Literature review nihs2


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Literature review nihs2

  1. 1. Literature ReviewDr. Nalika GunawardenaMBBS, MD (Community Medicine) (Colombo),MPH (BioSecurity) (New Zealand)Senior Lecturer in Community MedicineFaculty of MedicineUniversity of Colombo
  2. 2. Outline of the presentation• Reasons for reviewing literature in research• Brief description of the process– Finding literature– Reviewing literature• Principles of writing a literature review
  3. 3. What is a……Literature SurveyIt is the process of searching and collecting relevantinformation on the topic of interestLiterature ReviewA critical analysis of existing knowledge about the topicof interest, which was found through the literaturesurvey
  4. 4. Reasons for reviewing literature inresearchit helps to– generates ideas– describe background knowledgeabout the subject– show that there is no duplication– show that we are proceeding furtherfrom current knowledge– make comparisons with otherresearch– design the methodin the report chapters onIntroductionLiterature reviewDiscussion
  5. 5. Types of literature• Journals• Books• Conference proceedings• Internet• CD-ROMs• Government Publications• Publications of International organizations• Thesis and dissertations• Newspaper articles
  6. 6. Journal articles• Original research articles– peer reviewed to ensure quality of data– editors publish only the most relevant and reliableresearch• Review articles– summaries of research evidence
  7. 7. Conference Proceedings• information on the– latest local research– research that are being conducted and has notbeen published
  8. 8. Internet• Websites of organizations• e-publications• Reports, Conference proceedings• electronic journals, open access journals• Caution– anyone can post information -?quality
  9. 9. CD ROMs-e.g. MedlineGovt. Publications• Circulars, Acts, National Guidelines, AnnualReports, Survey reports• eg: Annual Health Bulletin, Demographic and Health SurveyPublications of international organizationsTechnical Reports, World HeathReport, Guidelines, Recommendations, Fact sheets
  10. 10. Procedure to search the source• Computerized• Manual– select key words from concepts/ variables– search the sources using key words– identify the appropriate articles by reading theabstracts– get hold of the full article/ primary source
  11. 11. Search engines• PubMed• Freely accessible online database of biomedical journal citations andabstracts• MEDLINE• Thousands of medical journals are indexed for MEDLINE• Google – Scholar• Many more…….
  12. 12. Selected literature• Access the full articles and read• Classify into different concepts/ variables andmake review notes and store– Index cards– Computer files
  13. 13. What to review?• Information related to the subject– Method followed in the study– Results in relation to your study– Recommendations– Relevant other references• Make a note of referencing informationAuthor, Year, Title of article/ chapter/ book/ journal,Year of publication, Publisher
  14. 14. Software for Referencing
  15. 15. How to write a literature review?• Like a story. In paragraphs.• Order• according to your objectives• any other logical sequence• Flow• from general to specific facts• western countries, regional countries, Sri Lanka
  16. 16. How to write a literature review?• Research articles– basic information of the methods that has been followed– relevant results including statistical inferences– conclusions and recommendations if relevant• Mostly- describe in your own words -paraphrase• At times- write as it is word by word -quote• Write the reference
  17. 17. Never cut and paste
  18. 18. ReferencingWhy should we write references?• to facilitate others to find the original document• not to commit plagiarism
  19. 19. How to write references?-Harvard Style (Author-Date system)-Vancouver Style (Numbering system)
  20. 20. Harvard StyleIn-text citationAuthor’s name followed bythe year of publicationReference ListIn alphabetical orderVancouver styleIn-text citationnumberReference ListIn the order of numbers
  21. 21. Out of the 5080 pregnancies, 1524 (30%)were found to be teenage pregnanciesin………………Original journal article by H. Peter, J. Kim, H. Jung, andD. Peter published in 2002 says:Example- Paraphrasing and in-text citation
  22. 22. Example- Paraphrasing and in-text citationPeter et al. (2002) investigating the proportionof teenage pregnancies among 5080 pregnantmothers in area XXX by a household survey, itwas identified that 1524 (30%) were teenagepregnanciesOrIn a household survey in area XXX among 5080pregnant mothers, 1524 (30%) were found tobe teenage pregnancies (1).
  23. 23. A journal article by M.I. Mikheev published in 2002says:A significant proportion of the pregnancies in ….were among teenage mothers. The teenagersbelonged to the migrant population who do notfully benefit from available healthservices…………..Example – Quote and in-text citation
  24. 24. Example – Quote and in-text citation“A significant proportion of the pregnancies in …. were amongteenage mothers. The teenagers belonged to the migrantpopulation who do not fully benefit from available healthservices” (Mikheev, 2002. pg 23).Mikheev claims that “A significant proportion of the pregnanciesin …. were among teenage mothers. The teenagers belongedto the migrant population who do not fully benefit fromavailable health services” (2).
  25. 25. Harvard Style-Reference ListMikheev, M.I. 1998, Occupational health and safety inSmall Enterprises, Int. Arch. Occup. Env. Health, vol.71, suppl. s 10-2Park,H., Ha, E., Kim, J., Jung, H., Paek, D. 2002,Occupational Health Services for Small-ScaleEnterprises in Korea, Industrial Health, vol 40, pp 1–6
  26. 26. Vancouver Style-Reference List1 Martin MJ, Hulley SB, Browner WS, Kuller LH,Wentworth D. Serum cholesterol, blood pressure, andmortality: implications from a cohort of 361,662 men.Lancet. 1986;2:933-6.2. Gordon DJ, Probstfield JL, Garrison RJ, Neaton JD,Castelli WP, Knoke JD et al. High-density lipoproteincholesterol and cardiovascular disease; fourprospective American studies. Circulation. 1989;79:8-15.
  27. 27. Outline of the presentation• Reasons for reviewing literature in research• Brief description of the process– Finding literature– Reviewing literature• Principles of writing a literature review