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Multiple Sources, Dimensions, and Strategies of Degrowth


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Multiple Sources, Dimensions, and Strategies of Degrowth

  1. 1. Multiple Sources, Dimensions, and Strategies of Degrowth François Schneider Research & Degrowth ICTA, UAB [email_address] WWW.DEGROWTH.NET
  2. 2. Outline 1- What is degrowth? 2- Why Degrowth?  The multiple Sources. 3- Rebound Effect – Jevons Paradox 4- What Grows/Degrows? The multiple Dimensions 5- How to Degrow? For the process of transformation: the multiple Strategies.
  3. 3. What is degrowth? A democratic collective decision , a project with the ambition of voluntarily getting closer to ecological sustainability and socio-environmental justice worldwide. Cleaner Production 18 (2010) 511–51 It means LESS
  4. 4. <ul>Clarifications for Sustainable Degrowth </ul><ul><li>The first degrowth: degrowth of inequity
  5. 5. Process of transformation
  6. 6. Lower actual and potential consumption and production
  7. 7. Diverse : generalisable but unique lifestyles
  8. 8. Personal and collective at local and global levels
  9. 9. Deeper democracy
  10. 10. NOT a universal concept
  11. 11. Avoiding crises
  12. 12. Transition to multi-dimentional mildly-fluctuating
  13. 13. sustainable state
  14. 14. Taking account of global consequences
  15. 15. Innovative (frugal innovation) </li></ul>
  16. 16. <ul>These concepts do not deal with limits to growth </ul><ul><li>Green growth
  17. 17. Green new deal
  18. 18. Sustainable development
  19. 19. Technical Progress
  20. 20. Cleaner production
  21. 21. Industrial Ecology
  22. 22. Sustainable consumption
  23. 23. Higher quality of life
  24. 24. Improvement of well-being </li></ul>
  25. 25. Conference objectives <ul><li>Get out of the schizophrenia between the green/social discourse and the growth policies
  26. 26. Get into concrete propositions on the political and personal level </li></ul>
  27. 27. Different Degrowth Sources a- Culturalism : Challenge to profit making, development and uniformity. Latouche, Rist, Caillé etc. b- Meaning of life: Bringing meaning in our relation to the world. Thoreau, Gandhi, Rabhi etc. c- Democracy : Degrowth for democratization. Illich, Fotopoulos, Cheynet etc d- Bioeconomy : Degrowth of exploitation of natural ressources, Smith-Bleek, Georgescu-Roegen etc. e- Ecology : Defense of ecosystems. Odum, etc... f- Egalitarism : Degrowth of inequality & exploitation of other humans. Kempf, Sachs, Ariès etc. Source: inspired from Flipo Fabrice
  28. 28. <ul>Innovations </ul><ul>We can travel further </ul><ul>Reduced fuel costs </ul><ul>More fuel efficient cars </ul><ul>Rebound </ul><ul>Efficiency gain </ul><ul>Savings can be reallocated to more production or consumption </ul><ul>Reduced costs </ul><ul>Efficiency </ul><ul>Rebound effect </ul>
  29. 29. En 1760 En 1910 for 1kwh for 1kwh  Energy efficiency reduces Coal consumption?
  30. 30. William Stanley JEVONS in 1865 “  The very contrary is the truth”
  31. 31.  From 1760 to 1910: production of energy from coal increase by a factor 2000. Increase of production was made possibly by the increase of the multidimensional capacity to exploit coal  From 1760 to 1910: consumption of coal per kwh reduce by a factor 50  In 1760 energy production from coal is limited by prohibitive costs. Source: Victor
  32. 32. The reduction of exploitation of natural resources and humans needs: Degrowth of the capacities to exploit them  What should degrow?
  33. 33. Rebound strategies
  34. 34. Rebound strategies <ul><li>Technological efficiency
  35. 35. Labor productivity
  36. 36. Extractive efficiency
  37. 37. Infrastructure optimization
  38. 38. Information efficiency
  39. 39. Efficiency in fulfilling needs
  40. 40. Deregulation </li></ul>
  41. 41. <ul>Growth policy </ul><ul>Growth policy relax collective limits to production and consumption </ul><ul>€ </ul><ul>€ </ul><ul>€ </ul><ul>€ </ul><ul>€ </ul><ul>€ </ul><ul>€ </ul><ul>€ </ul><ul>€ </ul><ul>€ </ul><ul>€ </ul><ul>€ </ul><ul>€ </ul><ul>€ </ul><ul>€ </ul><ul>€ </ul><ul>€ </ul><ul>€ </ul><ul>€ </ul><ul>€ </ul><ul>€ </ul><ul>Limits to consumption and production are reached </ul><ul>€ </ul><ul>€ </ul><ul>€ </ul><ul>€ </ul><ul>€ </ul><ul>€ </ul>
  42. 42. <ul>Growth policies </ul><ul><li>Increase liquidities, grant rights to make money to banks, capital flow, export policies; reduce value of natural resources or person work
  43. 43. Increase working hours, later retirement, overwork, sunday/night work, suppress speed limits, longer opening hours...
  44. 44. New mining areas, new resources, subsidies to extraction, ...
  45. 45. More roads, airport, industry, internet, urbanisation...
  46. 46. Barriers to mutualisation, less property free...
  47. 47. Deregulation
  48. 48. Advertising, rebound unawareness, externalising…
  49. 49. Fiscal paradises, bank secrets.. </li></ul>
  50. 50. Money Infrastructures Access to Natural Resources Unawareness Unsatisfied needs Inequality Time Deregulation Dimensions of the capacity to exploit Human Institutions Resource flows
  51. 51. Leaving some resources in the environment WG 8-10-16-17-22  Ceiling to Ressources use 
  52. 52. 
  53. 53. Reducing total infrastructure capacity WG 6 Infrastructure WG 9 Waste WG14 Metabolism WG15 Cities
  54. 54. 
  55. 55. Reducing monetary capacity to exploit WG 1 Money WG 2 Finances
  56. 56. WG 5 work-sharing Reducing time to exploit
  57. 57. WG 7 Sense Perill Econòmic! ! Ecologic! Més Petit !! Més Lleuger !! Més Ràpid Millor per a la salut  Advertising break  Equitatiu
  58. 58. Sharing “with the world” or with identified people WG 4 Property WG 11 Sharing
  59. 59. Degrowth of inequalities WG 12 basic income ceiling on income
  60. 60. WG 3 Social Economy  Against deregulation Social rights, ecological and quality standards
  61. 61.  How to degrow The process of transformation
  62. 62. Degrowth is about collectively reducing the space we take to leave space for everybody Sharing: - with the world (voluntary simplicity) - with our peers (joint use) Sharing
  63. 63. We need open localisation: - connection with the diversity in all places - reducing distance between production and consumption Closedness no Closeness si Open-localism
  64. 64. Convergence of strategies 2- Alter-growth <ul>Voluntary simplicity and frugal innovations </ul>1- Anti-growth: opposition a- Civil disobedience to banks b- Clown action c- Anti-nano action; Anti-adverts action d- Blocking of mining site e- Opposition to mega-projects f- Landless demonstration in India 4- De-growth <ul>Political actions for the change of institutions a- Promotion of gift economy b- Engaged artists c- Deepening democracy: more direct and participative d- Leaving more resources in/on the ground e- Radical ecology f- For redistribution </ul>5- No-growth: actions for steady state of institutions a- Political struggle to maintain non-market relations b- Conservation of art tradition c- Defense of democratic institutions d- Conservation of resources e- Defense of ecosystems f- Defense of equality rights 3- A-growth: Against “growth religion” Theorisation & Vulgarisation Degrowth work in science and arts
  65. 65. Degrowth direction Less and different in the Global North; More and different in the Global South. Less urbanised areas; More natural areas preserved. Less useless products, Less waste and incineration; More reuse and composting. Less urban space; More cohousing. Less cars, trucks, planes, roads, airports; More bicycles and public transport. Less speed and distance; more (open) relocation More “face to face” meeting; less “screen to screen”
  66. 66. Less supermarkets Less tourism; more travel, local, long & slow. Less industrial agriculture; more organic & vegan. Less fossil and nuclear energy; more renewable energy. Less explosives, buldozers and other “extractors” Less advertizing; more independent information (...) Degrowth direction
  67. 67. [email_address]
  68. 68. Degrowth innovation and policies Let us allow ourselves to seek solutions to economic/social/ecological crises in the context of reduction of capacity to exploit natural resources and humans