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02 langton fob_3ce_ch02

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02 langton fob_3ce_ch02

  1. 1. Chapter 2, Nancy Langton and Stephen P. Robbins, Fundamentals of Organizational Behaviour, Third Canadian Edition 2-1 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education Canada Chapter 2 Perception, Personality, and Emotions
  2. 2. Chapter 2, Nancy Langton and Stephen P. Robbins, Fundamentals of Organizational Behaviour, Third Canadian Edition 2-2 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education Canada Chapter Outline • Perception Defined • Factors Influencing Perception • Perceptual Errors • Why Do Perception and Judgment Matter? • Personality • Emotions
  3. 3. Chapter 2, Nancy Langton and Stephen P. Robbins, Fundamentals of Organizational Behaviour, Third Canadian Edition 2-3 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education Canada Perception, Personality, and Emotions 1. What is perception? 2. What causes people to have different perceptions of the same situation? 3. Can people be mistaken in their perceptions? 4. Does perception really affect outcomes? 5. What is personality and how does it affect behaviour? 6. Can emotions help or get in the way when dealing with others?
  4. 4. Chapter 2, Nancy Langton and Stephen P. Robbins, Fundamentals of Organizational Behaviour, Third Canadian Edition 2-4 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education Canada Perception • What Is Perception? – The process by which individuals organize and interpret their impressions in order to give meaning to their environment. • Why Is It Important? – Because people’s behaviour is based on their perception of what reality is, not on reality itself. – The world as it is perceived is the world that is behaviourally important.
  5. 5. Chapter 2, Nancy Langton and Stephen P. Robbins, Fundamentals of Organizational Behaviour, Third Canadian Edition 2-5 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education Canada Why We Study Perceptions • To better understand how people make attributions about events. • We don’t see reality. We interpret what we see and call it reality. • The attribution process guides our behaviour, regardless of the truth of the attribution.
  6. 6. Chapter 2, Nancy Langton and Stephen P. Robbins, Fundamentals of Organizational Behaviour, Third Canadian Edition 2-6 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education Canada Factors Influencing Perception • The Perceiver • The Target • The Situation
  7. 7. Chapter 2, Nancy Langton and Stephen P. Robbins, Fundamentals of Organizational Behaviour, Third Canadian Edition 2-7 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education Canada Exhibit 2-1 Factors that Influence Perception Perception The Target • Novelty • Motion • Sounds • Size • Background • Proximity The Perceiver • Attitudes • Motives • Interests • Experience • Expectations The Situation • Time • Work setting • Social setting
  8. 8. Chapter 2, Nancy Langton and Stephen P. Robbins, Fundamentals of Organizational Behaviour, Third Canadian Edition 2-8 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education Canada Perceptual Errors • Attribution Theory • Selective Perception • Halo Effect • Contrast Effects • Projection • Stereotyping
  9. 9. Chapter 2, Nancy Langton and Stephen P. Robbins, Fundamentals of Organizational Behaviour, Third Canadian Edition 2-9 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education Canada Attribution Theory • When individuals observe behaviour, they attempt to determine whether it is internally or externally caused. – Distinctiveness • Does the individual act the same way in other situations? – Consensus • Does the individual act the same as others in same situation? – Consistency • Does the individual act the same way over time?
  10. 10. Chapter 2, Nancy Langton and Stephen P. Robbins, Fundamentals of Organizational Behaviour, Third Canadian Edition 2-10 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education Canada Attribution Theory • Fundamental Attribution Error – The tendency to underestimate external factors and overestimate internal factors when making judgments about others’ behaviour. • Self-Serving Bias – The tendency to attribute one’s successes to internal factors while putting the blame for failures on external factors.
  11. 11. Chapter 2, Nancy Langton and Stephen P. Robbins, Fundamentals of Organizational Behaviour, Third Canadian Edition 2-11 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education Canada Exhibit 2-2 Attribution Theory Observation Interpretation Attribution of cause External High (Seldom) Low (Frequently) High Low (Seldom) High (Frequently) Low (Seldom) Internal rnal Individual behaviour Distinctiveness (How often does the person do this in other situations?) Consensus (How often do other people do this in similar situations?) Consistency (How often did the person do this in the past?) External Internal Internal External (Frequently )
  12. 12. Chapter 2, Nancy Langton and Stephen P. Robbins, Fundamentals of Organizational Behaviour, Third Canadian Edition 2-12 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education Canada Perceptual Errors • Selective Perception – People selectively interpret what they see based on their interests, background, experience, and attitudes. • Halo Effect – Drawing a general impression about an individual based on a single characteristic. • Contrast Effects – A person’s evaluation is affected by comparisons with other individuals recently encountered.
  13. 13. Chapter 2, Nancy Langton and Stephen P. Robbins, Fundamentals of Organizational Behaviour, Third Canadian Edition 2-13 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education Canada Perceptual Errors • Projection – Attributing one’s own characteristics to other people. • Stereotyping – Judging someone on the basis of your perception of the group to which that person belongs. • Prejudice – An unfounded dislike of a person or group based on their belonging to a particular stereotyped group.
  14. 14. Chapter 2, Nancy Langton and Stephen P. Robbins, Fundamentals of Organizational Behaviour, Third Canadian Edition 2-14 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education Canada Why Do Perceptions and Judgment Matter? • Self-Fulfilling Prophecy – A concept that proposes a person will behave in ways consistent with how he or she is perceived by others.
  15. 15. Chapter 2, Nancy Langton and Stephen P. Robbins, Fundamentals of Organizational Behaviour, Third Canadian Edition 2-15 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education Canada Personality The sum total of ways in which an individual reacts and interacts with others. • Personality Determinants – Heredity – Environmental Factors – Situational Conditions • Personality Traits – Enduring characteristics that describe an individual’s behaviour. • The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) • The Big Five Model
  16. 16. Chapter 2, Nancy Langton and Stephen P. Robbins, Fundamentals of Organizational Behaviour, Third Canadian Edition 2-16 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education Canada Myers-Briggs Type Indicator • Personality test to determine how people usually act or feel in particular situations. • Classifications: – Extroverted (E) or Introverted (I) – Sensing (S) or Intuitive (N) – Thinking (T) or Feeling (F) – Perceiving (P) or Judging (J) • Combined to form types, for example: – ESTP – INTJ
  17. 17. Chapter 2, Nancy Langton and Stephen P. Robbins, Fundamentals of Organizational Behaviour, Third Canadian Edition 2-17 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education Canada The Big Five Model • Classifications – Extraversion – Agreeableness – Conscientiousness – Emotional Stability – Openness to Experience
  18. 18. Chapter 2, Nancy Langton and Stephen P. Robbins, Fundamentals of Organizational Behaviour, Third Canadian Edition 2-18 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education Canada Exhibit 2-4 Big Five Personality Factors
  19. 19. Chapter 2, Nancy Langton and Stephen P. Robbins, Fundamentals of Organizational Behaviour, Third Canadian Edition 2-19 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education Canada Major Personality Attributes Influencing OB • Locus of Control • Machiavellianism • Self-Esteem • Self-Monitoring • Risk-Taking • Type A Personality • Type B Personality • Proactive Personality
  20. 20. Chapter 2, Nancy Langton and Stephen P. Robbins, Fundamentals of Organizational Behaviour, Third Canadian Edition 2-20 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education Canada Locus of Control • The degree to which people believe they are in control of their own fate. – Internals • Individuals who believe that they control what happens to them. – Externals • Individuals who believe that what happens to them is controlled by outside forces such as luck or chance.
  21. 21. Chapter 2, Nancy Langton and Stephen P. Robbins, Fundamentals of Organizational Behaviour, Third Canadian Edition 2-21 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education Canada Exhibit 2-5 The Effects of Locus of Control on Performance Condition Performance Information Processing The work requires complex information processing and complex learning Internals perform better The work is quite simple and easy to learn Internals perform better than externals Initiative The work requires initiative and independent action Internals perform better The work requires compliance and conformity Externals perform better Motivation The work requires high motivation and provides valued rewards in return for greater effort; it offers incentive pay for greater productivity Internals perform better The work does not require great effort and contingent rewards are lacking; hourly pay rates are determined by collective bargaining Externals perform at least as well as internals Source: J. B. Miner, Industrial-Organizational Psychology (New York: McGraw Hill, 1992), p. 151. Reprinted with permission of The McGraw-Hill Companies.
  22. 22. Chapter 2, Nancy Langton and Stephen P. Robbins, Fundamentals of Organizational Behaviour, Third Canadian Edition 2-22 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education Canada Machiavellianism • Degree to which an individual is pragmatic, maintains emotional distance, and believes that ends can justify means.
  23. 23. Chapter 2, Nancy Langton and Stephen P. Robbins, Fundamentals of Organizational Behaviour, Third Canadian Edition 2-23 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education Canada Self-Esteem • Individuals’ degree of liking or disliking of themselves.
  24. 24. Chapter 2, Nancy Langton and Stephen P. Robbins, Fundamentals of Organizational Behaviour, Third Canadian Edition 2-24 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education Canada Exhibit 2-6 Branden’s Six Pillars of Self-Esteem 1. Living consciously: Be aware of everything that affects your values and goals, and act with awareness. 2. Self-acceptance: Accept who you are without criticism and judgment. 3. Personal responsibility: Take responsibility for the decisions you make and the things you do. 4. Self-assertiveness: Honour your wants, needs, and values, and don’t be afraid to speak up for things that are important to you. 5. Living purposefully: Develop short- and long-term goals, and make realistic plans to achieve your goals. 6. Personal integrity: Live up to your word and your values. Source: Adapted from N. Branden, Self-Esteem at Work: How Confident People Make Powerful Companies (San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 1998), pp. 33-36).
  25. 25. Chapter 2, Nancy Langton and Stephen P. Robbins, Fundamentals of Organizational Behaviour, Third Canadian Edition 2-25 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education Canada Self-Monitoring • A personality trait that measures an individual’s ability to adjust behaviour to external situational factors.
  26. 26. Chapter 2, Nancy Langton and Stephen P. Robbins, Fundamentals of Organizational Behaviour, Third Canadian Edition 2-26 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education Canada Risk-Taking • Refers to a person’s willingness to take chances or risks.
  27. 27. Chapter 2, Nancy Langton and Stephen P. Robbins, Fundamentals of Organizational Behaviour, Third Canadian Edition 2-27 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education Canada Type A Personality – Moves, walks, and eats rapidly – Impatient – Multitasks – Dislikes leisure time – Obsessed with numbers, measures success in terms of how many or how much of everything is acquired
  28. 28. Chapter 2, Nancy Langton and Stephen P. Robbins, Fundamentals of Organizational Behaviour, Third Canadian Edition 2-28 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education Canada Type B Personality – Never suffers from a sense of time urgency – Doesn’t need to display or discuss achievements or accomplishments – Plays for fun and relaxation, not to win – Can relax without guilt
  29. 29. Chapter 2, Nancy Langton and Stephen P. Robbins, Fundamentals of Organizational Behaviour, Third Canadian Edition 2-29 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education Canada Proactive Personality • A person who identifies opportunities, shows initiative, takes action, and perseveres until meaningful change occurs.
  30. 30. Chapter 2, Nancy Langton and Stephen P. Robbins, Fundamentals of Organizational Behaviour, Third Canadian Edition 2-30 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education Canada What Are Emotions? • Two related terms: – Emotions • Intense feelings that are directed at someone or something. – Moods • Feelings that tend to be less intense than emotions and that lack a contextual stimulus.
  31. 31. Chapter 2, Nancy Langton and Stephen P. Robbins, Fundamentals of Organizational Behaviour, Third Canadian Edition 2-31 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education Canada Choosing Emotions: Emotional Labour • When an employee expresses organizationally- desired emotions during interpersonal interactions.
  32. 32. Chapter 2, Nancy Langton and Stephen P. Robbins, Fundamentals of Organizational Behaviour, Third Canadian Edition 2-32 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education Canada Emotional Intelligence • Noncognitive skills, capabilities, and competencies that influence a person's ability to interact with others. • Five dimensions – Self-awareness – Self-management – Self-motivation – Empathy – Social skills
  33. 33. Chapter 2, Nancy Langton and Stephen P. Robbins, Fundamentals of Organizational Behaviour, Third Canadian Edition 2-33 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education Canada Negative Workplace Emotions • Negative emotions can lead to negative workplace behaviours: – Production (leaving early, intentionally working slowly) – Property (stealing, sabotage) – Political (gossiping, blaming co-workers) – Personal aggression (sexual harassment, verbal abuse)
  34. 34. Chapter 2, Nancy Langton and Stephen P. Robbins, Fundamentals of Organizational Behaviour, Third Canadian Edition 2-34 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education Canada Summary and Implications 1. What is perception? – Perception is the process by which individuals organize and interpret their impressions in order to give meaning to their environment. 2. What causes people to have different perceptions of the same situation? – Perceptions are affected by factors in the perceiver, in the object or target being perceived, and in the context or situation.
  35. 35. Chapter 2, Nancy Langton and Stephen P. Robbins, Fundamentals of Organizational Behaviour, Third Canadian Edition 2-35 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education Canada Summary and Implications 3. Can people be mistaken in their perceptions? – Shortcuts, such as attribution theory, selective perception, halo effect, contrast effects, projection, and stereotyping are helpful and even necessary, but can and do get us in trouble. 3. Does perception really affect outcomes? – Perceptions often affect productivity more than the situation does.
  36. 36. Chapter 2, Nancy Langton and Stephen P. Robbins, Fundamentals of Organizational Behaviour, Third Canadian Edition 2-36 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education Canada Summary and Implications 5. What is personality and how does it affect behaviour? – Personality helps us predict behaviour. – Personality can help match people to jobs, to some extent at least. 5. Can emotions help or get in the way when we’re dealing with others? – They can hinder performance, especially when emotions are negative. – They can also enhance performance.
  37. 37. Chapter 2, Nancy Langton and Stephen P. Robbins, Fundamentals of Organizational Behaviour, Third Canadian Edition 2-37 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education Canada OB at Work
  38. 38. Chapter 2, Nancy Langton and Stephen P. Robbins, Fundamentals of Organizational Behaviour, Third Canadian Edition 2-38 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education Canada For Review 1. Define perception. 2. What is attribution theory? What are its implications for explaining behaviour in organizations? 3. What is stereotyping? Give an example of how stereotyping can create perceptual distortion. 4. Give some positive results of using shortcuts when judging others. 5. Describe the factors in the Big Five model. Evaluate which factor shows the greatest value in predicting behaviour.
  39. 39. Chapter 2, Nancy Langton and Stephen P. Robbins, Fundamentals of Organizational Behaviour, Third Canadian Edition 2-39 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education Canada For Review 6. What behavioural predictions might you make if you knew that an employee had (a) an external locus of control? (b) a low Mach score? (c) low self-esteem? (d) a Type A personality? 7. To what extent do people’s personalities affect how they are perceived? 8. What is emotional labour and why is it important to understanding OB? 9. What is emotional intelligence and why is it important?
  40. 40. Chapter 2, Nancy Langton and Stephen P. Robbins, Fundamentals of Organizational Behaviour, Third Canadian Edition 2-40 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education Canada For Critical Thinking 1. How might the differences in experience of students and instructors affect each of their perceptions of classroom behaviour (e.g., students’ written work and class comments)? 2. An employee does an unsatisfactory job on an assigned project. Explain the attribution process that this person’s manager will use to form judgments about this employee’s job performance. 3. One day your boss comes in and he’s nervous, edgy, and argumentative. The next day he is calm and relaxed. Does this behaviour suggest that personality traits aren’t consistent from day to day? 4. What, if anything, can managers do to manage emotions? Are there ethical implications in any of these actions? If so, what? 5. Give some examples of situations where expressing emotions might enhance job performance.
  41. 41. Chapter 2, Nancy Langton and Stephen P. Robbins, Fundamentals of Organizational Behaviour, Third Canadian Edition 2-41 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education Canada Breakout Group Exercises Form small groups to discuss the following topics: 1. Think back to your perception of this course and your instructor on the first day of class. What factors might have affected your perceptions of what the rest of the term would be like? 2. Describe a situation in which your perception turned out to be wrong. What perceptual errors did you make that might have caused this to happen? 3. Compare your scores on the Learning About Yourself Exercises at the end of the chapter. What conclusions could you draw about your group based on these scores?
  42. 42. Chapter 2, Nancy Langton and Stephen P. Robbins, Fundamentals of Organizational Behaviour, Third Canadian Edition 2-42 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education Canada Supplemental Material Slides for activities I do in my own classroom
  43. 43. Chapter 2, Nancy Langton and Stephen P. Robbins, Fundamentals of Organizational Behaviour, Third Canadian Edition 2-43 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education Canada Personality Inventory • In groups: – Quickly determine the means for each of the personality items. – Develop a summary statement of your group based on the means for each of the items. – What are the implications for the workplace of scoring either high or low on these dimensions? (Your group will be asked to examine one of the dimensions.)
  44. 44. Chapter 2, Nancy Langton and Stephen P. Robbins, Fundamentals of Organizational Behaviour, Third Canadian Edition 2-44 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education Canada Perception Exercise • In the new OB project team, two members obviously have different perceptions on just about everything the team does. Kevin sees the project one way; Kim sees it differently. They have different perceptions about team goals, methods, values, and the roles team members should play. Kevin gives the impression he wants to be in charge and he argues aggressively to get his way. Kim, who is more reserved, offers thoughtful ideas in rebuttal, and usually consults with the other group members for their views and support. Privately, Kevin bad-mouths Kim to anyone who will listen. He says that he has been on successful teams many times and knows the best ways to operate the team. He says that Kim is a “control freak” and “the only one on the team holding up progress.”Kim, on the other hand, only conveys her feelings about Kevin when team members are present, but she has repeatedly said out loud, “There are more ways of getting this team started than just yours! Too bad you have a closed mind!” For the most part, the other team members perceive Kim and Kevin to have a “personality conflict,” and they are avoiding getting involved. The team is ineffective so far, and there’s pressure to get the team on track because of the impending class assignment deadline.
  45. 45. Chapter 2, Nancy Langton and Stephen P. Robbins, Fundamentals of Organizational Behaviour, Third Canadian Edition 2-45 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education Canada In Groups • Agree on answers to the following questions, and then report back on your group’s conclusions. Time: 30 minutes. – What main factors may account for the different perceptions held by Kevin and Kim? • In each perceiver? • In the targets? • In the current situation? – What are some “short cuts” each may be taking in judging the other? Are these judgements correct? – To what extent might the current situation be affecting the different perceptions? – To what extent might each person’s apparent personality be the cause for the current conflict? Define their respective personalities. – If behaviour such as this happens often, how can perceptions be changed to that people in conflict like Kevin and Kim can reach consensus? List some ideas. • Source: Larry Anderson, Sauder School of Business, UBC

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