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  1. 1. Natural Recourses and Energy Management Second module
  2. 2. Fossil Fuels • • • • • There are many types of fossil fuels : Petroleum Natural gas Coal Natural gas contains high percent of carbon Fossil fuels are known as non renewable resources of energy as their formation takes millions of years and reserves are getting depleted at a much faster rate than new ones are being made.
  3. 3. • Combustion of fossil fuels generate sulfuric, carbonic, and nitric acids, which fall to earth as acid rain , impacting both the built environment and the natural areas • Monuments and sculptures are made from marble and limestone are particularly vulnerable as the acids dissolve calcium carbonate • Fossil fuels contains radio active materials unlikely uranium and thorium which are released into atmosphere • To ultimately use a fossil , all its different parts must be utilized, eg : burning coal also generate large amount of bottom ash and fly ash • Fly ash is one of the residues generated in the combustion of coal • Fly ash is captured form the chimneys of coal fired power plants , as is one of two types of ash that jointly are known
  4. 4. • • • • • • • • • • • Coal ash ; the other bottom ash, is removed from the bottom of coal furnaces. Fly ash recycling in its descending frequency, includes usage of the following : Embankments and structural fill Road sub base Water stabilization and solidification Portland cement and grout Flow able fill Aggregate Raw feed for cement clinkers Mine reclamation Stabilization of soft soils Mineral filler in asphaltic concrete Other applications include cellular concrete, geopolymers, roofing tiles, paints, metal castings and filler in woods and plastic products.
  5. 5. Energy Resources Energy sources can be of various types , namely : • Solar energy • Wind energy • Wave and tidal energy • Geothermal energy • Biogas • Atomic energy 1. Conventional sources • Water • Forest as a renewable resource • Wildlife as a renewable resource • Livestock as a renewable resource
  6. 6. • Aqua culture as a renewable resource • Energy
  7. 7. Renewable sources • Some of the major problems
  8. 8. Need for energy conservation in India • The increasing demand for power has led to considerable fossil fuels burning which • has in turn had an adverse impact on environment. In this context, efficient use of energy and its conservation is of paramount importance. • It has been estimated that nearly 25,000 MW can be saved by implementing end-use energy efficiency and demand side management measures through out India • The economic development of a country is often closely linked to its consumption of energy.
  9. 9. • India’s proven coal reserves may last for more than 200 years, but the limited known oil and natural gas reserves may last only 18 years to 26 years, which is a cause of concern. • The continued trend of increasing share of petroleum fuels in the consumption of commercial energy is bound to lead to more dependence on imports and energy insecurity. • India’s energy intensity per unit of GDP is higher as compared to Japan, U.S.A. and Asia by 3.7 times, 1.55 times and 1.47 times respectively • Energy conservation avoids wasteful use of energy without much investment. It can be termed as a new source of energy, which when available, can be readily used without any further loss or gestation period.,
  10. 10. • Increasing energy demand in India is a drain of the national economy. Besides, it is a major factor hindering the competitiveness of basic Indian industries in the global market. Thus, energy conservation is equally important for the nation and industrial firms. • Electrical power is one of the scarce resources in our country. Generation of electricity is very capital intensive. 1 MW of power generation costs approximately Rs. 4 crore because of the low plant load factor and high transmission losses prevalent in the country. The installed capacity of power station has to be therefore, 2.2 times the electrical load.
  11. 11. • Energy saving achieved through energy efficiency and conservation also avoids capital investment in fuel, mining, transport, water and land required for power plant, thereby mitigating environmental pollution.
  12. 12. Energy Audit • In any industry, the three top operating expenditures with the highest priority are frequently found to be energy, labour and materials • Energy management function comprises a planned domain for reducing costs. • Energy audit will enable greater understanding regarding the methods by which energy and fuel are used in the industry. • It will also enable the identification of those areas where waste is most likely to take place and where there is scope for improvement • This is done by giving technically possible solutions with economic and other organizational considerations within a prescribed time frame.
  13. 13. Contents of energy audit • • • • Analysis of energy use Identification of energy projects Cost benefit analysis Action plan to set implantation priority
  14. 14. Energy Audit : Types and Methodology • The types of energy audit to be performed are dependent on the following : 1. Functions and types of industry 2. Depth to which final audit is required and 3. Potential and magnitude of desirable cost reduction a) Preliminary energy audit methodology • Establishing energy consumption in the org • Estimating the scope for saving • Identifying the most possible and he simplest areas of attention • Identifying immediate improvement / savings • Setting a reference point • Identifying areas for further detailed study / measurement • Performing initial energy audit using the existing or easily obtained data
  15. 15. b) Detailed energy audit methodology • A complete audit offers a detailed energy project implementation plan for a facility. This is so because it assesses the entire energy with the help of systems • This is a kind of audit provides the exact estimation of energy savings and cost. • It also includes comprehensive energy cost saving calculation sand project cost • In detailed one of the primary factor is the energy balance. • This is established on a n inventory of energy that uses systems , assumptions of current operating conditions and calculations of energy use • Subsequently comparison of this estimated use is done with utility bills charge
  16. 16. Phases of Energy Auditing • Phase 1 - pre-audit phase • Phase 11 - audit phase • Phase 111 - post audit phase
  17. 17. • • • • Identification of Energy Conservation Opportunities Fuel substitution Energy generation Energy distribution Energy usage by process
  18. 18. Technical and economic feasibility The issues that must be addressed by technical feasibility are as follows: • Technology availability , space , skilled manpower, reliability , service etc • The effect of energy efficiency measure on safety, quality, production or process • The maintenance needs and spares availability
  19. 19. Classification of energy conservation measures • On the basis of energy audit and analysis of the plant , several potential energy saving projects can be identified. These may categorized into three types: • Low cost : high return • Medium cost : medium return • High cost : high return
  20. 20. Understanding energy cost • It is crucial to create awareness and save calculation. In several industries, there may be no availability of adequate meters for measuring all the energy consumed. The reasons for which energy invoices can e used are as follows: • They supply a record of energy bought in a given year , which provides a base line for future reference • Energy invoices can refer to the potential for savings when associated with production needs or air conditioning requirements / space heating • When electricity is bought based on the highest demand tariff
  21. 21. • They can give suggestion of the places where savings are highly possible to be made • In subsequent years invoices may be used for quantifying the energy and cost savings made through every conservation measures
  22. 22. Fuel costs • A broad range of fuels are available for thermal energy supply. Few of them are as follows: • Fuel oil • Low sulphur heavy stock(LSHS) • Light diesel oil (LDO) • Liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) • Coal • Lignite • Wood etc
  23. 23. • Understanding the fuel cost is relatively easy and it is bought in Tons or Kiloliters. Availability , cost and quality are the three major factors to consider while purchasing. • The factors that need to be considered while obtaining fuels for energy efficiency and economics are as follows: • Cost at source, transport charge, type of transport • Quality of fuel (contaminations, moisture etc) • Energy content (caloric value) • Power costs
  24. 24. Bench marking and energy performance • Bench marking of energy consumption internally and externally are two dominant tools for performance evaluation and reasonable evolution of opportunities for improvement • Proper documentation of historical data enables to draw energy consumption and cost trends in a month – wise / day wise manner . • Trend evaluation of energy consumption, cost, relevant production features, specific energy consumption , enable in understanding the effects of potential usage on energy use efficiency and costs on a wider scale.
  25. 25. Bureau of energy • External benchmarking associates with inter comparison across a group of same units. • In any case it will be significant to ensure similarities or else findings could prove to be extremely misleading • Certain comparative factors that need to be focused upon while bench marking externally are as follows: 1. Range of operation 2. Era of technology 3. Raw material specification and quality 4. Product specifications and quality • Following are permitted by the bench marking energy performance:
  26. 26. • Quantification of fixed and variable energy consumption manner with respect to production levels • Assessment of the industry energy performance with regard to different production levels • Identification of best practices • Availability of scope and margin for energy consumption and cost reduction • Basis for monitoring and target setting exercises.
  27. 27. The bench marking parameters can be as follows: • Gross production related , the examples of which are as follows: • Kwh/MT clinker or cement produced • KWH/KG yarn produced (textile unit) • KWH/MT , kcal /kg ,paper produced (paper plant )