Derived from latin word “Currere” meaning is „to run‟ It is a runway(one runs to reach the goal) or a „race course referring to the course of deeds and experiences through which children grow and mature in becoming adults for success in adult society . It is totality of all the learning to which students are exposed during their study in the school. It is content, programme of planned activities, intended learning outcomes, cultural preservation, experience, agenda for social reconstruction.
For student – It is the thing the teacher make us learn. For teacher – The courses of study provided us to follow. For principal – The courses for which units of credit are given. For parent – The facts that are in the textbook. Curriculum is the heart of schooling It is totality of all the learning to which students are exposed during their study in the school.
Acc to CUNNINGHUM‟ “It is a tool in the hands of the artist(the teacher) to mould his material(the pupil) in accordance with his ideal in his studio(the school).” Acc to G.Hass‟ “The curriculum is all of the experiences that individual learners have in a programme of education whose purpose is to achieve broad goals and related specific objectives, which are planned in terms of a framework of theory and research or past and professional practice.”
Fulfillment of objectives Determined by factors - social, human development, nature of learning and nature of knowledge Cater individual differences Pre- planned but can be changed It is a blue print It is a tool in hands of a teacher More than teaching and learning Describe environment in motion All learning inside and outside school
National development Developing democratic life Raising standard of living National integration Modernizing the society Personal development Education of whole man
CURRICULUM PLANNINGCURRICULUM CURRICULUMEVALUATION DESIGN CURRICULUM CURRICULUM IMPLEMENTATION/ TRANSACTION DEVELOPMENT
Acc to Beans, “it is a process in which participants at many levels make decisions about what the purpose of learning ought to be, how these purposes might be carried out through teaching learning situations and whether the purposes and means are both appropriate and effective.” CP is the process of gathering, sorting, selecting, balancing and synthesizing relevant information from many sources in order to design those experiences that will assist learners in attaining goals of the curriculum.
CP is ultimately concerned with experiences of learners CP Involves decisions about both context and methods CP Involves decisions about a variety of issues. CP Involves many groups CP Takes place at many levels. CP Is a continuous process
Acc to William M. Alexander of university of Florida, “the school curriculum has a framework or structure commonly called „design‟, just as a building, a dress or an automobile has. Although less tangible(perceptible) and hopefully less fixed, the curriculum design provides a basis for classifying and organizing the curriculum opportunities offered by the school.” It is the pattern or structure of a curriculum. CD is arrangement or organisation of the components of curriculum.
It is a specialized area of work which expects a teacher to have a deep understanding of the underlying concept of curriculum and also the skill to systematically design learning experiences to achieve socially desired goals. It is continuous and never ending process.
All round development Involves human experiences Develop moral character, discipline, honesty Develop thinking, reasoning Consider stages of growth and development Right type of feeling Democratic attitude Integrate various subjects Determine mode of interaction
The conservative principle The forward looking principle The creative principle Activity principle Preparation for life Child centered Principle of maturity Individual differences Vertical and horizontal articulation Linking with life Comprehensiveness and balance Loyalties Flexibility Core and common subjects Leisure All round development
Means management of curriculum And management refers to conscious preference from variety of alternative plus proposals and further the more that such choices involve purposeful commitment to recognize and derived objectives Bases of transaction of curriculum* social philosophy of the society*National needs*Nature of course of study*Type of examination system*Form of government*Theory of human organisation*growth and development of students*recommendation of commissions and committees
It is a process of delineating, obtaining and providing information useful for making decisions about curriculum development and implementation. The process of evaluation is undertaken in order to determine the strengths and weaknesses of an existing or an under construction curriculum so that improvements can be made. It is not one shot affair It is dynamic and cyclic process.
It means –• Assessment of students to find how much of the intended curriculum has been transacted.• What actually happens in classroom as experienced by students when they are learning and can include hidden curriculum.It is of two types- * formative – takes place during the formative year of students * summative – used at the end of term course or programme of grading certification, for effectiveness of curriculum.
Acc to Meighan(1981), “the hidden curriculum is taught by the school , not by any teacher….something is coming across to the pupils which may never be spoken in the English lesson or prayed about in the assembly. They are picking up an approach to living and an attitude to learning.” It is defines as some of the outcomes or by products of schools or of non school settings, particularly those states which are learned but not openly intended. Any setting include traditionally recreational and social activities, may teach unintended lessons since it is not necessarily to schools but rather to learning experiences.
FUNCTIONS• Inculcation of values• Political socialization• Training in obedience• Reinforcement of social inequality