VITAMIN E VITAMIN K
Evans and his associates Dam (1934)
- Essential for - chicks fed purified
normal reproduction diets
- Named as tocopherol - Hemorrhagic conditions
- Greek tocos = child birth, - Alfa Alfa and decayed fish meal
phero = to bear, - Essential for blood clotting
ol = alcohol. German = Koagulation
ANTI-STERLITY VITAMIN COAGULATION VITAMIN
VIT - E VIT - K
4 – tocopherols + 4 – tocotrienols
6 hydroxy chromane ( tocol ) ring
antioxidant property naphthoquinone derivatives
Isoprenoid ( 3 units ) side chain Isoprenoid - K1 and K2
VIT – E VIT – K
Veg oils – rich sources Tomatoes, cauliflower
Wheat germ oil
bacterial syn - ½ body’s requriement
Meat, milk, butter, eggs, and dairy prdts – invisible fat- also present
ABSORPTION, TRANSPORT & STORAGE
Vitamin E & K small intestine
Vit-E adipose tissue , liver and muscle Vit – K Liver and other tissues
Vit – E&K + VLDL + LDL
FUNCTIONS AND APPLICATIONS
VITAMIN – E
• Membrane antioxidant
• Vit - E supplemention for CVD patients
Cambridge Heart Antioxidant study - dec. mortality due to M.I
Tocotrienols – inhibit platelet aggregation – thrombus formation
hv cholesterol lowering effect
• Prevents peroxidation of PUFA
• Sparing effect on Vitamin – A
Clinical study – Inter relationship bet Vit – E and Vit – A by
Jagadeesan .V and Vinodini Reddy
VITAMIN - K
• Blood clotting
• Bone mineralization
Osteocalcin – Vit – K dependent protein – req for bone
mineralization and turn over.
• Used to counteract the blood thinners Coumadin ,
Warfarin, Heparin etc.
Prothrombin Factor VII, IX, X
• In 1988 , Expert group constituted by ICMR – included recommendation
for Vit – E and K – to maintain good health.
• Very limited data available – as def. donot produce recognizable specific
clinical symptoms & often not encountered .
• α tocopherol req. – protective antioxidant property on EFA
so suggested req / intake is
𝒐.𝟖𝒎𝒈 𝒐𝒇 𝑽𝒊𝒕 𝑬
𝟏 𝒈𝒓𝒂𝒎 𝒐𝒇 𝑷𝑼𝑭𝑨 𝒐𝒓 𝑬𝑭𝑨
8 – 10 mg tocopherol per day
suggested RDA of 55µg of Vit K / day = ½ req
As they occur widely in veg oils and plant foods – dietary def. are
not normally encountered
Oedema and Hemolytic anaemia – infants fed with
formulas low in Vit – E.
Inadequate intake of Vit – K by mother – cause
Haemorrhagic disease of new born – recover by
Administration of Vit – K.
Vitamins are classified into 2 groups, based upon their solubility.
fat soluble vitamins – A, D, E, and K
water soluble vitamins – B complex and vitamin C
VITAMIN - E
Evans and his associates in 1936 isolated compounds of vitamin E
activity which were essential for normal reproduction in animals and named
them as tocopherol ( tocos=child birth, phero=to bear, and ol=alcohol).
Hence it is also known as anti - sterility vitamin.
8 Compounds are been discovered to have vitamin E activity hence
they are called vitamers of vitamin E. Among them 4 are tocopherols and the
other 4 are tocotrienols.Among all the 8 compounds α-tocopherol is most
active. All the 8 compounds are derivatives of 6 hydroxy chromane ( tocol
ring ) with isoprenoid (3 units) side chain. The antioxidant property is due to
Many vegetable oils are rich sources of vitamin E . Richest source of
vitamin E is Wheat germ oil. It is also present in meat, milk, butter and eggs.
ABSORPTION TRANSPORT AND STORAGE
Just like any other fat soluble vitamin, vitamin E is also absorbed
along with fat in the small intestine. Bile salts are necessary for the absorption.
Then from there they are transported to liver and vitamin E get incorporated
into lipoproteins (VLDL and LDL) and transported to other tissues. It is stored
mainly in adipose tissue and to some extent in liver and muscle. The normal
plasma level of tocopherol is less than 1 mg / dl.
FUNCTIONS AND APPLICATIONS
• It is a membrane antioxidant – vitamin e is essential for membrane
structure and integrity of the cell. It protects the cells from oxidative
damage by scavenging free radicals.
Example : vitamin e protects red blood cells from haemolysis by
Vitamin e supplementation is found beneficial to cardio vascular disease
Supported by report of Cambridge Heart Antioxidant study which states that
when some clinicians gave vitamin E supplementation to CVD patients, it
reduced the mortality in patients with myocardial infaraction ( Heart attack)
Also supported as tocotrienols inhibit platelet aggregation and therefore
prevent thrombus formation in arteries . They also posses cholesterol
• Vitamin E Prevents peroxidation of PUFA in tissues – because of its
• Vitamin E has a sparing effect on Vitamin A – supported by Clinical study
made on Inter relationship between Vit – E and Vit – A by Jagadeesan .V
and Vinodini Reddy. In which administration of Vitamin-E supplements
resulted in significant increase in plasma level of vit – A and E.
other functions are, it preserves and maintains germinal epithelium
of gonads, increases synthesis of heme, required for cellular respiration, and for
proper storage of creatine in skeletal muscle etc.
VITAMIN – K
Dam and Schonheyder in 1934 found that chicks fed on purified diets
containing all the vitamins known at that time, developed haemorrhagic
conditions which were cured by alfa-alfa and delayed fish meal. Active principle
was found to be fat soluble and also essential for blood coagulation. Hence
termed as vitamin K ( German=Koagulation).
Vitamin K exists in 3 different forms on nature. They are
Vitamin K1 (phylloquinone) is present in plants,
Vitamin K2 (menaquinone) is produced by the intestinal bacteria and also found
Vitamin K3 (menadione) is a synthetic form .
all forms are derivatives of naphthoquinone. Isoprenoid side
chain is present in vitamin K1 and K2.
Tomatoes, alfa alfa, cauliflower and green leafy vegetables are
good sources. Also present in egg yolk, meat, liver, cheese and dairy
ABSORPTION, TRANSPORT AND STORAGE
Vitamin K is taken in the diet or synthesized by the intestinal
bacteria. It’s absorption in small intestine takes place along with fat
(chylomicrons) and dependent on bile salts. Then in liver it get’s
incorporated with LDL and it si transported.
It is mainly stored in liver and to a lesser extent in other tissues.
FUNCTIONS AND APPLICATIONS
• Plays a role in Blood clotting mechanism – vitamin K functions as a
coenzyme for vitamin K dependent carboxylase, an enzyme required
for the synthesis of proteins ( prothrombin, VIIa, IXa, and Xa).
Prothrombin levels are reduced in vitamin K deficiency.
• Required for bone metabolism – Osteocalcin is a vitamin K dependent
protein that plays a role in bone mineralization and turnover.
• It is used to counteract an overdose of blood thinners – as it is a
analogue that can inhibit their action.
DEFICIENCY SYMPTOMS OF VITAMIN E AND K
As they occur widely in vegetable oils and plant foods dietary
deficiency of these 2 vitamins are not normally encountered.
Deficiency and their symptoms are not normally seen in adults
now a days. But some cases are reported in preterm babies/ infants.
• Oedema and hemolytic anemia have been reported in infants fed with
formulas low in vitamin E. This can be quickly corrected by
supplementation of vitamin E to infant.
• Inadequate intake of vitamin K by mother may cause haemorrhagic
disease of new born. They have low prothrombin levels in blood. They
recover rapidly when vitamin K is administered by injection.
In 1988, expert group constituted by ICMR included
recommendation for vitamin E and K to maintain good health which were
not considered earlier.
Very limited data on vitamin E and K intake as well as requirements
is available as deficiency do not produce recognizable specific clinical
symptoms and often not encountered too.
Vitamin E - α- tocopherol requirement is related to its protective antioxidant
property on PUFA. So suggested intake/ requirement is
0.8 𝑚𝑔 𝑜𝑓 𝑣𝑖𝑡𝑎𝑚𝑖𝑛 𝐸
1 𝑔𝑚 𝑜𝑓 𝑃𝑈𝐹𝐴 𝑜𝑟 𝑑𝑖𝑒𝑡𝑎𝑟𝑦 𝐸𝐹𝐴
*PUFA = Polyunsaturated fatty acids
*EFA= Essential fatty acids.
That comes out to be 8 to 10 mg tocopherol per day. This varies based upon
the amount and type of edible oil used.
Vitamin K – there is no strict RDA for vitamin K , since it can be synthesized
in gut by bacteria.
FAO/ WHO suggested an RDA of 55µg of vitamin K/day for adults.
This meets apart of vitamin K requirement by the body and the remaining is
met by the bacterial vitamin K synthesis.