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Rhetorical devices

Rhetorical devices

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Rhetorical devices

  1. 1. RHETORICAL DEVICES RIM BEDOUI
  2. 2. DEFINITION RHETORICAL DEVICES: Is an artful arrangement of words to achieve a particular emphasis and effect. It consists of two categories: Rhetorical schemes Rhetorical tropes
  3. 3. RHETORICAL SCHEMES  The repetition of the same sounds at the beginning of two or more adjacent words or stressed syllables.  The formalized consonance of syllables. It has two types: Internal rhyme and External rhyme or end rhyme ALLITERATION RHYME
  4. 4. RHETORICAL SCHEMES  The repetition of identical or similar vowel sounds, usually in successive or proximate words.  EXAMPLE Try to light the fire  The repetition of two or more consonants with a change in the intervening vowels.  EXAMPLE pitter-patter, splish- splash, and click-clack ASSONANCE CONSONANCE
  5. 5. RHETORICAL SCHEMES  The use of words that sound like what they mean.  EXAMPLE “Hear the sledges with the bells— Silver bells! What a world of merriment Their melody foretells! How they tinkle, tinkle, tinkle, In the icy air of night!” (from “The Bells” by Edgar Allan Poe) ONOMATOPOEIA
  6. 6. WORD LEVEL  Repetition of the last word of one clause at the beginning of the next clause.  EXAMPLE "The crime was common, common be the pain. “ (Alexander Pope)  A figure of speech in which each sentence or clause ends with the same word.  EXAMPLE It ends well, if it begins well. ANADIPLOSIS EPISTROPHE
  7. 7. WORD LEVEL  Regular repetition of the same word or phrase at the beginning of successive phrases or clauses. …We shall fight in France, we shall fight on the seas and oceans, we shall fight with growing confidence and growing strength in the air… ANAPHORA
  8. 8. WORD LEVEL We can never be satisfied as long as the Negro is the victim of the unspeakable horrors of police brutality. We can never be satisfied as long as our bodies, heavy with the fatigue of travel, cannot gain lodging in the motels of the highways and the hotels of our cities. We cannot be satisfied as long as our children are stripped of their selfhood and robbed of their dignity by signs stating ‘For whites only’. We cannot be satisfied as long as the Negro in Mississippi cannot vote and a Negro in New York believes he has nothing for which to vote. ANAPHORA
  9. 9. WORD LEVEL  Repetition of the same word in different syntactical or grammatical forms. Also can be the repetition of the same word in the same form.  EXAMPLE « Wickedness is always wickedness, but folly is not always folly,– It depends upon the character of those who handle it. » Emma, p160.  A word formed by combining two or more.  EXAMPLE brunch = breakfast + lunch. PORTMANTEAUPOLYPTON
  10. 10. WORD LEVEL  Repetition of word or phrase at the beginning and at the end of successive structure.  (IT IS A BLEND OF ANAPHORA + EPISTROPHE)  EXAMPLE Much is your reading, but not the word of God. Much is your building, but not the house of God. T. S. Eliot  Repeat words of the same or close meanings to emphasize a given meaning.  EXAMPLE  Hate = loathe = abhor = detest. SYMPLOCE SYNONYM
  11. 11. WORD LEVEL  Repeat the same words or ideas in the common phrase  EXAMPLE I myself personally disagree with you, sorry! TAUTOLOGY
  12. 12. SENTENCE LEVEL  A Rhetorical device in which speech is broken off abruptly and the sentence is left unfinished. ( silence for fear, anger)  EXAMPLE BREATH and WAITING FOR GODOT By Samuel Becket  A rhetorical device where conjunctions, articles and pronouns are omitted for the sake of speed and economy.  EXAMPLE The first sort by their own suggestion fell Self tempted, self-depraved, man falls, deceived By the other first… John Milton’s Paradise Lost. APOSIOPESIS (BECOMING SILENT) ASYNDETON (UNCONNECTED)
  13. 13. SENTENCE LEVEL  A reversal of grammatical structures in successive phrases or clauses.  EXAMPLE Fair is foul and foul is fair.  The omission of understood words in a sentence. Also called “reduction”  EXAMPLE “Enough of this; I pray thee, hold they peace.” –Romeo and Juliet CHIASMUS (PLACING CROSSWISE) ELLIPSIS (LEAVING OUT)
  14. 14. SENTENCE LEVEL  A figure of speech in which words are transposed from their usual order.  EXAMPLE  Serpent wise  Horror chill  Recurrent syntactical similarity where several parts of a sentence or several sentences are expressed alike to show that the ideas in the parts or sentences equal in importance.  EXAMPLE I came, I saw, I conquered. JULIUS CASEAR, SHAKESPEARE. HYPERBATON (OVERSTEPPING) PARALLELISM
  15. 15. SENTENCE LEVEL  Co-ordination of clauses without conjunctions especially when they are short.  EXAMPLE My hot water was red, Manchester United’s colour.  Use of conjunction between each word, phrase, or clause. Opposite of asyndeton.  EXAMPLE “If there be cords, or knives, poison, or fire, or suffocating streams, I’ll not endure it. Othello, III, iii PARATAXIS (BESIDE ARRANGEMENT) POLYSYNDETON (MUCH COMPOUNDED)
  16. 16. SENTENCE LEVEL  Two different words linked to a verb or an adjective which is strictly appropriate to only one of them.  EXAMPLE  “…lose her Heart, or Necklace, at a Ball. “ Alexander Pope, The Rape of the Lock  “You held your breath and the door for me. “ ”Head Over Feet” Alanis Morissette ZEUGMA
  17. 17. RHETORICAL TROPES It is a deviation in meanings of the words.
  18. 18. TROPES  A figure of speech in which a person, thing, or abstract quality is addressed as if present.  EXAMPLE O woe, o woeful, o woeful, o woeful day!  Substitution of a milder or less direct expression for one that is harsh or blunt.  EXAMPLE Using "passed away" for "dead.” APOSTROPHE EUPHEMISM
  19. 19. TROPES  An intentionally exaggerated figure of speech for emphasis or effect.  EXAMPLE All the perfumes of Arabia could not sweeten this little hand. (from Macbeth by William Shakespeare)  A situation or statement characterized by significant difference between what is expected or understood and what actually happens or is meant.  EXAMPLE You seem clever in that bow tie. HYPERBOLE IRONY
  20. 20. TROPES  A subtle comparison in which the author describes a person or thing using words that are not meant to be taken literally.  EXAMPLE “Time is a dressmaker specializing in alterations.” (Faith Baldwin)  A metaphor where something being compared is referred to by something closely associated with it.  EXAMPLE “Friends, Romans, countrymen, lend me your ears.” Julius Caesar, III, ii METAPHOR METONYMY
  21. 21. TROPES   A figure of speech that combines two apparently contradictory elements.  EXAMPLE Deafing silence.  A statement that seems contradictory, but is actually true.  EXAMPLE “The sun itself is the dark simulacrum and light is the shadow of God.” OXYMORON PARADOX
  22. 22. TROPES  A punning play on words which uses similar or identical phonemes for its effect.  EXAMPLE Who seeks happiness, that with six herds or more.  A roundabout way of speaking or writing. Thus using many or very long words where a few simple words, will do.  « Her olfactory system was suffering from a temporary inconvenience. » Her nose was blocked Hard times PARONOMASIA PERIPHRASIS
  23. 23. TROPES  Nonhuman things or abstractions are represented as having human qualities.  EXAMPLE “A tree that may in summer wear a nest of robins in her hair” (from “Trees” by Joyce Kilmer)  A comparison of two things that is essentially different, usually using the words like or as.  EXAMPLE “Oh my love is like a red, red rose.” (from “A Red, Red Rose” by Robert Burns) PERSONIFICATION SIMILE
  24. 24. TROPES  Mixing sensations to appeal to more than one sense.  EXAMPLE The eye of man hath not heard, the ear of man hath not seen, man’s hand is not able to taste, his tongue, To conceive, not his heart to report, what my dream was.  The opposite of hyperbole; the deliberate presentation of something as being much less important, valuable etc. than it really is.  EXAMPLE “These figures are a bit disappointing” instead of “… are disastrous SYNAESTHESIA UNDERSTATEMENT

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