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Adversary simulation


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Adversary simulation

  2. 2. Talk Background Introduction and overview of Red Teaming Organization challenges & Opportunities Redteaming / Red Cell effectiveness • Meeting the defenders where they are at -Adversary simulation • Emulating Tactics Techniques and Procedures • Being the Adversary Resources
  3. 3. $whoami • Chris Hernandez • RedTeamer • Former: • Pentester • Vuln/ Patch Mgmt • Sysadmin • Bug bounty hunter • Irc handle= piffd0s • Blog= • @piffd0s
  4. 4. Introduction to Red Teaming • What is “Red Teaming”? • Origins of “Red Team” • Examples of Red Teaming Failures • Examples of Red Team Successes
  5. 5. What is Red Teaming? • Both Approach, Mindset and Tactics • Takes many forms, Tabletop Exercises, Alternative analysis, computer models, and vulnerability probes. • Critical Thinking • A Therapist…
  6. 6. What are its origins? • Originated in the 1960’s military war-game exercises • Red Team was meant to emulate the soviet union • 1963 - First historical example was a redteam exercise structured around procuring a long range bomber. • Most early examples are structured around determining soviet unions capability
  7. 7. Red Team Failures: Operation Eagle Claw • Failed mission to rescue 52 diplomats held captive in the US Embassy in Tehran. • Operation was “need to know” not Red Teamed • Operation was initiated without enough planning and foresight into potential challenges / obstacles
  8. 8. Unified Vision ‘01 & Millennium Challenge ‘02 • Millenium challenge ’02 • Red Cell Is highly restricted in its actions • Red Cell pre-emptively attacks US navy fleet with all of their air and sea resources sinking 21 Navy Vessels • White Cell “refloats” sunken navy vessels • Unified Vision ’01 • White Cell informs Red Cell that Blue Team has destroyed all of their 21 hidden ballistic missile silos • Blue Team commander never actually new the location of any of the 21 silos
  9. 9. RedTeam Success Stories • New York Marathon, NYPD and New York Roadrunners • Cover scenarios like: • How do you identify tainted water sources • How to respond if drones show up in specific locations • Race can be diverted at any point • Israeli Defense Force – “Ipcha Mistabra” • The opposite is most likely • Small group in the intelligence branch • Briefs Officials and Leaders on opposite explanations for scenarios
  10. 10. Organizational Challenges • Overcoming Groupthink • Maintaining Divergent thought • Remaining Skeptical • Assimilation into culture • Communicating risk effectively • Metacognition • Leadership buy in • “Gaming” the Op
  11. 11. Red Cell Effectiveness • Ex. 57th adversary tactics group • Only Highly skilled pilots are allowed to become “aggressors” • Allowed only to use known adversary tactics and techniques depending on who they are emulating • Same should apply to all red teams • Adversary emulation is key to realistic simulations
  12. 12. Red Cell Effectiveness • Effective adversary emulation can mean being a “worse” threat actor • Tests defenders “post- compromise” security posture. Aka “assumed breach model” • Post compromise / foothold can also save valuable time and money.
  13. 13. Adversary Skill and Detection Model 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 Ignorance Detection Proactive Pre-emptive Difficulty Difficulty ScriptKiddie Criminal(s) APT
  14. 14. What are the benefits of an effective Red Cell? • Train and measure IR teams detection and response. • MSFT measures this as MTTD MTTR Mean time to detect, and Mean Time to Recovery • Validates investment in very expensive security products, services, and subscriptions
  15. 15. An example red cell exercise • Build a relevant threat model based on your industry threats, or competitors breaches / news events • Story board the attack • Determine where IR should detect and respond • Use Red Team to validate story board • What went well / what went wrong – postmortem analysis • Debrief Tactics
  16. 16. Putting it all together – Adversary simulation • Emulate realistic threat actors TTPs • Assume breach model • Model attacker activity to your story board • Information exchange between red and blue teams* • Protect Red Team culture • Repeat in a reasonable amount of time
  17. 17. Example Adversary Simulation – TTPs – “Deep Panda” After seeing how these indicators were being applied, though, I came to realize something very interesting: almost no one is using them effectively. - Pyramid of Pain
  18. 18. ADDITIONAL RESOURCES Books: Red Team – Micah Zenko Applied Critical Thinking Handbook – UFMCS Online: Microsoft Enterprise Cloud Redteaming Whitepaper 2015’s Redteam Tradecraft / Adversary Simulation – Raphael Mudge The Pyramid of Pain – David Bianco Veris Group - Adaptive Threat Devision – Will Shroeder and Justin Warner The Adversary Manifesto - Crowdstrike