Concepts and steps in curriculum


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curriculum, concepts and steps in curriculum development in nursing education

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Concepts and steps in curriculum

  1. 1.  “ A systematic arrangement of the sum total of selected experiences planned by a school or a defined group of students to attain the aims of a particular educational programme.” Florence nightingale international foundation
  2. 2.  “ Curriculum is the primary aid in the process of adjusting the child to the environment in which he function from day-to-day and in the environment in which he will have to organize his activities later.” K G Sayyidan  “ It is a complex of more or less planned and controlled conditions under which students learn to behave in their ways. In it, new behaviour may be acquired, present behaviour maintained or eliminated and desirable behaviour may become both persistent and viable” Kerney & Cook
  3. 3.  “Nursing curriculum is defined as the totality of the philosophical approaches, curriculum outcome statements, overall design, courses, teaching-learning strategies, delivery methods, interactions, learning climate, evaluation methods, curriculum policies and resources.” Iwasiw
  4. 4.  It includes all the learning experience which child has.  It is the systematic arrangement of certain courses designed with certain objectives.  The courses offered within a certain field in the school.  The courses studied by an individual child.  It includes the total learning experience of the child within or outside the classroom
  5. 5.  according to his age and ability.  directs the teaching-learning experiences.  provides formal and informal contacts.  the blue print plan.  reflects the patterns of life.  tool in the hands of the teacher to give training.  inculcate the standards of moral action.
  6. 6.  The facets of curriculum are: Goals & Purpose of education Process of Evaluation Curriculum of products  Curriculum includes Co-curricular activities Extra-curricular Curricular Programmes programmes 
  7. 7.  Philosophy.  Objectives.  Duration of learning.
  8. 8.  Courses of study, placement, sequences, and learning situations.  Instructional methods.  Programme of evaluation.
  9. 9. AREAS OF STUDY FROM WHERE THE COMPONENTS OF NURSING CURRICULUM ARE TO BE DRAWN • The natural sciences like biology, microbiology, biophysics, chemistry, pharmacology etc gives the information about facts, principles. • The humanities, behavioural and social sciences like psychology, sociology, fine arts etc. provide the insight and background for the development of the art of nursing. • Professional nursing areas where by the student nurse is responsible to learn and practice nursing, the subjects like fundamentals of nursing, midwifery, community health nursing, paediatric nursing and different branches of nursing
  10. 10.  The behavioural model  Objectives.  Content.  Method.  Evaluation.  Stenhouse’s proess model:  Similarly teaching methods and learning experiences can be selected in terms of worthwhileness as learning activities.  the teacher‟s commitment to professional development is vital.
  11. 11.  Lawton’s cultural analysis model  . Culture is defined as the whole way of life of society and the purpose of education is to make available to the next generation what we regard as the most important aspects of culture.  Beattie’s four fold model  The curriculum as a map of key subjects  The curriculum as the schedule of basic skills  The curriculum as a portfolio of meaningful personal experiences  The curriculum as the agenda of important cultural issues
  12. 12.  describe the theory form  cope with the knowledge explosion and scientific advancements.  Technology  consistent with theoretical framework  enable to do active practice.  being creative for the next 15-20 years  a reasonable length of time.  professional and personal growth.
  13. 13.  Legitimate curriculum:  agreed by the faculty either implicitly or explicitly.  „real curriculum‟.  The illegitimate curriculum:  is the curriculum of insights, patterns, creativity, strategies, inquiry and understanding.
  14. 14.  Hidden curriculum: This is the curriculum of subtle socialization of teaching how to think and feel nurses. It is the curriculum that covertly communicates priorities, relationships and values.  The null curriculum: This is the curriculum that exists only in the hearts and mind of educators but seldom exists in reality.
  15. 15. “ It is the process of gathering, sorting, selecting, bala ncing and synthesizing relevant information for many sources in order to design those experiences that will assist learners in attaining the goals of curriculum.”
  16. 16. Societal curriculum: Institutional curriculum: The instructional curriculum:
  17. 17.  Philosophy of nursing education: the goal is to prepare the student so that he can attain the end for which he was created.  Educational psychology: provides information and principles which serve to help in selection, organization and the evaluation of learning experiences in the curriculum.  Society: nursing is one of the social institution concerned with health, a fundamental need of all people and consequently can‟t be conceived of today apart from the society in which it functions
  18. 18.  Health needs:  Prepare the number and the kind of nurses essential to fulfil the nursing needs of the society.  The student:  to assist the student to help them to overcome the difficulties and in adjusting them.  Life activities:  Helps in the growth of student in individual capacities and in social participation.
  19. 19.  Knowledge:  consists of Subject matter courses  Technological advancements:  the high-tech-high-touch approach in nursing.  Transnational career oppurtunities:  abroad career oppurtunities.  Resources:  depends upon the availability of tangible and intangible resources.
  20. 20.  principle of conservation:  The principle of selectivity:
  21. 21.  The forward looking principle:  The activity and experience principle:  Principle of all round development of body, mind and spirit:
  22. 22.  Principle of democracy, secularism and socialism:  Principle of dignity of labour
  23. 23.  Principle of character building  Principle of comprehensiveness and balance  Principle of loyalties  Principle of connecting to community needs:
  24. 24.  Training for leisure:  Principle of core or common subjects
  25. 25.  principle of preparation of life  Principle of connecting to life  Child centred curriculum  The creative principle
  26. 26.  Principle of integration and co-relation  Principle of maturity  Principle of individual difference
  27. 27.  knowledge, skill and attitude.  expected results of the should be clear.  should consider the community needs.  inculcating right attitude.  offer adequate teaching-learning activities.  Follow guidelines of the statutory bodies.  high- tech-high- touch approach.  a participatory approach.  learning environment should resemble the life situation.
  28. 28.  FORMULATION OF EDUATIONAL OBJECTIVES statements of those desired change in behaviour.  SELECTION OF LEARNING EXPERIENCE deliberately planned experience in selected situations which student actively participate, interact and which result in desirable changes of behaviour in students.  ORGANIZATION OF LEARNING EXPERIENCE organized in such a way that the student is able to practice professional nursing for the next few years.  EVALUATION OF THE CURRICULUM