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IMPROVING SOFTWAREIMPROVING SOFTWARE
ECONOMICSECONOMICS
Presented by:
Deep sharma
M.Tech (1st
Year)
Software
Engineering 1
Outline
1. Introduction
2. Five Software Cost Model Parameter
3. Cost Estimation Formula
4. Software Economics Improvement...
1. Introduction
• Software estimation must be based on
careful analysis and must be supported by
all.
• Software economics...
2. Five Software Cost Model
Parameters
• Size
• Process
• Personnel
• Environment
• Quality
4
3. Cost Estimation Formula
• Effort = (personnel)(Environment)(Quality)(Size)
(exp(Process))
5
4. Software Economics Improvement Trends
Cost Model Parameters Trends
Size
Abstraction and component based
development tec...
5. Five Economy Improvement
Dimensions
• Reducing the size of the software.
• Improving the development process.
• Using m...
6. Reducing Software Size
• Languages.
• Object-oriented methods and Visual
Modeling.
• Reuse.
• Commercial Components.
8
Language Comparison
Language SLOC PER UFP
Assembly 320
C 128
FORTRAN 77 105
COBOL 85 91
Ada 83 71
C++ 56
Ada 95 55
Java 55...
Object-Oriented Methods and
Visual Modeling
• Better capture of software abstractions leads to
better communications and b...
Reuse of Software
• Common architectures.
• Development environments.
• Operating systems.
• Database management systems.
...
Reuse Cost and Schedule
12
Commercial Components
APPROACH ADVANTAGES DISADVANTAGES
Commercial Components Predictable License Costs
Broadly used, matu...
Commercial Components Cont…
APPROACH ADVANTAGES DISADVANTAGES
Custom Development Complete Change freedom
Smaller, often Si...
7. IMPROVING SOFTWARE
PROCESSES
ATTRIBUTES METAPROCESS MACROPROCESS MICROPROCESS
Subject Line of business Project Iteratio...
IMPROVING SOFTWARE
PROCESSES Cont…
ATTRIBUTES METAPROCESS MACROPROCESS MICROPROCESS
Concerns Bureaucracy vs.
Standardizati...
8. Conclusion
• Modern software technologies enabling
systems to be built with fewer human
generated source lines.
• Moder...
9. References
1. Royce, Bittner, Perrow, The Economics of Software Development, Addison-
Wesley, 2009.
2. Royce, Walker, “...
THANK YOU
19
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Improving software economics

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Improving software economics

  1. 1. IMPROVING SOFTWAREIMPROVING SOFTWARE ECONOMICSECONOMICS Presented by: Deep sharma M.Tech (1st Year) Software Engineering 1
  2. 2. Outline 1. Introduction 2. Five Software Cost Model Parameter 3. Cost Estimation Formula 4. Software Economics Improvement Trends 5. Five Economy Improvement Dimensions 6. Reducing Software Size  Language Comparison  Object-oriented methods and Visual Modeling  Reuse  Commercial Components 7. Improving Software Processes 8. Conclusion 9. References 2
  3. 3. 1. Introduction • Software estimation must be based on careful analysis and must be supported by all. • Software economics improvements must come from reducing size, improving process and environments, using more- skilled personnel, and trading off software feature thresholds. 3
  4. 4. 2. Five Software Cost Model Parameters • Size • Process • Personnel • Environment • Quality 4
  5. 5. 3. Cost Estimation Formula • Effort = (personnel)(Environment)(Quality)(Size) (exp(Process)) 5
  6. 6. 4. Software Economics Improvement Trends Cost Model Parameters Trends Size Abstraction and component based development technologies Higher-order languages (C++, Ada 95), Object- oriented (analysis, design, programming), reuse, commercial components Process Methods and techniques Iterative development, process maturity levels, architecture first development, acquisition reform Personnel People factors Training and personnel skill development, teamwork, win-win conditions Environment Automation technologies and tools Integrated tools (visual modeling, compiler, editor, debugger, change management), open systems, hardware platform performance, automation of coding, documentation, testing, analysis Quality Performance, quality, accuracy Hardware platform performance, demonstration- based assessment, statistical quality control6
  7. 7. 5. Five Economy Improvement Dimensions • Reducing the size of the software. • Improving the development process. • Using more-skilled personnel and better teams. • Using better environments (tools) for software development. • Trading off, or backing off, on quality thresholds. 7
  8. 8. 6. Reducing Software Size • Languages. • Object-oriented methods and Visual Modeling. • Reuse. • Commercial Components. 8
  9. 9. Language Comparison Language SLOC PER UFP Assembly 320 C 128 FORTRAN 77 105 COBOL 85 91 Ada 83 71 C++ 56 Ada 95 55 Java 55 Visual Basic 35 Fig: Language Expressiveness of some of today’s Popular languages 9
  10. 10. Object-Oriented Methods and Visual Modeling • Better capture of software abstractions leads to better communications and better teamwork. • Continuous integration leads to earlier risk recognition and less costly corrections. • Object-oriented architectures provide better separation of disparate elements of a system and help create firewalls for less costly development. • Object-oriented and visual modeling create a strong architectural vision for cleaner, less-costly products. 10
  11. 11. Reuse of Software • Common architectures. • Development environments. • Operating systems. • Database management systems. • Networking products. • Office applications. 11
  12. 12. Reuse Cost and Schedule 12
  13. 13. Commercial Components APPROACH ADVANTAGES DISADVANTAGES Commercial Components Predictable License Costs Broadly used, mature technology Available Now Dedicated Support Organization Hardware/Software Independence Rich in functionality Frequent upgrades Up-front license fees Recurring maintenance fees Dependency on vendor Runtime Efficiency sacrifices Functionality Constraints Integration not always trivial No control over upgrades and maintenance Unnecessary features that consume extra resources Often inadequate reliability and stability 13
  14. 14. Commercial Components Cont… APPROACH ADVANTAGES DISADVANTAGES Custom Development Complete Change freedom Smaller, often Simpler implementation Often better Performance Control Of Development and enhancement Expensive, Unpredictable Development Unpredictable availability date Undefined maintenance model Often immature and fragile Single platform dependency Drain on expert resources 14
  15. 15. 7. IMPROVING SOFTWARE PROCESSES ATTRIBUTES METAPROCESS MACROPROCESS MICROPROCESS Subject Line of business Project Iteration Objectives Line of business Profitability Competitiveness Project profitability Risk management Project budget , schedule, quality Resource management Risk resolution Milestone budget , schedule, quality Audience Acquisition authorities , customers Organizational management Software project managers Software engineers Subproject managers Software engineers Metrics Project predictability Revenue , market share On budget , on schedule Major milestone success Project scrap and rework On budget , on schedule Major milestone progress Release/iteration scrap and rework 15
  16. 16. IMPROVING SOFTWARE PROCESSES Cont… ATTRIBUTES METAPROCESS MACROPROCESS MICROPROCESS Concerns Bureaucracy vs. Standardization Quality vs. financial performance Content vs. schedule Time scales 6 to 12 months 1 to many years 1 to 6 months 16
  17. 17. 8. Conclusion • Modern software technologies enabling systems to be built with fewer human generated source lines. • Modern software processes are iterative. • Modern software development and maintenance environments are the delivery mechanism for process automation 17
  18. 18. 9. References 1. Royce, Bittner, Perrow, The Economics of Software Development, Addison- Wesley, 2009. 2. Royce, Walker, “Successful Software Management Style: Steering and Balance,” IEEE Software, Vol. 22, No. 5, September/October 2005 3. Royce, Winston W., “Managing the Development of Large Software Systems,” IEEE Wescon, 1970. 4. Kruchten, Philippe, The Rational Unified Process: An Introduction, Addison- Wesley, 1999, 2003. 5. Kruchten, Philippe, Kroll, Per, The Rational Unified Process Made Easy: A Practitioner’s Guide to the RUP, Addison-Wesley, 2003. 18
  19. 19. THANK YOU 19

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