Rox ludlow and fergus panton in their book “the essence of effective communication” have classified the objectives in 7 ways:1) To demonstrate – a service, product ,system2) To create – an image, strategy3) To entertain – colleagues, outside people4) To sell – a concept, product , idea5) To represent – a group, company, department6) To promote – an attitude, a way of working,7)To suggest – a solution , a new concept
Consists of obtaining knowledge about the audience. Considering physical factors relevant to presentation. Avoiding the structure of presentation.a) Know your audience:i. Audience background and how knowledgeable they are
ii)Their strengths and weaknesses.iii)How large will the audience be.iv)The age group they belong to.v)Gender all male or female, or a mixed lot? Interests vary with age ,with gender, with background(urban or rural),with economic status (affluent middle class poor).so presentations have to be adopted to the interests and need of the audience.b)Physical factors:
i. Where and what time of the day is the presentation to be made?ii. Are you the only speaker or are there others too?If you are one of the speakers where do you fit in? will you be the first speaker?iii)Are you the only speaker on the subject?iv)Will audio aids will be available? if yes do you know how to operate them efficiently? or will some assistance available?v)Will you be requested to use a microphone?vi)Will you be needing a hand outs?vii)How long will your presentation be?
c)Structuring the presentation:there are 6 distantly demasculated parts of presentation.1) Your introduction and the statement of objectives:3 aims here:-a) Telling the audiences who you are, which organisation you represent; and what your designation is.b) Making a cleus statement of the objectives of presentation.c) Creating a rapport with the audience
Introduction should be short should not take more than 10%of the time available.2)Introduction of main themes:Mention briefly and clearly that provides you the road map. well defined plan, followed faithfully, saves time from lapsing into digressions. the audience to will get mentally attuned to follow. this past should take about 20%of the time available.3)Develop the main themes: this is the main part of your presentation here the themes already introduced by you have to be developed with the help of examples,
Anecdotes ,arguments, graphics, visuals, etc whatever has already been prepared according to your plan, the themes have to be developed logically, clearly bringing out the relationship between the various themes and arguments. this part should be taken about 40%of the time available.4)Intergration of the themes: here all the themes that have been developed earlier are to be pulled together. and woven into one composite whole. A clear picture of the presentation should emerge and get implemented in the minds of the audience.
No now themes are to be introducedThey might confuse the audience.This part should take up 20% of the time available.5)Summary and conclusion: the main points are highlighted in order to create on enduring impression.If you want the audience to act in a certain way(buy a product, hire the services etc),you should convey urgency as if entire welfare of your audience depended on that single action.This part ought to be very brief but forceful.It should take 10%of the time available.
6)Question and answer session:questions, doubts, objections, ought to be anticipated and you ought to be reached with your response. familiarity with the object and buying ones cool, will help handle the session effectively.
3)PREPRATION:i. Some information would already be present in you mind. reinforce it with whatever additional facts you can garner. select the facts that are most crucial to your objectives keeping in mixed the times available.ii. Arrange the selected information in logical and sequencetial manner this will help the audience clearly understand the problem and solution offered by the you. a logical order facilitates comprehension and makes listening easy and smooth.
iii)The opening and closing sections of the presentation are extremely important.The opening must be striking look for some quotation, anecdotes ,or potential to function as hook similarly, suitable punchline to conclude. iv)decide what prints you to emphasize verbally and what you illustrate with the help of the visuals. v)ensure each section of presentation is correctly weighted.Check the priorities on your arguments.vi)Time your presentation.
it is an important aspect of your presentation actual presentation. actual presentation takes longer than we expect. 4)PRACTICE AND REHEARSAL:practice and rehearsal are indispensable for a good presenation only a “full dress” rehersal with proper voice variations, pauses and gestures can give you full benefits.5)GETTING READY : dress formally
Dress formallyWomen- sarees – avoid heavy make up and jewelleryOr western business dressMen suit: suit or shirt and trousers depending on season
6)MAKING THE PRESENTATION: greet the audience pleasantly and wrongly don’t look at your papers, sideways or at the while greeting them. if protocol demands, address some VIPs pronounce the names correctly.Do not ignore women in audience introduce yourself – if someone has not done it. name, designation the organisation you are working for. you must sound clear, courageous and considerate
The use of voice Eye contact Gestures – should be natural and congruent with your msg postures