Brand advertising


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  • Brand advertising

    2. 2. What is a Brand? <ul><li>A brand is a name, term, sign, symbol, or design which is intended to identify the goods or services of one seller or group of sellers and to differentiate them from those of competitors. </li></ul>
    3. 3. New Branding Challenges <ul><li>Brands are important as ever </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Consumer need for simplification </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Consumer need for risk reduction </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Brand management is as difficult as ever </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Savvy consumers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Increased competition </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Decreased effectiveness of traditional marketing tools and emergence of new marketing tools </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Complex brand and product portfolios </li></ul></ul>
    4. 4. The Customer/Brand Challenge <ul><li>In this difficult environment, marketers must have a keen understanding of: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>customers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>brands </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>the relationship between the two </li></ul></ul>
    5. 5. The Concept of Brand Equity <ul><li>The brand equity concept stresses the importance of the brand in marketing strategies. </li></ul><ul><li>Brand equity is defined in terms of the marketing effects uniquely attributable to the brand. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Brand equity relates to the fact that different outcomes result in the marketing of a product or service because of its brand name, as compared to if the same product or service did not have that name. </li></ul></ul>
    6. 6. The Concept of Customer-Based Brand Equity <ul><li>Customer-based brand equity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Differential effect </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Customer brand knowledge </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Customer response to brand marketing </li></ul></ul>
    7. 7. Determinants of Customer-Based Brand Equity <ul><ul><li>Customer is aware of and familiar with the brand </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Customer holds some strong, favorable, and unique brand associations in memory </li></ul></ul>
    8. 8. Building Customer-Based Brand Equity <ul><li>Brand knowledge structures depend on . . . </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The initial choices for the brand elements </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The supporting marketing program and the manner by which the brand is integrated into it </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Other associations indirectly transferred to the brand by linking it to some other entities </li></ul></ul>
    9. 9. Benefits of Customer-Based Brand Equity <ul><li>Enjoy greater brand loyalty, usage, and affinity </li></ul><ul><li>Command larger price premiums </li></ul><ul><li>Receive greater trade cooperation & support </li></ul><ul><li>Increase marketing communication effectiveness </li></ul><ul><li>Yield licensing opportunities </li></ul><ul><li>Support brand extensions. </li></ul>
    10. 10. Customer-Based Brand Equity as a “Bridge” <ul><li>Customer-based brand equity represents the “added value” endowed to a product as a result of past investments in the marketing of a brand. </li></ul><ul><li>Customer-based brand equity provides direction and focus to future marketing activities </li></ul>
    11. 11. The Key to Branding <ul><li>For branding strategies to be successful, consumers must be convinced that there are meaningful differences among brands in the product or service category. </li></ul><ul><li>Consumer must not think that all brands in the category are the same. </li></ul><ul><li>PERCEPTION = VALUE </li></ul>
    12. 12. Strategic Brand Management <ul><li>Strategic brand management involves the design and implementation of marketing programs and activities to build, measure, and manage brand equity. </li></ul><ul><li>The strategic brand management process is defined as involving four main steps: </li></ul><ul><li>1) Identifying and establishing brand positioning and values </li></ul><ul><li>2)  Planning and implementing brand marketing programs </li></ul><ul><li>3)  Measuring and interpreting brand performance </li></ul><ul><li>4)  Growing and sustaining brand equity </li></ul>
    13. 13. Strategic Brand Management Process Mental maps Competitive frame of reference Points-of-parity and points-of-difference Core brand values Brand mantra Mixing and matching of brand elements Integrating brand marketing activities Leveraging of secondary associations Brand Value Chain Brand audits Brand tracking Brand equity management system Brand-product matrix Brand portfolios and hierarchies Brand expansion strategies Brand reinforcement and revitalization KEY CONCEPTS STEPS Grow and Sustain Brand Equity Identify and Establish Brand Positioning and Values Plan and Implement Brand Marketing Programs Measure and Interpret Brand Performance
    14. 14. Motivation for Customer-Based Brand Equity Model <ul><li>Marketers know strong brands are important but aren’t always sure how to build one. </li></ul><ul><li>CBBE model was designed to be … </li></ul><ul><ul><li>comprehensive </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>cohesive </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>well-grounded </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>up-to-date </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>actionable </li></ul></ul>
    15. 15. Rationale of Customer-Based Brand Equity Model <ul><li>Basic premise: Power of a brand resides in the minds of customers </li></ul><ul><li>Challenge is to ensure customers have the right types of experiences with products & services and their marketing programs to create the right brand knowledge structures: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Thoughts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Feelings </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Images </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Perceptions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Attitudes </li></ul></ul>
    16. 16. Building Customer-Based Brand Equity <ul><li>Building a strong brand involves a series of steps as part of a “branding ladder” </li></ul><ul><li>A strong brand is also characterized by a logically constructed set of brand “building blocks.” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Identifies areas of strength and weakness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provides guidance to marketing activities </li></ul></ul>
    18. 18. Salience Dimensions <ul><li>Depth of brand awareness </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ease of recognition & recall </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Strength & clarity of category membership </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Breadth of brand awareness </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Purchase consideration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Consumption consideration </li></ul></ul>
    19. 19. Performance Dimensions <ul><li>Primary characteristics & supplementary features </li></ul><ul><li>Product reliability, durability, and serviceability </li></ul><ul><li>Service effectiveness, efficiency, and empathy </li></ul><ul><li>Style and design </li></ul><ul><li>Price </li></ul>
    20. 20. Imagery Dimensions <ul><li>User profiles </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Demographic & psychographic characteristics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Actual or aspirational </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Group perceptions -- popularity </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Purchase & usage situations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Type of channel, specific stores, ease of purchase </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Time (day, week, month, year, etc.), location, and context of usage </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Personality & values </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sincerity, excitement, competence, sophistication, & ruggedness </li></ul></ul><ul><li>History, heritage, & experiences </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Nostalgia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Memories </li></ul></ul>
    21. 21. Judgment Dimensions <ul><li>Brand quality </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Value </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Satisfaction </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Brand credibility </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Expertise </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Trustworthiness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Likability </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Brand consideration </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Relevance </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Brand superiority </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Differentiation </li></ul></ul>
    22. 22. Feelings Dimensions <ul><li>Warmth </li></ul><ul><li>Fun </li></ul><ul><li>Excitement </li></ul><ul><li>Security </li></ul><ul><li>Social approval </li></ul><ul><li>Self-respect </li></ul>
    23. 23. Resonance Dimensions <ul><li>Behavioral loyalty </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Frequency and amount of repeat purchases </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Attitudinal attachment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Love brand (favorite possessions; “a little pleasure”) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Proud of brand </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Sense of community </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Kinship </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Affiliation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Active engagement </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Seek information </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Join club </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Visit web site, chat rooms </li></ul></ul>
    24. 24. Customer-Based Brand Equity Model Consumer- Brand Resonance Brand Salience Consumer Judgments Consumer Feelings Brand Performance Brand Imagery INTENSE, ACTIVE LOYALTY RATIONAL & EMOTIONAL REACTIONS POINTS-OF-PARITY & POINTS-OF-DIFFERENCE DEEP, BROAD BRAND AWARENESS
    25. 25. Brand Positioning <ul><li>Define competitive frame of reference </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Target market </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nature of competition </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Define desired brand knowledge structures </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Points-of-parity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>necessary </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>competitive </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Points-of-difference </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>strong, favorable, and unique brand associations </li></ul></ul></ul>
    26. 26. Issues in Implementing Brand Positioning <ul><li>Establishing Category Membership </li></ul><ul><li>Identifying & Choosing POP’s & POD’s </li></ul><ul><li>Communicating & Establishing POP’s & POD’s </li></ul><ul><li>Sustaining & Evolving POD’s & POP’s </li></ul>
    27. 27. Establishing Category Membership <ul><li>Product descriptor </li></ul><ul><li>Exemplar comparisons </li></ul>
    28. 28. Identifying & Choosing POP’s & POD’s <ul><li>Desirability criteria (consumer perspective) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Personally relevant </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Distinctive & superior </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Believable & credible </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Deliverability criteria (firm perspective) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Feasible </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Profitable </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pre-emptive, defensible & difficult to attack </li></ul></ul>
    29. 29. Major Challenges in Positioning <ul><li>Find compelling & impactful points-of-difference (MacMillan & McGrath, HBR , ‘97) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>How do people become aware of their need for your product and service? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How do consumers find your offering? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How do consumers make their final selection? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How do consumers order and purchase your product or service? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What happens when your product or service is delivered? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How is your product installed? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How is your product or service paid for? </li></ul></ul>
    30. 30. Major Challenges in Positioning <ul><li>Find compelling & impactful points-of-difference (cont.) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>How is your product stored? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How is your product moved around? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What is the consumer really using your product for? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What do consumers need help with when they use your product? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What about returns or exchanges? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How is your product repaired or serviced? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What happens when your product is disposed of or no longer used? </li></ul></ul>
    31. 31. Communicating & Establishing POP’s & POD’s <ul><li>Create POP’s and POD’s in the face of attribute & benefit trade-offs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Price & quality </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Convenience & quality </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Taste & low calories </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Efficacy & mildness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Power & safety </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ubiquity & prestige </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Comprehensiveness (variety) & simplicity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Strength & refinement </li></ul></ul>
    32. 32. Strategies to Reconcile Attribute & Benefit Trade-Offs <ul><li>Establish separate marketing programs </li></ul><ul><li>Leverage secondary association (e.g., co-brand) </li></ul><ul><li>Re-define the relationship from negative to positive </li></ul>
    33. 33. Sustaining & Evolving POP’s & POD’s <ul><li>Core Brand Values & </li></ul><ul><li>Core Brand Proposition </li></ul>
    34. 34. Core Brand Values <ul><li>Set of abstract concepts or phrases that characterize the 5-10 most important dimensions of the mental map of a brand. </li></ul><ul><li>Relate to points-of-parity and points-of-difference </li></ul><ul><li>Mental Map  Core Brand Values  Brand Mantra </li></ul>
    35. 35. Brand Mantras <ul><li>A brand mantra is an articulation of the “heart and soul” of the brand. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Brand mantras are short three to five word phrases that capture the irrefutable essence or spirit of the brand positioning and brand values . </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Nike </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Authentic Athletic Performance </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Disney </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fun Family Entertainment </li></ul></ul>
    36. 36.
    37. 37.
    38. 38. <ul><li>Outline </li></ul><ul><li>The mandate for effectiveness </li></ul><ul><li>What makes an ad effective? </li></ul><ul><li>The world of advertising </li></ul><ul><li>The five players of advertising </li></ul><ul><li>The evolution of advertising </li></ul>Introduction to Advertising
    39. 39. The Mandate for Effectiveness <ul><li>Today advertising is in a bind </li></ul><ul><li>Advertisers expect specific results that lead to sales </li></ul><ul><li>Advertising must be effective </li></ul>
    40. 40. <ul><li>Effective ads work on two levels: with consumers and with advertisers </li></ul><ul><li>Characteristics of effective ads: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Strategy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>- </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Execution </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Advertising must be goal directed </li></ul></ul>What Makes an Ad Effective ? Creativity
    41. 41. <ul><li>Defining advertising </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A paid form of communication </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A sponsor is identified </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tries to persuade or influence the consumer to do something </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Conveyed through mass media </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reaches a large audience </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Is nonpersonal </li></ul></ul>The World of Advertising
    42. 42. Types of Advertising <ul><li>Brand advertising </li></ul><ul><li>Retail/local advertising </li></ul><ul><li>Political advertising </li></ul><ul><li>Directory advertising </li></ul><ul><li>Direct-response advertising </li></ul><ul><li>Business-to-business advertising </li></ul><ul><li>Institutional advertising </li></ul><ul><li>Public service advertising (PSA) </li></ul><ul><li>Interactive advertising </li></ul>
    43. 43. <ul><li>Marketing role </li></ul><ul><li>Communication role </li></ul><ul><li>Economic role </li></ul><ul><li>Societal role </li></ul>The Roles of Advertising
    44. 44. Functions of Advertising <ul><li>Provide product and brand information </li></ul><ul><li>Provide incentives to take action </li></ul><ul><li>Provide reminders and reinforcement </li></ul>
    45. 45. <ul><li>Advertiser </li></ul><ul><li>Advertising agency </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The advertising department </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The in-house agency </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Media </li></ul><ul><li>Vendors </li></ul><ul><li>Target audience </li></ul>The Five Players of Advertising
    46. 46. <ul><li>Age of print </li></ul><ul><li>Industrial revolution and emergence of consumer society </li></ul><ul><li>Modern advertising: Agencies, science and creativity </li></ul><ul><li>Accountability era </li></ul>The Evolution of Advertising
    47. 47. <ul><li>Interactive advertising </li></ul><ul><li>Globalization </li></ul><ul><li>Niche marketing </li></ul><ul><li>Integrated marketing communications (IMC) </li></ul><ul><li>Consumer Power </li></ul>Current Advertising Issues
    48. 48. <ul><li>Brand personalities </li></ul><ul><li>Branding </li></ul><ul><li>Trust </li></ul><ul><li>Brand image </li></ul><ul><li>Brand relationships </li></ul><ul><li>Brand equity </li></ul>How Brands Work
    49. 49. Complex, Varied Marketing Activity Comprehensive, Robust Marketing Measures Detailed, Rich Marketing Models MARKETING PLANNING PROCESS
    50. 50. Role of Integrated Marketing Communications <ul><li>Marketing communications … </li></ul><ul><ul><li>are the “voice” of the brand and are a means by which it can establish a dialogue and build relationships with consumers. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>allow marketers to inform, persuade, incent, and remind consumers directly or indirectly </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>can contribute to brand equity by establishing the brand in memory and linking strong, favorable, and unique associations to it. </li></ul></ul>
    51. 51. Role of Integrated Marketing Communications (Cont.) <ul><ul><li>Consumers can be told or shown how and why a product is used, by what kind of person, and where and when; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Consumers can learn about who makes the product and what the company and brand stand for </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Consumers be given an incentive or reward for trial or usage </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Brands can be linked to other … </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>People </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Places </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Events </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Brands </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Experiences </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Feelings </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Things </li></ul></ul></ul>
    52. 52. Simple Test for Marketing Communications <ul><li> 1. 3. 2. </li></ul><ul><li>Current Desired </li></ul><ul><li> Brand Brand </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge Knowledge </li></ul>
    53. 53. Integrated Marketing Communications and Customer-Based Brand Equity <ul><li>One implications of the CBBE framework is that the manner in which brand associations are formed does not matter -- only the resulting strength, favorability, and uniqueness </li></ul>
    54. 54. Designing Integrated Marketing Communications Programs <ul><li>From the perspective of customer-based brand equity, marketers should evaluate all possible communication options available to create knowledge structures according to effectiveness criteria as well as cost considerations. </li></ul><ul><li>Different communication options have different strengths and can accomplish different objectives. </li></ul>
    55. 55. Alternative Communication Options (Consumer) <ul><li>Media Advertising (TV, radio, newspapers, magazines) </li></ul><ul><li>Direct Response Advertising </li></ul><ul><li>Interactive (on-line) Advertising & Web Sites </li></ul><ul><li>Outdoor Advertising (billboards, posters, cinema) </li></ul><ul><li>Point-of-Purchase Advertising </li></ul><ul><li>Trade Promotions </li></ul><ul><li>Consumer Promotions </li></ul><ul><li>Sponsorship of Event Marketing </li></ul><ul><li>Publicity or Public Relations </li></ul>
    56. 56. Alternative Communication Options (Business-to-Business) <ul><li>Media Advertising (TV, radio, newspaper, magazines) </li></ul><ul><li>Trade Journal Advertising </li></ul><ul><li>Interactive (on-line) Advertising & Web Sites </li></ul><ul><li>Directories </li></ul><ul><li>Direct Mail </li></ul><ul><li>Brochures & Sales Literature </li></ul><ul><li>Audio-Visual Presentation Tapes </li></ul><ul><li>Giveaways </li></ul><ul><li>Sponsorship or Event Marketing </li></ul><ul><li>Exhibitions, Trade Shows, Conventions </li></ul><ul><li>Publicity or Public Relations </li></ul>
    57. 57. Print Ad Evaluation Criteria <ul><li>Is the message clear at a glance? </li></ul><ul><li>Is the benefit in the headline? </li></ul><ul><li>Does the illustration support the headline? </li></ul><ul><li>Does the first line of the copy support or explain the headline and illustration? </li></ul><ul><li>Is the ad easy to read and follow? </li></ul><ul><li>Is the product easily identified? </li></ul><ul><li>Is the brand or sponsor clearly identified? </li></ul>
    58. 58. Ad Campaign Considerations <ul><li>Campaigns make brands -- not single ads </li></ul><ul><li>Be creative and develop creative themes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Avoid slavishly sticking to executional formulas </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Brand communications should sing like a choir </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Multiple voices </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Multiple notes </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Find fresh consumer insights & compelling brand truths </li></ul><ul><li>Productively conduct ad research </li></ul>
    59. 59. IMC Case Study CMPB Success Factors <ul><li>Smart strategy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Relative deprivation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Imaginative creative </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Funny but relevant </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Clever hook </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Got milk?” slogan </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Timely secondary media </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In store </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Right partners </li></ul>
    60. 60. Common Mistakes in Developing Advertising <ul><li>Failure to distinguish ad positioning (what you say) from ad creative (how you say it) </li></ul><ul><li>Mistaken assumptions about consumer knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Improperly positioned </li></ul><ul><li>Failure to break through the clutter </li></ul><ul><li>Distracting, overpowering creative in ads </li></ul>
    61. 61. Common Mistakes in Developing Advertising (cont.) <ul><li>Under-branded ads </li></ul><ul><li>Failure to use supporting media </li></ul><ul><li>Changing campaigns too frequently </li></ul><ul><li>Substituting ad frequency for ad quality </li></ul>
    62. 62. Communication Option A Communication Option C Communication Option B Audience Audience Communication Option Overlap Note: Circles represent the market segments reached by various communication options. Shaded portions represent areas of overlap in communication options.
    63. 63. Evaluating IMC Programs <ul><li>Coverage - what proportion of the target audience is reached by each communication option employed, as well as how much overlap exists among options </li></ul><ul><li>Cost - what is the per capita expense </li></ul>
    64. 64. Evaluating IMC Programs (cont.) <ul><li>Contribution - the collective effect on brand equity in terms of </li></ul><ul><ul><li>enhancing depth & breadth of awareness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>improving strength, favorability, & uniqueness of brand associations </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Commonality - the extent to which information conveyed by different communication options share meaning </li></ul>
    65. 65. Evaluating IMC Programs (cont.) <ul><li>Complementarity - the extent to which different associations and linkages are emphasized across communication options </li></ul><ul><li>Versatility - the extent to which information contained in a communication option works with different types of consumers </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Different communications history </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Different market segments </li></ul></ul></ul>
    66. 66. “ Keller Be’s” <ul><li>Be analytical : Use frameworks of consumer behavior and managerial decision-making to develop well-reasoned communication programs </li></ul><ul><li>Be curious : Fully understand consumers by using all forms of research and always be thinking of how you can create added value for consumers </li></ul><ul><li>Be single-minded : Focus message on well-defined target markets (less can be more) </li></ul><ul><li>Be integrative : reinforce your message through consistency and cuing across all communications </li></ul>
    67. 67. “ Keller Be’s” <ul><li>Be creative : State your message in a unique fashion; use alternative promotions and media to create favorable, strong, and unique brand associations </li></ul><ul><li>Be observant : Monitor competition, customers, channel members, and employees through tracking studies </li></ul><ul><li>Be realistic : Understand the complexities involved in marketing communications </li></ul><ul><li>Be patient : Take a long-term view of communication effectiveness to build and manage brand equity </li></ul>