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Part 1 research methodology


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Part 1 research methodology

  1. 1. Research Methodology
  2. 2. What is Research ? Research in common is “Search for Knowledge” Research is a scientific and systematic search forpertinent information on a specific topic.More precisely it is :“Research comprises defining and recording problems,formulating hypothesis, collecting, organising andevaluating data; making deductions and reachingconclusions; and at last carefully testing the conclusionto determine whether they fit the formulatedhypothesis” – Clifford Woody
  3. 3. Objectives of Research To gain familiarity with a phenomenon To portray accurately the characteristics of a particularindividual situation or a group To determine the frequency with which somethingoccurs and Why it occurs To test a hypothesis of a casual relationship betweenvariables
  4. 4. Classification of Research Fundamental Research (Basic or Theoretical)- Concerned with developing, exploring ortesting the theories or ideas- Public Good – Non-Rival and Non-Exclusive Applied Research (Empirical or ActionResearch)- We have a problem and we wish to find
  5. 5. Research Theory / Approaches Deductive Theory :Theory Hypothesis Data Collection FindingsRevision of Theory Hypotheses Confirmed Inductive Theory :Observation / Findings Theory, Hypothesis or Law
  6. 6. Types of Business Research Exploratory Research :- It is used when area of investigation is very new andwe want to have just familiarity. e.g. Test Marketing- It is when researcher lack a clear idea of the problemthey are facing- It develop concept more clearly, establish priority,develop operational definitions and improve the finalresearch design.- It is followed by subsequent research
  7. 7. Types of Business Research Descriptive Research- It is used to describe characteristics of a phenomenon- Answers the questions who, what, when, where and how- It is based upon some previous understanding of thenature of research problem.- A Diagnostic Analysis is the core of Descriptive research Casual Research- To identify Cause-Effect relationship- Require precise knowledge about variables under consideration- It will :a. Establish appropriate causal orderb. Measure the variation between presume cause and effectc. Recognize the presence or absence of alternative causalfactor
  8. 8. Basic Research Terminology Concept – A Concept is a generally accepted collection ofmeanings or characteristics associated with certain events, objects,conditions, situations and behaviours. For e.g. Sleeping Construct – A construct is an image or idea specifically inventedfor a given research and/or theory-building purpose. For e.g.Satisfied customer. Variable – A variable is a symbol under study to which we assignnumbers or values. For e.g. Age- Independent and Dependent Variable
  9. 9.  Proposition – It is a statement about concept that may be judgedas true or false if it refers to observable phenomenon. Hypothesis – A proposition formulated for empirical testing isknown as Hypothesis. Theory – A theory is a set of systematically interrelated concepts,definitions and propositions that are advanced to explain andpredict phenomenon.Basic Research Terminology
  10. 10. Research ProcessProblem DiscoverySelection of Exploratory researchSecondaryDataPilot StudyExperienceSurveyCaseStudyProblem Definition(Statement of research objective)
  11. 11. Research ProcessSelection of basic Research Method(Research Design)Surveya. Interviewb.QuestionnaireExperimenta.Laboratoryb.FieldSecondaryDataStudyObservationSelection ofSample DesignProbability Sampling Non-Probability Sampling
  12. 12. Research ProcessCollection of DataEditing and Coding of DataData Processing and AnalysisInterpretation of FindingsReport
  13. 13. What is Good Research ? Purpose clearly defined Research process detailed Research Design throughly planned High ethical standard applied Limitation frankly revealed Adequate analysis for decision maker’s need Findings presented unambiguously Conclusions justified Researcher’s experience reflected