Cancer of Cervix
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Cancer of Cervix
• It is the 3rd most common cancer in women worldwide.
• Cervical cancer starts in the cells lining the cervix.
• It is due to the abnormal growth of cells that have the ability to
invade or spread to other parts of the body.
• Caused by HPV (Human Papillomavirus) infection.
• HPV infection may cause cervical dysplasia, or abnormal
growth of cervical cells.
• There may be no symptoms in the early stage.
Types of Cervical Cancer
• Squamous cell cervical cancer is the most common. This
develops from a skin-like cell (a squamous cell) that covers the
cervix which becomes cancerous.
• Adenocarcinoma cervical cancer is less common. This
develops from a glandular cell (a cell that makes mucus)
within the cervical canal which becomes cancerous.
To Know more about Cervical Cancer
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• Bleeding between normal periods (intermenstrual bleeding).
• Bleeding after having sex (postcoital bleeding).
• Any vaginal bleeding in women past the menopause.
• Blood in vaginal discharge.
• Increased urinary frequency
• Pain during urination
• PAP Smear Test
• HPV DNA Test
• Cone biopsy
• Pelvic ultrasound
• MRI & CT scan
Invasive Cervical Cancer Stages
• Stage I: Cancer cells are found only in the cervix.
• Stage II: The tumor has grown through the cervix and invaded
the upper part of the vagina.
• Stage III: The tumor has invaded the pelvic wall or the lower
part of the vagina.
• Stage IV: The tumor has invaded the bladder or rectum. Or,
the cancer has spread to other parts of the body, such as the
Therapies Option for Cervical Cancer
• Chemotherapy : It is a treatment to destroy cancer cells with
– It’s used with radiotherapy, or to help to shrink a tumor
before radiotherapy or surgery.
– It can also control symptoms if cancer comes back after an
• Radiation Therapy : It is a treatment which uses high-energy
beams of radiation which are focused on cancerous tissue.
– This kills cancer cells, or stops cancer cells from
– Radiotherapy alone can be curative for early-stage cervical
cancer and may be an alternative to surgery.
Surgical Options for Cervix Cancer
• Cone Biopsy
• Radical Trachelectomy
• Total Hysterectomy
• Radical Hysterectomy
• Pelvic Exenteration
Who is at Risk?
• Weakened immune system
• Several pregnancies
• Giving birth at a very young age
• Long-term use of the contraceptive pill
• Family history