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Automatic Railway Gate
Control System
abstract

   The aim of this project is to Automate unmanned railway gate using
    mechatronics.

   PROJECT DEFINATION: The objective of this project is to manage
    the control system of railway gate using the microcontroller.
INTRODUCTION


   The objective of this project is to manage the control
    system of railway gate using the microcontroller. When
    train arrives at the sensing point alarm is triggered at the
    railway crossing point so that the people get intimation
    that gate is going to be closed.

   AT89C51 Microcontroller: The Micro controller
    (AT89C51) is a low power; high performance CMOS 8-bit
    micro controller with 4K bytes of Flash programmable
    and erasable read only memory (PEROM).
   KeilMicro vision Integrated DevelopmentEnvironment:
            Keil Software development tools for the 8051 micro controller family support
    every level of developer from the professional applications engineer to the student
    just learning about embedded software development.
            The source code is written in assembly language .It is saved as ASM
    file with an extension.
            The Hex file is dumped into micro controller using LABTOOL
    software. At once the file is dumped and the ROM is burnt then it becomes
    an embedded one.

   Step Motor Advantages: Step motors convert electrical energy into
    precise mechanical motion. These motors rotate a specific incremental
    distance per each step.
          In motor terms, repeatability is the ability to return to a previously held
    position. A step motor can achieve the same target position, revolution after
    revolution.
CIRCUIT DIAGRAM
BLOCK DIAGRAM

 IR 1   STEPPER     ALERM       Signals           IR2
        MOTOR1                  for       LASER
 Txr                                              Rxr
                                Road       Txr



                      8
                      0              ULN
                      5               2803
                      1             BUFFER
                    MICRO
                  CONTROLLER



IR1     STEPPE      Signals    LASER      IR2      POWE
Rxr     R           for         Rxr       Txr      R
        MOTOR2      Train                          SUPPL
                                                   Y
INTRODUCTION ON EMBEDDED SYSTEMS

          An Embedded system is a combination of computer hardware and software, and perhaps
   additional mechanical or other parts, designed to perform a specific function.

The common design requirement include –
   Processing power
   Memory
   Development cost
   Number of Units
   Expected Lifetime
   Reliability




                                Memory
                                Memory




              Inputs
               Inputs          Processor         Outputs
                                                 Outputs
                               Processor
HARDWARE DISCRIPTION

   STEPER MOTOR.
   Construction and Operating the Hybrid STEP MOTOR.




   CAPACITORS:An electrolytic capacitor is a type of capacitor typically
    with a larger capacitance per unit volume than other types, making them
    valuable in relatively high-current and low-frequency electrical circuits.
IR CIRCUITS:This        circuit has two stages: a transmitter unit and a receiver
  unit. The transmitter unit consists of an infrared LED and its associated
  circuitry.



IR TRANSMITTER:The IR LED emitting infrared light is put on in the
  transmitting unit. To generate IR signal, 555 IC based astable multivibrator is
  used. Infrared LED is driven through transistor BC 548.



IR RECEIVER:The             receiver unit consists of a sensor and its associated
  circuitry. In receiver section, the first part is a sensor, which detects IR pulses
  transmitted by IR-LED.
   POWER SUPPLY:
          To run the electronic gadget at home it is provided by some power
    supply. The microcontroller used (at89c51) requires 12v D.C supply .

For design of a regulated power supply components used are:
       Transformer.
       Diodes.
       Rectifiers.
       Regulated IC chips.
       Capacitive filters.
SOFTWARE DISCRIPTION

    Keil development tools for the 8051 Microcontroller Architecture support
    every level of software developer from the professional applications engineer to
    the student just learning about embedded software development.

   Select the Toolset (only required for ARM Projects).
   Create Project File and Select CPU.
   Project Workspace - Books.
   Create New Source Files.
   Add Source Files to the Project.
   Create File Groups.
   Set Tool Options for Target Hardware.
   Configure the CPU Startup Code.
   Build Project and Generate Application Program Code.
   Create a HEX File for PROM Programming.
KEIL MICROVISION
                                      -An IDE for Microcontrollers


    Keil development tools for the 8051 Microcontroller Architecture support
    every level of software developer from the professional applicat ions engineer to
    the student just learning about embedded software development

   The Keil 8051 Development Tools are designed to solve the complex problems
    facing embedded software developers.
CONCLUSIONS:
Hence the Unmanned railway gates operate according to the data input
 from sensors to microcontroller. First an alarm is triggered and then the
 gate is operated.


Specifications:
 Mechanical gate arrangement

 Atmel 89C51 an 8051 family microcontroller

 SN7404 for microcontroller interfacing.

 IR sensors for sensing train

 Stepper motor to operate gates

 ULN 2803 for driving Stepper motor
QUEIRIES

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Automatic railway gate control system

  • 2. abstract  The aim of this project is to Automate unmanned railway gate using mechatronics.  PROJECT DEFINATION: The objective of this project is to manage the control system of railway gate using the microcontroller.
  • 3. INTRODUCTION  The objective of this project is to manage the control system of railway gate using the microcontroller. When train arrives at the sensing point alarm is triggered at the railway crossing point so that the people get intimation that gate is going to be closed.  AT89C51 Microcontroller: The Micro controller (AT89C51) is a low power; high performance CMOS 8-bit micro controller with 4K bytes of Flash programmable and erasable read only memory (PEROM).
  • 4. KeilMicro vision Integrated DevelopmentEnvironment: Keil Software development tools for the 8051 micro controller family support every level of developer from the professional applications engineer to the student just learning about embedded software development. The source code is written in assembly language .It is saved as ASM file with an extension. The Hex file is dumped into micro controller using LABTOOL software. At once the file is dumped and the ROM is burnt then it becomes an embedded one.  Step Motor Advantages: Step motors convert electrical energy into precise mechanical motion. These motors rotate a specific incremental distance per each step. In motor terms, repeatability is the ability to return to a previously held position. A step motor can achieve the same target position, revolution after revolution.
  • 6. BLOCK DIAGRAM IR 1 STEPPER ALERM Signals IR2 MOTOR1 for LASER Txr Rxr Road Txr 8 0 ULN 5 2803 1 BUFFER MICRO CONTROLLER IR1 STEPPE Signals LASER IR2 POWE Rxr R for Rxr Txr R MOTOR2 Train SUPPL Y
  • 7. INTRODUCTION ON EMBEDDED SYSTEMS An Embedded system is a combination of computer hardware and software, and perhaps additional mechanical or other parts, designed to perform a specific function. The common design requirement include –  Processing power  Memory  Development cost  Number of Units  Expected Lifetime  Reliability Memory Memory Inputs Inputs Processor Outputs Outputs Processor
  • 8. HARDWARE DISCRIPTION  STEPER MOTOR.  Construction and Operating the Hybrid STEP MOTOR.  CAPACITORS:An electrolytic capacitor is a type of capacitor typically with a larger capacitance per unit volume than other types, making them valuable in relatively high-current and low-frequency electrical circuits.
  • 9. IR CIRCUITS:This circuit has two stages: a transmitter unit and a receiver unit. The transmitter unit consists of an infrared LED and its associated circuitry. IR TRANSMITTER:The IR LED emitting infrared light is put on in the transmitting unit. To generate IR signal, 555 IC based astable multivibrator is used. Infrared LED is driven through transistor BC 548. IR RECEIVER:The receiver unit consists of a sensor and its associated circuitry. In receiver section, the first part is a sensor, which detects IR pulses transmitted by IR-LED.
  • 10. POWER SUPPLY: To run the electronic gadget at home it is provided by some power supply. The microcontroller used (at89c51) requires 12v D.C supply . For design of a regulated power supply components used are:  Transformer.  Diodes.  Rectifiers.  Regulated IC chips.  Capacitive filters.
  • 11. SOFTWARE DISCRIPTION Keil development tools for the 8051 Microcontroller Architecture support every level of software developer from the professional applications engineer to the student just learning about embedded software development.  Select the Toolset (only required for ARM Projects).  Create Project File and Select CPU.  Project Workspace - Books.  Create New Source Files.  Add Source Files to the Project.  Create File Groups.  Set Tool Options for Target Hardware.  Configure the CPU Startup Code.  Build Project and Generate Application Program Code.  Create a HEX File for PROM Programming.
  • 12. KEIL MICROVISION -An IDE for Microcontrollers  Keil development tools for the 8051 Microcontroller Architecture support every level of software developer from the professional applicat ions engineer to the student just learning about embedded software development  The Keil 8051 Development Tools are designed to solve the complex problems facing embedded software developers.
  • 13. CONCLUSIONS: Hence the Unmanned railway gates operate according to the data input from sensors to microcontroller. First an alarm is triggered and then the gate is operated. Specifications:  Mechanical gate arrangement  Atmel 89C51 an 8051 family microcontroller  SN7404 for microcontroller interfacing.  IR sensors for sensing train  Stepper motor to operate gates  ULN 2803 for driving Stepper motor