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The 4 Sprints (& 4 Spirits) Method

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This deck describes a new method for fast, effective transformation of engineering curricula. It was presented at WEEF 2019 in Chennai, India

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The 4 Sprints (& 4 Spirits) Method

  1. 1. The 4 Sprints (& 4 Spirits) Method: A Breakthrough for Rapid, Effective Transformation of Engineering Curricula Dave Goldberg ThreeJoy Associates, Inc. Douglas, MI 49406 USA deg@threejoy.com
  2. 2. Engineering education needs to change.
  3. 3. Pairwise: What factors make curriculum so hard to change?
  4. 4. Pairwise: What factors make curriculum so hard to change? Prompt: Curriculum is hard to change because… Instructions. Have a fluid bilateral discussion for 2-3 minutes with good exchange of ideas. Don’t try to reach agreement. Capture top 1 or 2 ideas from the discussion, even (especially) if opinions differ.
  5. 5. Debrief
  6. 6. 1. A surprising journey 2. University zombie apocalypse 3. 2 stories 4. Mission impossible 5. 4 Sprints and 4 Spirits Method Roadmap
  7. 7. 1. A surprising journey 2. University zombie apocalypse 3. 2 stories 4. Mission impossible 5. 4 Sprints and 4 Spirits Method Roadmap
  8. 8. Surprising journey
  9. 9. Started career as engineer, engineering educator, AI researcher…
  10. 10. 1989
  11. 11. iFoundry Illinois Foundry for Innovation in Engineering Education www.ifoundry.illinois.edu 1994-2007: Educational Reformist Turn
  12. 12. 2004-2010: Silicon Valley Startup Turn
  13. 13. Resigned tenure & professorship: 31 December 2010
  14. 14. Resigned tenure & professorship: 31 December 2010 3 Joys = Joy of Engineering, Learning, Community
  15. 15. Georgetown Leadership Coaching Certificate
  16. 16. October 2014
  17. 17. Free Change Starter Kit 20 copies of A Whole New Engineer for Deans, Department Heads or Change Leaders + set of reflective questions to lead conversation on change. More details at end of talk
  18. 18. Surprising journey
  19. 19. 1. A surprising journey 2. University zombie apocalypse 3. 2 stories 4. Mission impossible 5. 4 Sprints and 4 Spirits Method Roadmap
  20. 20. 1. A surprising journey 2. University zombie apocalypse 3. 2 stories 4. Mission impossible 5. 4 Sprints and 4 Spirits Method Roadmap
  21. 21. What happens if we don’t change?
  22. 22. A brief history of the …
  23. 23. © David E. Goldberg 2011 University Zombie Apocalypse
  24. 24. © David E. Goldberg 2011 Founded 1088
  25. 25. © David E. Goldberg 2011 University as an assembly of experts
  26. 26. © David E. Goldberg 2011 Modern industry more recent…
  27. 27. © David E. Goldberg 2011 1602, Dutch East India Company = VOC Vereenigde Osstindische Compagnie
  28. 28. The Wealth of Nations (1776), celebrates specialization & elevates expertise in industry. Adam Smith, 1723-1790
  29. 29. 1800s: Railroad Engineers Invent Modern Industry
  30. 30. © David E. Goldberg 2011 Fast Forward
  31. 31. © David E. Goldberg 2011 After WW2
  32. 32. © David E. Goldberg 2011 Organizations •large, •vertically integrated, •dominated by economies of scale. Ford in 1947 1. Vertically/horizontally integrated. 2. Functional organization. 3. Returns to scale dominant.
  33. 33. © David E. Goldberg 2011 Change in organizations & information
  34. 34. © David E. Goldberg 2011 1940s & 50s Organizations • Both Industry & Higher Ed • Functionally organized • Functional expertise king Page 78
  35. 35. © David E. Goldberg 2011 1940s & 50s Information • difficult to access, • expensive, • sequestered.
  36. 36. © David E. Goldberg 2011 Industry & Higher Ed invested in expertise & sequestered information.
  37. 37. 3 Missed Revolutions 1. Quality revolution 2. Entrepreneurial revolution 3. IT revolution Page 78
  38. 38. 3 Missed Revolutions 1. Quality revolution 2. Entrepreneurial revolution 3. IT revolution Page 78 Missed = Industry adopts, but academy teaches & doesn’t practice.
  39. 39. The Quality Revolution © David E. Goldberg 2011 Organizations •large, •vertically integrated, •dominated by economies of scale.
  40. 40. © David E. Goldberg 2011 Organizations •large, •vertically integrated, •dominated by economies of scale. Quality Revolution • Before: Industry & academy in silos. • Industry after: Integrates across functions thru quality. • Academy miss: Teach quality, stay in silos
  41. 41. Entrepreneurial Revolution
  42. 42. © David E. Goldberg 2011 New industries funded by VCs and agile sources.
  43. 43. © David E. Goldberg 2011 Higher ed still funded by governments, grants & private fees & philanthropy.
  44. 44. Information Technology Revolution
  45. 45. © David E. Goldberg 2011 2005 2005 2002
  46. 46. © David E. Goldberg 2011 Some organizations get big, but not all.
  47. 47. © David E. Goldberg 2011 Many organizations •Smaller, leaner, •Stick to core competence, •Dominated by transaction costs. Some stick to core competence
  48. 48. Ronald Coase: Transaction costs W. Brian Arthur: Network returns
  49. 49. © David E. Goldberg 2011 WW2 Information Creative Era Information Hard to access Easy to access Expensive Free or cheap Sequestered Widely shared
  50. 50. © David E. Goldberg 2011 Information “democratized” and “commoditized.”
  51. 51. © David E. Goldberg 2011 Returns to expertise diminished.
  52. 52. © David E. Goldberg 2011 Industry: Integrates IT across “experts” in value chain.
  53. 53. © David E. Goldberg 2011 Universities: Stand pat as an assembly of experts
  54. 54. © David E. Goldberg 2011 Higher Ed: Loses its mojo (expertise) in teaching (MOOCs & Coding Schools) & research (millennials with ipads and laptops).
  55. 55. © David E. Goldberg 2011 “Leaders” chosen from ranks of experts
  56. 56. © David E. Goldberg 2011 Expertise limits ability to adapt
  57. 57. © David E. Goldberg 2011 Government funding & philanthropy diminish incentives to change
  58. 58. © David E. Goldberg 2011 Now & in the future…
  59. 59. © David E. Goldberg 2011 Universites are zombies.
  60. 60. © David E. Goldberg 2011 Students and industry moving on.
  61. 61. 1. A surprising journey 2. University zombie apocalypse 3. 2 stories 4. Mission impossible 5. 4 Sprints and 4 Spirits Method Roadmap
  62. 62. 1. A surprising journey 2. University zombie apocalypse 3. 2 stories 4. Mission impossible 5. 4 Sprints and 4 Spirits Method Roadmap
  63. 63. © David E. Goldberg 2011 Story 1: Unleashing & iFoundry
  64. 64. iLaunch iCheckpointiExpo iCommunity ENG100++ Missing Basics ENG100++ 2 Hands-on Projects Joy Aspiration Choice Identity Illinois Engineering Freshman Experience (iEFX)
  65. 65. © David E. Goldberg 2011 1-hour course + zero-credit iCommunity
  66. 66. © David E. Goldberg 2011 © David E. Goldberg and Mark Somerville 2013 Please do not reproduce or distribute without permission.
  67. 67. © David E. Goldberg 2011 © David E. Goldberg and Mark Somerville 2019 Please do not reproduce or distribute without permission.
  68. 68. © David E. Goldberg 2011 “Weren’t sure you were serious about us doing what we wanted to do, but then we realized you were, and it was really cool.”
  69. 69. © David E. Goldberg 2011 Unleashed: Students started to take initiative without permission.
  70. 70. © David E. Goldberg 2011 Story 2: A Trip to Singapore
  71. 71. © David E. Goldberg 2011
  72. 72. © David E. Goldberg 2011
  73. 73. © David E. Goldberg 2011 How do you learn the courage to be present as a leader?
  74. 74. © David E. Goldberg 2011 Speechless: Exactly the right word.
  75. 75. Key Lesson of A Whole New Engineer • “As we reflected on these experiences, we came to recognize that our initial thinking about the keys to education reform were wrong. The key variables weren’t pedagogical. They weren’t financial. They weren’t curricular. They weren’t research. They weren’t any of the usual things we’ve always talked about as the engines of change. The variables were deeply emotional and cultural.”
  76. 76. Hard conclusion 1. Not content, curriculum & pedagogy. 2. Beyond theory. 3. To emotion & culture. 4. But how does this play out in curriculum change?
  77. 77. 1. A surprising journey 2. University zombie apocalypse 3. 2 stories 4. Mission impossible à Design 5. 4 Sprints and 4 Spirits Method Roadmap
  78. 78. 1. A surprising journey 2. University zombie apocalypse 3. 2 stories 4. Mission impossible à Design 5. 4 Sprints and 4 Spirits Method Roadmap
  79. 79. When Maria Called • Maria Giraldo called in February 2019. • Can you help us reform/transform DISC curriculum? • How many years do you have? • 2 months!
  80. 80. The Narrative of Slow • The Narrative of Slow: 1. Resistance to change is very strong. 2. Fast change impossible without softening. 3. Change must be organic & tailored to culture. 4. Risk faculty uprising otherwise. • Believed this myself… • …but proposed 4 Sprints anyway. • Experience at UniAndes proved me wrong again....
  81. 81. © David E. Goldberg 2011 Proposal: Four Sprints Method (4SM)
  82. 82. 4 Sprints Method Design Foci 1. Traditional curriculum reform is slow and fails for cause. 2. Modern action frameworks are well known and successful. 3. Universities are mistaken about the relationship between theory and practice. 4. Practice is rooted in a rigorous basis set of shift skills.
  83. 83. 4 Sprints Method Design Foci 1. Traditional curriculum reform is slow and fails for cause. 2. Modern action frameworks are well known and successful. 3. Universities are mistaken about the relationship between theory and practice. 4. Practice is rooted in a rigorous basis set of shift skills.
  84. 84. LSD = Long Slow Distance
  85. 85. Curriculum Design: LSF = Long Slow Failure Traditional curriculum reform fails because it is 1. ego-driven arm wrestling; 2. a kind of NIMBY problem; 3. usually performed by committees without facilitation; 4. mere shuffling and tweaking of course boxes; 5. largely ignorant of innovation elsewhere; 6. oblivious to major stakeholders, especially students.
  86. 86. Perfect curriculum: One you took as undergrad
  87. 87. © David E. Goldberg 2011 Perfect curriculum: One you took as undergrad Ego-driven Arm Wrestling
  88. 88. NIMBY Problem: Want the power, not the plant
  89. 89. NIMBY Problem: Want the power, not the plant “Innovation is great, just don’t change my course!”
  90. 90. Performed by committees without facilitation: iFoundry example--No more committees
  91. 91. Start by identifying the “available boxes” Create curricular streams, identify connections between classes Identify other experiences within program Standard Model: Shuffle & Tweak the Boxes Adapted from Mark Somerville © 2019 by permission
  92. 92. Uninformed by innovation elsewhere
  93. 93. No Student Consultation or Involvement
  94. 94. 4 Sprints Method Design Foci 1. Traditional curriculum reform is slow and fails for cause. 2. Modern action frameworks are well known and successful. 3. Universities are mistaken about the relationship between theory and practice. 4. Practice is rooted in a rigorous basis set of shift skills.
  95. 95. 4 Sprints Method Design Foci 1. Traditional curriculum reform is slow and fails for cause. 2. Modern action frameworks are well known and successful. 3. Universities are mistaken about the relationship between theory and practice. 4. Practice is rooted in a rigorous basis set of shift skills.
  96. 96. 4 Sprints Method Design Foci 1. Traditional curriculum reform is slow and fails for cause. 2. Modern action frameworks are well known and successful. 3. Universities are mistaken about the relationship between theory and practice. 4. Practice is rooted in a rigorous basis set of shift skills.
  97. 97. 4 Sprints Method Design Foci 1. Traditional curriculum reform is slow and fails for cause. 2. Modern action frameworks are well known and successful. 3. Universities are mistaken about the relationship between theory and practice. 4. Practice is rooted in a rigorous basis set of shift skills.
  98. 98. © David E. Goldberg 2011 New Year’s = Special Time of Reflection Yogi Berra
  99. 99. © David E. Goldberg 2011 “In theory there is no difference between theory and practice. In practice there is.”
  100. 100. Not (Just) Content, Curriculum & Pedagogy Practitioner’s way of knowing as … 1. Technical rationality 2. Reflection-in-action
  101. 101. 4 Sprints Method Design Foci 1. Traditional curriculum reform is slow and fails for cause. 2. Modern action frameworks are well known and successful. 3. Universities are mistaken about the relationship between theory and practice. 4. Practice is rooted in a rigorous basis set of shift skills.
  102. 102. 4 Sprints Method Design Foci 1. Traditional curriculum reform is slow and fails for cause. 2. Modern action frameworks are well known and successful. 3. Universities are mistaken about the relationship between theory and practice. 4. Practice is rooted in a rigorous basis set of shift skills.
  103. 103. 5 Shifts as Key to Collaboration & Humility 5 Shifts Yogi-Schoen Brain-on-a- stick WittgensteinLittle bets Polarity shift
  104. 104. 5 Shifts as Key to Collaboration & Humility 5 Shifts Yogi-Schoen Brain-on-a- stick WittgensteinLittle bets Polarity shift There exists rigorous “basis set” of ”soft skills” that enable rapid change.
  105. 105. Discussion: What 1-3 points resonate most strongly? 1. Traditional curriculum reform is slow and fails for cause. 2. Modern action frameworks (e.g., agile & design thinking) are widely known and used, and often successful. 3. Universities are largely mistaken about the relationship between theory and practice. 4. Practice is rooted in a rigorous basis set of shift (not “soft”) skills. Traditional curriculum reform fails because it is 1. ego-driven arm wrestling; 2. a kind of NIMBY problem; 3. usually performed by committees without facilitation; 4. mere shuffling and tweaking of course boxes; 5. largely ignorant of innovation elsewhere; 6. oblivious to major stakeholders, especially students. 5 Shifts Yogi-Schoen Brain-on-a- stick WittgensteinLittle bets Polarity shift
  106. 106. 1. A surprising journey 2. University zombie apocalypse 3. 2 stories 4. Mission impossible à Design 5. 4 Sprints and 4 Spirits Method Roadmap
  107. 107. 1. A surprising journey 2. University zombie apocalypse 3. 2 stories 4. Mission impossible à Design 5. 4 Sprints and 4 Spirits Method Roadmap
  108. 108. 4 Sprints in Brief Sprint 1: 4 Spirits Sprint 2: Bright spots & great possibilities Sprint 3: Conceptual canvases Sprint 4: Negotiating tradition & change Implement & ongoing Innovation
  109. 109. Sprint 1: 4 Spirits of Change Student futures Motivation Culture Polarities 4 Spirits
  110. 110. Sprint 2: Invention & Innovation bright spots explore & innovate great possibilities invent
  111. 111. Sprint 3: Conceptual Canvas Architectutral backbone(s) Courses & experiences Pedagogical enhancement Community features Extracurricular elements Assessment 4 Spirits scoring I like - I wish salients Business & resources Students/employers attracted Resources required Activities required
  112. 112. Based on Business Model Generation
  113. 113. Sprint 4: Negotiate Great Solution Tradition Change Great Solution negotiated from interest
  114. 114. Polarities as opposites that need each other.
  115. 115. Example: Is It Better to Inhale or Exhale?
  116. 116. © David E. Goldberg 2011 Stability Change Competitive Advantage Can’t Compete • Continuity • Core values • Tap past and present wisdom • New energy and direction • Creativity/innovation • Tap new learning & insight • Stagnation • Loss of energy • Missed opportunities • Lose continuity • Lose core values • Take foolish risks
  117. 117. Negotiating from interest not position.
  118. 118. Why Does This Work? • Addresses 6 flaws of curriculum change. • Creates new collective interest in the 4 Spirits. • Builds shift skills to help group have great conversation-in-action. • Uses expert facilitator, not a smarty pants know-it-all. • These rational elements don’t tell the whole story.
  119. 119. Following: Message to UniAndes
  120. 120. You have been on…
  121. 121. Journey to a good mood
  122. 122. Heard the pain and hurt of previous change.
  123. 123. Blood in the Streets
  124. 124. © David E. Goldberg 2011 Skeptical of advice given by a smarty pants know-it-all
  125. 125. Imposter Syndrome: Hard for profs not to be.
  126. 126. But what we did wasn’t what you expected.
  127. 127. “We don’t even know our own good stuff.”
  128. 128. ”I didn’t know we agreed on so much.”
  129. 129. “I didn’t know we could work together.”
  130. 130. “When will we consider the risks of change.”
  131. 131. ”When will we do something really innovative.”
  132. 132. My Georgetown Story • Last day of the last class. • Six-month program. • 4 amazing coaching sessions from rookies. • How?
  133. 133. Blood in the Streets
  134. 134. Journey to a good mood LOVE in the Streets
  135. 135. Ask WWLD = What would love do?
  136. 136. Discussion: What 1-3 points resonate most strongly? Sprint 1: 4Spirits Sprint 2: Bright spots&great possibilities Sprint 3: Conceptual canvases Sprint 4: Negotiating tradition&change Implement & ongoing Innovation Student futures Motivation Culture Polarities 4 Spirits bright spots explore & innovate great possibilitiesinvent Architectutral backbone(s) Courses & experiences Pedagogical enhancement Community features Extracurricular elements Assessment 4 Spirits scoring I like - I wish salients Business & resources Students/employers attracted Resources required Activities required
  137. 137. Debrief
  138. 138. Here is the Really Cool Part 1. Given the structure of the 4 sprints 2. Given the rationale for the 4 spirits 3. Given the common 6-fold failure of engineering curriculum change 4. Given the well-tested methodology of rigorous shift-skills training
  139. 139. Here is the Really Cool Part 1. Given the structure of the 4 sprints 2. Given the rationale for the 4 spirits 3. Given the common 6-fold failure of engineering curriculum change 4. Given the well-tested methodology of rigorous shift skills training Can teach others to facilitate 4SM around globe
  140. 140. Interested in learning to facilitate 4SM?
  141. 141. Interested in learning more about 4SM or in learning to facilitate 4SM? Write deg@threejoy.com or give me card after talk
  142. 142. 1. A surprising journey 2. University zombie apocalypse 3. 2 stories 4. Mission impossible à Design 5. 4 Sprints & 4 Spirits Method Summary
  143. 143. Takeaways: What 1-3 things do you take away from this session?
  144. 144. Debrief
  145. 145. Free Change Starter Kit 20 copies of A Whole New Engineer for Deans, Department Heads or Change Leaders + set of reflective questions to lead conversation on change. Give me card after session or Write me: deg@threejoy.com
  146. 146. The 4 Sprints (& 4 Spirits) Method: A Breakthrough for Rapid, Effective Transformation of Engineering Curricula Dave Goldberg ThreeJoy Associates, Inc. Douglas, MI 49406 USA deg@threejoy.com

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