.What is relevant here is the frequency, duration One factor that can increase dairy cows’ freedomand intensity of stress, pain and other discomforts of movement is pasturing, in which cows spend atresulting from human intervention and actions. least six hours per day in the pasture for a minimumThe reasoning is that pain and stress also occur in period of 120 days. The ‘pasturing season’ runs fromnature, and are therefore not always avoidable. This the spring to the autumn. In 2005, an average ofalso applies to transport to the abattoir. This stress 85% of the dairy cows grazed in the pasture, quite acan however be reduced by loading the animals in a significant percentage. This percentage did decreasemore careful manner. because dairy farms have grown in size (numbersustaina b ilit y. it s no longer optional 29