PRESENTED TO: PROF. NAMITA GUPTA
SUBMITTED BY: DEEPAK YADAV
DEEPSHREE SHARMA
NANCY SAXENA
NIZAMMUDDIN
RUEHAN MIR
THE 1991 GULF WAR OIL
SPILL
An oil spill is the release of
a liquid petroleum hydrocarbon into the
environment, especially...
•The Gulf War oil spill was one of the largest oil spills in
history, resulting from the Gulf War in 1991. The apparent
st...
In January 1991, Saddam Hussein and his Iraqi forces
fighting in the Gulf War committed acts of what some have
termed "env...
Initial estimates placed the size of the spill at 10 million
barrels, but later and apparently more accurate figures
range...
1. The Animal Victims of the Gulf War
EFFECTS ON WILDLIFE:
BIRDS
 Seabirds can dive into oil
slicks thinking they are
cal...
MARINE MAMMALS
•Heavily furred marine
mammals exposed to oil spills are
affected in similar ways.
•Oil coats the fur of se...
MULTIMILLION-DOLLAR SAUDI FISHERIES INDUSTRY
• Large oil spills can kill fish
directly by suffocation and can
also destroy...
HUMAN HEALTH
•Oil is semi-volatile, which
means that it can evaporate into
the air and create a heavy vapour
that stays ne...
•Utilitarianism is the idea that the best course is the one that provides the most
happiness for the most people. Ideally ...
•Although hundreds of thousands of animals have died as a
consequence of human war making, no comprehensive effort
has eve...
•Virtue ethics is a broad term for theories that emphasize the
role of character and virtue in moral philosophy rather tha...
ETHICAL LEADERSHIP
•Leaders must be ethical in their own decisions and actions.
•Had Saddam Hussein been an ethical leader...
WRONG DECISION MAKING: ETHICALLY AND
ECONOMICALLY
•The environmental impacts of the Gulf War Crisis were felt
immediately ...
ECONOMIC IMPACT
It may be inferred that economic frustration was at the root
of the Gulf Conflict in the first place. Sadd...
Methods for cleaning up include:
•BIOREMEDIATION: use of microorganismsor biological
agents to break down or remove oil.
•...
•DISPERSANTS: can be used to dissipate oil slicks.
A dispersant is either a non-surface
active polymer or a surface-active...
Enviornmental pollution and society
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Enviornmental pollution and society

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what is environment pollution with focus on the Gulf War oil spill in 1991. how it affected various parts of the society?

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  • A serious environmental damage was experienced in 1991 Gulf war. The world largest oil spill, estimated 8 million barrels. The gulf waters in coastal areas of IRAN, KUWAIT, and SAUDI ARABIA were fouled. The Saudi Arabia had the worst damage. Because the animals and plants of the seafloor are the basis of the food chain, damage to the shoreline consequences for the whole shallow- water ecosystem.Over770 km of coastline from southern Kuwait to Abu Ali Island were smothered with oil and tar,erasing most of the local plant and animal communities.
  • For the Iraqis, burning of oils was ethically justified because the United States and its allies had attacked Iraq and was attempting to remove Iraqi forces from Kuwait. Because Iraq believed that Kuwait was actually a part of Iraq, they justified their attack on the country. And because they believe they have an ethical right to defend themselves, they justified the burning of wells as a necessary tactic to protect and defend Iraqi forces in Kuwait.
  • However, the when the Iraqi's released crude petroleum into the Persian Gulf, the results were much more tragic for the environment and wildlife, and much less simple to ethically justify. Days after the oil was released, a ten-mile band of crude oil stretched across the Gulf near Kuwait that was described as "so thick in places that the water heaved like mud
  • rich breeding ground for fish, crabs, oysters and shrimp and accounts for about 20 percent of the nation's total commercial seafood production.Many people are suspicious of seafood from the Gulf
  • The prospect of killing or injuring animals has never had a deterrent effect on those making decisions about war. A few recent international agreements, reached in efforts to mitigate the impact of war on the environment, have not translated into significant restrictions on military activity, let alone explicit measures to protect animals in time of war.
  • The environmental and economic hardships imposed on Kuwait, and to the Gulf Region in general, both during and after the Gulf War will be endured for many years to come.The destruction caused by the oil fires and the oil spills were devastating, and at times were fatal. Not only did humans suffer the consequences of the conflict, but the ecosystem and the atmosphere were also innocent victims.
  • Enviornmental pollution and society

    1. 1. PRESENTED TO: PROF. NAMITA GUPTA SUBMITTED BY: DEEPAK YADAV DEEPSHREE SHARMA NANCY SAXENA NIZAMMUDDIN RUEHAN MIR
    2. 2. THE 1991 GULF WAR OIL SPILL An oil spill is the release of a liquid petroleum hydrocarbon into the environment, especially marine areas, due to human activity, and is a form of pollution. The term is usually applied to marine oil spills, where oil is released into the ocean or coastal waters, but spills may also occur on land.
    3. 3. •The Gulf War oil spill was one of the largest oil spills in history, resulting from the Gulf War in 1991. The apparent strategic goal was to foil a potential landing by US Marines. •The immediate reports from Baghdad said that American air strikes had caused a discharge of oil from two tankers. Coalition forces determined the main source of oil to be the Sea Island terminal in Kuwait. •On January 26, three US F-117 fighter bombers destroyed pipelines to prevent further spillage into the Persian Gulf.
    4. 4. In January 1991, Saddam Hussein and his Iraqi forces fighting in the Gulf War committed acts of what some have termed "environmental terrorism" by burning oil wells and releasing crude oil into the Persian Gulf, fouling the water and devastating wildlife. According to reports, the Iraqis set the oil wells on fire to provide a massive smoke shield that was meant to confuse military guidance systems and block the view of military satellites.
    5. 5. Initial estimates placed the size of the spill at 10 million barrels, but later and apparently more accurate figures ranged between 4 and 6 million barrels . Combined, the five previous major spills within the Gulf accounted for 4.1 million barrels, equivalent to the minimum estimated amount released during the Gulf War. Oil continued to be discharged into the Persian Gulf until at least late May, 1991.
    6. 6. 1. The Animal Victims of the Gulf War EFFECTS ON WILDLIFE: BIRDS  Seabirds can dive into oil slicks thinking they are calm water  Oil makes birds unable to regulate body temperature  Leads to hyperthermia
    7. 7. MARINE MAMMALS •Heavily furred marine mammals exposed to oil spills are affected in similar ways. •Oil coats the fur of sea otters and seals, reducing its insulating effect, hypothermia. •Oil can also blind an animal, leaving it defenceless. The ingestion of oil causes dehydration and impairs the digestive process. •Animals can be poisoned, and may die from oil entering the lungs or liver.
    8. 8. MULTIMILLION-DOLLAR SAUDI FISHERIES INDUSTRY • Large oil spills can kill fish directly by suffocation and can also destroy the surrounding environment where fish lay eggs and young fish develop resulting in lack of fishes •Crude oil contains many compounds that are toxic to animals including fish. Such fishes if consumed by humans can result in various diseases
    9. 9. HUMAN HEALTH •Oil is semi-volatile, which means that it can evaporate into the air and create a heavy vapour that stays near the ground - in the human breathing zone. •When winds whip up oily sea water, the spray contains tiny droplets, which are small enough to be inhaled deep into the lungs. •People may suffer from nausea, vomiting, headaches, an d difficulty breathing.
    10. 10. •Utilitarianism is the idea that the best course is the one that provides the most happiness for the most people. Ideally this is a great idea, but it falls apart, because different things make different people happy. This makes it abusable and dangerous in the long term. •Principles which hold for everybody will prescribe or recommend the same for everybody (same obligations, same rights, same virtues and so on). Advocates of universal principles see this as a merit: they see equality of requirement and entitlement as ethically important.
    11. 11. •Although hundreds of thousands of animals have died as a consequence of human war making, no comprehensive effort has ever been made, to assess the numbers or types of animal casualties during or after past conflicts. •Recently a branch of ethics known as the applied ethics was developed which consists of the analysis of specific, controversial moral issues such as abortion, animal rights, or euthanasia. In recent years applied ethical issues have been subdivided into convenient groups such as medical ethics, business ethics, environmental ethics, and sexual ethics.
    12. 12. •Virtue ethics is a broad term for theories that emphasize the role of character and virtue in moral philosophy rather than either doing one’s duty or acting in order to bring about good consequences. •A branch of virtue ethics, the ethics of care, was proposed predominately by feminist thinkers. It challenges the idea that ethics should focus solely on justice and autonomy; it argues that more feminine traits, such as caring and nurturing, should also be considered. •Thus in the case here the war fares of iraq should have given thought to the long term aspects of there action of spilling oil and not only about the war. VIRTUE ETHICS
    13. 13. ETHICAL LEADERSHIP •Leaders must be ethical in their own decisions and actions. •Had Saddam Hussein been an ethical leader he would not have carried out the war on Kuwait. •Ethical leadership could have been an answer to this. ETHICAL LEADERSHIP
    14. 14. WRONG DECISION MAKING: ETHICALLY AND ECONOMICALLY •The environmental impacts of the Gulf War Crisis were felt immediately at the onset of the Iraqi invasion. Humans began suffering on day one of the invasion and the atrocities towards humans continued with the duration of the war. Thousands were either killed, wounded, raped, or taken prisoner before the war terminated. •The other casualty of this war was the planet. The land was abused greatly from transportation of heavy artillery and movement of troops across the desert.
    15. 15. ECONOMIC IMPACT It may be inferred that economic frustration was at the root of the Gulf Conflict in the first place. Saddam Hussein felt smothered, and unable to find funding for his economy to repay the other Arab states for Iraq's previous war with Iran. Some Arab rich states were unwilling to provide help to Iraq again, and many were complaining about Iraq's inability to repay its debts. The only way for Iraq to obtain revenue was through oil exports, but other OPEC nations would not allow increases in quotas.
    16. 16. Methods for cleaning up include: •BIOREMEDIATION: use of microorganismsor biological agents to break down or remove oil. •BIOREMEDIATION ACCELERATOR: By over spraying sheen with bioremediation accelerator, sheen is eliminated within minutes. •Controlled burning can effectively reduce the amount of oil in water, if done properly.
    17. 17. •DISPERSANTS: can be used to dissipate oil slicks. A dispersant is either a non-surface active polymer or a surface-active substance added to a suspension, usually a colloid, to improve the separation of particles and to prevent settling or clumping. •DREDGING: for oils dispersed with detergents and other oils denser than water. •SKIMMING: Requires calm waters at all times during the process. •Solidifying: Solidifiers are composed of dry hydrophobic polymers that both adsorb and absorb.

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