• It is the inflammation of the nasal mucous
• It is an acute non specific infective rhinitis.
• Also known as “common cold”.
• Causative organism: virus and may be either
influenza virus rhinovirus or adenovirus etc.
• Spread : is by air borne droplet infection or by
• Secondary infection by bacteria may occur
streptococcus staphylococcus pneumococcus
• Viral infection of the nasal mucosa
• Acute generalised hyperaemia of the nasal
• Engorgement of the secretory gland and
• Profuse secretion involvement of sinus
• Anterior rhinoscopy: Hypertrophy of inferior
• Posterior rhinoscopy:Mullbery like appearance
• Removal or treatment of predisposing factors
• Local nasal decongestants drops
• Surgical management for turbinate
• Partial turbinectomy
• It is a chronic inflammatory disease of the
nasal mucosa which characterised by
progressive atrophy of the mucosa and
turbinates', formation of crust and foul smell
from the nose known as ozaena.
• Unilateral or bilateral
• Primary or secondary
• Exact aetiology not known but predisposing
• Age : common between 15-40 yrs occurs
usually at puberty.
• Sex : more common in female.
• Vitamin a deficiency
• Secondary :
• Chronic specific infection
• Extensive surgery
• Chronic sinusitis
• It is a condition characterised by atrophic
changes in all the nasal tissues.
• Mucosa undergoes atrophy and metaplasia
• Cilia and secretory glands also undergo
atrophy with a resultant pale , dry, thin
mucosa with thick scanty secretion dry to
form crust which may bleed on removal.
• Secondary infection usually results in foul
• Turbinates' undergo atrophy resulting in loss
of anatomical landmarks on the nose and a
roomy nasal cavity.
• Blood vessels undergo periarteritis & endaritis
resulting in ischemia .
• Sensory nerves undergo atrophy and hence
the patients may complain of nasal
obstruction as he does not feels the air
passing through the nose.
• Atrophy of the olfactory nerve ending
resulting in anosmia
• Nasal obstruction :
– Crust in nasal cavity
– Atrophy of sensory nerves
• Crusting of nose(ozaena)
• Foul smell of nose
• dryness of nose and throat
• External nasal examination:
– Bridge of nose may be depressed ( saddle shaped)
• Anterior rhinoscopy
– Nasal cavity is roomy
– Causative factors like DNS
– Mucosa is pale shiny dry and atrophy
– Crust are seen
• Posterior rhinoscopy
– Diminished sensation of the mucosa due to the
atrophy of sensory nerve ending
• Anterior rhinoscopy: dry dark red mucosa
• Posterior rhinoscopy: nasal mucosa normal
• No any crust or drying
• Lubrication of nose-vaseline,oil
• Alkaline nasal douching
• Change of environment /job
• Also known as nasal diptheria.
• It is a form of acute infective rhinitis.
• Causative organism: corynebacterium
• Age :common in children.
• It is of two types
• It may affect the nose first without
involvement of other tissues.
• It may affect the nose secondary to faucial
• Blood stained watery rhinorrhoea.
• Skin near the nasal vestibule may show
excoriation due to continuous nasal discharge.
• Nasal obstruction
• Greyish white membrane is seen on the
turbinate's or nasal septum, it is difficult to
• Constitutional symptoms such as fever
• Swab culture may show diphtheria bacilli
• Patient is hospitalised and isolated.
• Antitoxin serum are given after a skin
• Penicillin and ampicillin.
• Allergic rhinitis is a common disorder which is
usually characterized by spasmodic attack of
severe sneezing and rhinorrhea.
• Age:all age
• Sex: both sex
• Predisposing factors:
–Acute stage :pale
Chronic stage :bluish purple
– Polyp :present
– Allergic salute(tip of nose salute like)
– dorrer’s line (crease on dorsum of nose)
• Nasal secretion : eosinophilia
• Stool examination
• History about allergy
• Skin test by intradermal injection
• Inhalation of allergens
• Elimination test for food
• RAST (radio allergosorbant test)
CORRELATION WITH MIASM
• Rhinitis covers all the three
miasm, psora and syphilis &
• Psora-functional changes
• Rhinitis covers the psora miasm; psora leads
to functional disturbances; i.e. in rhinitis there
is inflammation of mucus membrane of nose
leading to ischemic conditions and burning,
irritation like symptoms.
• Sensation of dryness in the nose troublesome
even when the air passes freely.
• Epistaxis more or less profusely more or less
• Ulcerated nostrils
• Nostrils as if it were stuffed up.
• Disagreeble sensation of dryness in the nose.
• It also covers the syphilis miasm because of
the nasal discharge.
• Loss of smell.
• Snuffle children.
• The bones of the nose are destroyed.
• Syphilis produce ulceration
• The crust of syphilis are dark greenish black or
brown,thick and not always offensive
• It also covers the sycotic miasm because t
leads to nasal destruction.
• Sense of smell loss.
• Sycotic has a red nose with prominent
• There is often nasal stoppage due thickening
of the membrane ,there is enlarged turbinated
• New babies of sycotic patient often get
snuffles nose dry stuffed up frequently in
• Screams with anger in its attempt with
breathe with its mouth closed