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Supporting
Bodily Communication
in Video Consultations
of Physiotherapy
Deepti Aggarwal
Wednesday, 16 August 17
Video Consultations of Physiotherapy
van Dyk 2014; Yellowlees 2005
Wednesday, 16 August 17
Bodily Communication in Physiotherapy
Argyle 2013; Heath 1986, 2002
Wednesday, 16 August 17
Existing Literature
Physiotherapy
Video
Consultation
Bodily
Communication
Wednesday, 16 August 17
Prior works on Video Consultations
Focus on validation & viability for
different clinical domains.
Physiotherapy
Video
Con...
Prior works on Physiotherapy
Physiotherapy
Video
Consultation
Bodily
Communication
Technologies are mainly
designed for au...
Prior works on Bodily Communication
Physiotherapy
Video
Consultation
Bodily
Communication
Limitation of video mediated bod...
Research Gap
Physiotherapy
Video
Consultation
Bodily
Communication
Wednesday, 16 August 17
Main Research Question
How can interactive technologies
support physiotherapists in
understanding bodily information
durin...
Research Phases
#1 Observations
#2 Prototyping
#3 Laboratory Evaluation
#4 Field Deployments
Wednesday, 16 August 17
Research Phases
#2 Prototyping
#3 Laboratory Evaluation
#4 Field Deployments
#1 Observations
Wednesday, 16 August 17
Study 1 - Research Question
How do physiotherapists
interpret bodily information in
current practices of video
consultatio...
#1 Observations
Face-to-Face (3) Video (7)
2 physiotherapists & 5 patients with chronic pain
Prescribed exercises: tip-toe...
Face-to-Face Video
1. Opening
2. History taking
3. Examination
4. Diagnosis
5. Treatment
6. Closing
Byrne & Long 1976
Wedn...
Lower Body
Movements
Wednesday, 16 August 17
#1 Limited Visual Acuity of Video Technology
Weight Distribution Range of Movement
Wednesday, 16 August 17
#2 Alignment with upper torso
Wednesday, 16 August 17
Focusing Camera Removes the Context
Wednesday, 16 August 17
Reduced confidence in
assessment
Less effective treatment
Wednesday, 16 August 17
ACM DIS 2016 (full paper)
Wednesday, 16 August 17
Research Phases
#1 Observations
#3 Laboratory Evaluation
#4 Field Deployments
#2 Prototyping
Wednesday, 16 August 17
Study 2 - Research Question
How can we collect and visualize
lower body movements to support
physiotherapists in assessing...
Key aspects of lower body movements
Weight
Distribution
Range of
Movements
Foot
Orientation
Wednesday, 16 August 17
How to capture?
Wednesday, 16 August 17
SoPhy
SOcks for PHYsiotherapy
Socks with sensors Web interface
Wednesday, 16 August 17
SoPhy socks
IMU
Pressure
Sensors
Bluetooth
Shield
Arduino
Pro Mini
Wednesday, 16 August 17
SoPhy web-interface
Wednesday, 16 August 17
Wednesday, 16 August 17
Wednesday, 16 August 17
Research Phases
#1 Observations
#2 Prototyping
#4 Field Deployments
#3 Laboratory Evaluation
Wednesday, 16 August 17
Study 3 - Research Question
What is the diagnostic efficacy
of SoPhy for assessing lower
limb movements in video
consultat...
Study Setup
Clinician’s room
10 physiotherapists & 1 actor (patient)
Patient’s room
Wednesday, 16 August 17
Study Design (2x2)
Extreme pain Low pain
Factors: Consultation Technology & Pain Levels
Wednesday, 16 August 17
Study Design (2X2)
Independent
Variables
Consultation Technology - with
SoPhy & without SoPhy
Pain Levels - extreme and lo...
Tasks for
Participants
Assess the patient’s exercises
Organize 4 video sessions
Report confidence in a
questionnaire
Wedne...
Tasks for Actor
Dorsiflexion &
Plantarflexion
1-leg tip-toes &
2-leg tip-toes
Squats
Wednesday, 16 August 17
Key Findings
Fewer repetitions of exercises
were required for assessment
Increased the confidence in
assessment
Insights o...
ACM CHI 2017 (full paper)
Wednesday, 16 August 17
Revised SoPhy Design
Wednesday, 16 August 17
Revised SoPhy Interface
Wednesday, 16 August 17
Research Phases
#1 Observations
#2 Prototyping
#3 Laboratory Evaluation
#4 Field Deployments
Wednesday, 16 August 17
Study 4 - Research Question
How does SoPhy support
physiotherapists in assessing
and treating patients with lower
limb iss...
Study Design
1 physiotherapist, 3 patients with lower limb issues
Simulated video sessions at Royal Children’s Hospital
Ho...
Study Design
Face-to-Face
(60 mins)
Video
Consultation
(45 - 50 mins)
Face-to-Face
follow up
(15 - 10 mins)
First session ...
SoPhy as an Assessment Tool
Wednesday, 16 August 17
SoPhy as a Therapeutic Tool
Wednesday, 16 August 17
Without SoPhy With SoPhy
(Study 4)(Study 1)
#5. Treatment
#1. Opening
#2. History Taking
#3 & 4. Examination & Diagnosis
#...
Without SoPhy
Limited incidental cues Increased incidental cues
With SoPhy
(Study 4)(Study 1)
#1. Opening
Limited small ta...
Without SoPhy
Reliance on verbal
explanation
Visualisation aided the
verbal explanation
With SoPhy
(Study 4)(Study 1)
#2. ...
Without SoPhy
Lack of clarity in patient’s
condition
Better understanding of
patient’s condition
With SoPhy
(Study 4)(Stud...
Without SoPhy
Hesitation in changing
the treatment
Confidence in changing the
treatment
With SoPhy
(Study 4)(Study 1)
#5. ...
Without SoPhy
Limited small talk Opportunities for small talk
With SoPhy
(Study 4)(Study 1)
#6. Closing
Wednesday, 16 Augu...
Key Findings
Guided more specific treatment
Increased the confidence in
assessment
Made the therapy goals intuitive
for pa...
Thesis Contributions
To theory -
First conceptual
understanding of
bodily communication
in physiotherapy
To clinical pract...
Dissertation Status
Time Tasks
July - Aug.
2017
Literature Review (Ch 2)
Discussion (Ch 8)
Methodology (Ch 3)
Sept. 2017
R...
Some memorable moments
Wednesday, 16 August 17
OzCHI 2015
OzCHI 2015
CHI 2017
Wednesday, 16 August 17
Foundation of ‘Social’NUI, 2015
Wednesday, 16 August 17
Past CHI Chair :D
Wednesday, 16 August 17
Space for the
convocation
photograph :)
A long awaited
award!
Wednesday, 16 August 17
Thank you!
Wednesday, 16 August 17
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Supporting Bodily Communication in Video Consultations of Physiotherapy

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These are the slides of my PhD completion seminar at The University of Melbourne, Australia.

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Supporting Bodily Communication in Video Consultations of Physiotherapy

  1. 1. Supporting Bodily Communication in Video Consultations of Physiotherapy Deepti Aggarwal Wednesday, 16 August 17
  2. 2. Video Consultations of Physiotherapy van Dyk 2014; Yellowlees 2005 Wednesday, 16 August 17
  3. 3. Bodily Communication in Physiotherapy Argyle 2013; Heath 1986, 2002 Wednesday, 16 August 17
  4. 4. Existing Literature Physiotherapy Video Consultation Bodily Communication Wednesday, 16 August 17
  5. 5. Prior works on Video Consultations Focus on validation & viability for different clinical domains. Physiotherapy Video Consultation Bodily Communication Ekeland et al., 2010 ; van Dyk, 2014 Only audio-visual medium is explored. Wednesday, 16 August 17
  6. 6. Prior works on Physiotherapy Physiotherapy Video Consultation Bodily Communication Technologies are mainly designed for autonomous home rehabilitation. Focus is on patients’ motivation. Lam et al., 2016; O’Hara et al., 2016; Tang et al., 2015 Wednesday, 16 August 17
  7. 7. Prior works on Bodily Communication Physiotherapy Video Consultation Bodily Communication Limitation of video mediated bodily communication is known. Bodily communication is primal in face-to-face consultation. Olson & Olson, 2013; Heath 1986, 2002 Wednesday, 16 August 17
  8. 8. Research Gap Physiotherapy Video Consultation Bodily Communication Wednesday, 16 August 17
  9. 9. Main Research Question How can interactive technologies support physiotherapists in understanding bodily information during video consultations? Wednesday, 16 August 17
  10. 10. Research Phases #1 Observations #2 Prototyping #3 Laboratory Evaluation #4 Field Deployments Wednesday, 16 August 17
  11. 11. Research Phases #2 Prototyping #3 Laboratory Evaluation #4 Field Deployments #1 Observations Wednesday, 16 August 17
  12. 12. Study 1 - Research Question How do physiotherapists interpret bodily information in current practices of video consultations? Wednesday, 16 August 17
  13. 13. #1 Observations Face-to-Face (3) Video (7) 2 physiotherapists & 5 patients with chronic pain Prescribed exercises: tip-toes, squats Wednesday, 16 August 17
  14. 14. Face-to-Face Video 1. Opening 2. History taking 3. Examination 4. Diagnosis 5. Treatment 6. Closing Byrne & Long 1976 Wednesday, 16 August 17
  15. 15. Lower Body Movements Wednesday, 16 August 17
  16. 16. #1 Limited Visual Acuity of Video Technology Weight Distribution Range of Movement Wednesday, 16 August 17
  17. 17. #2 Alignment with upper torso Wednesday, 16 August 17
  18. 18. Focusing Camera Removes the Context Wednesday, 16 August 17
  19. 19. Reduced confidence in assessment Less effective treatment Wednesday, 16 August 17
  20. 20. ACM DIS 2016 (full paper) Wednesday, 16 August 17
  21. 21. Research Phases #1 Observations #3 Laboratory Evaluation #4 Field Deployments #2 Prototyping Wednesday, 16 August 17
  22. 22. Study 2 - Research Question How can we collect and visualize lower body movements to support physiotherapists in assessing patients during video consultations? Wednesday, 16 August 17
  23. 23. Key aspects of lower body movements Weight Distribution Range of Movements Foot Orientation Wednesday, 16 August 17
  24. 24. How to capture? Wednesday, 16 August 17
  25. 25. SoPhy SOcks for PHYsiotherapy Socks with sensors Web interface Wednesday, 16 August 17
  26. 26. SoPhy socks IMU Pressure Sensors Bluetooth Shield Arduino Pro Mini Wednesday, 16 August 17
  27. 27. SoPhy web-interface Wednesday, 16 August 17
  28. 28. Wednesday, 16 August 17
  29. 29. Wednesday, 16 August 17
  30. 30. Research Phases #1 Observations #2 Prototyping #4 Field Deployments #3 Laboratory Evaluation Wednesday, 16 August 17
  31. 31. Study 3 - Research Question What is the diagnostic efficacy of SoPhy for assessing lower limb movements in video consultations? Wednesday, 16 August 17
  32. 32. Study Setup Clinician’s room 10 physiotherapists & 1 actor (patient) Patient’s room Wednesday, 16 August 17
  33. 33. Study Design (2x2) Extreme pain Low pain Factors: Consultation Technology & Pain Levels Wednesday, 16 August 17
  34. 34. Study Design (2X2) Independent Variables Consultation Technology - with SoPhy & without SoPhy Pain Levels - extreme and low Dependent Variables Weight Distribution, Range of Movement, Foot Orientation, Confidence, #Repetitions Data Collection Interviews, Questionnaire, Video Recording Wednesday, 16 August 17
  35. 35. Tasks for Participants Assess the patient’s exercises Organize 4 video sessions Report confidence in a questionnaire Wednesday, 16 August 17
  36. 36. Tasks for Actor Dorsiflexion & Plantarflexion 1-leg tip-toes & 2-leg tip-toes Squats Wednesday, 16 August 17
  37. 37. Key Findings Fewer repetitions of exercises were required for assessment Increased the confidence in assessment Insights on weight distribution was found invaluable Wednesday, 16 August 17
  38. 38. ACM CHI 2017 (full paper) Wednesday, 16 August 17
  39. 39. Revised SoPhy Design Wednesday, 16 August 17
  40. 40. Revised SoPhy Interface Wednesday, 16 August 17
  41. 41. Research Phases #1 Observations #2 Prototyping #3 Laboratory Evaluation #4 Field Deployments Wednesday, 16 August 17
  42. 42. Study 4 - Research Question How does SoPhy support physiotherapists in assessing and treating patients with lower limb issues during naturally occurring video consultations? Wednesday, 16 August 17
  43. 43. Study Design 1 physiotherapist, 3 patients with lower limb issues Simulated video sessions at Royal Children’s Hospital Hospital Room #1 Hospital Room #2 Wednesday, 16 August 17
  44. 44. Study Design Face-to-Face (60 mins) Video Consultation (45 - 50 mins) Face-to-Face follow up (15 - 10 mins) First session Second session Observations: 4 face-to-face and 2 video consultations Interviews: 10 Wednesday, 16 August 17
  45. 45. SoPhy as an Assessment Tool Wednesday, 16 August 17
  46. 46. SoPhy as a Therapeutic Tool Wednesday, 16 August 17
  47. 47. Without SoPhy With SoPhy (Study 4)(Study 1) #5. Treatment #1. Opening #2. History Taking #3 & 4. Examination & Diagnosis #6. Closing Wednesday, 16 August 17
  48. 48. Without SoPhy Limited incidental cues Increased incidental cues With SoPhy (Study 4)(Study 1) #1. Opening Limited small talk Opportunities for small talk Wednesday, 16 August 17
  49. 49. Without SoPhy Reliance on verbal explanation Visualisation aided the verbal explanation With SoPhy (Study 4)(Study 1) #2. History Taking Difficulty in observing subtle differences in movements Subtle differences in movements were distinguishable Wednesday, 16 August 17
  50. 50. Without SoPhy Lack of clarity in patient’s condition Better understanding of patient’s condition With SoPhy (Study 4)(Study 1) #3 & 4. Examination & Diagnosis Cheating or tricking was difficult to detect Contradictory behaviors were easy to notice Wednesday, 16 August 17
  51. 51. Without SoPhy Hesitation in changing the treatment Confidence in changing the treatment With SoPhy (Study 4)(Study 1) #5. Treatment Wednesday, 16 August 17
  52. 52. Without SoPhy Limited small talk Opportunities for small talk With SoPhy (Study 4)(Study 1) #6. Closing Wednesday, 16 August 17
  53. 53. Key Findings Guided more specific treatment Increased the confidence in assessment Made the therapy goals intuitive for patients Wednesday, 16 August 17
  54. 54. Thesis Contributions To theory - First conceptual understanding of bodily communication in physiotherapy To clinical practice - First exploration on how to enhance diagnostic ability of clinicians over video To methodology - The study design of Study 3 & 4 could guide future interventions To HCI practice - Practical insights on the design of wearable system around bodily communication Wednesday, 16 August 17
  55. 55. Dissertation Status Time Tasks July - Aug. 2017 Literature Review (Ch 2) Discussion (Ch 8) Methodology (Ch 3) Sept. 2017 Revision of complete thesis Thesis Submission Wednesday, 16 August 17
  56. 56. Some memorable moments Wednesday, 16 August 17
  57. 57. OzCHI 2015 OzCHI 2015 CHI 2017 Wednesday, 16 August 17
  58. 58. Foundation of ‘Social’NUI, 2015 Wednesday, 16 August 17
  59. 59. Past CHI Chair :D Wednesday, 16 August 17
  60. 60. Space for the convocation photograph :) A long awaited award! Wednesday, 16 August 17
  61. 61. Thank you! Wednesday, 16 August 17

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