Successfully reported this slideshow.
Activate your 14 day free trial to unlock unlimited reading.
Curriculum is one of the significant aspects of school education. The
quality of school education is largely depends on the quality of curriculum.
Curriculum is dynamic and evolving in nature. It should be revised and
modified according to the needs, requirements and aspirations of the
society and students. The National Policy on Education (1986)
recommended for reviewing curriculum in every five years to maintain high
standard and incorporate new contents. The Govt. of India as well as
different states has responded to the recommendation by reviewing and
modifying school curriculum.
The NCERT responded the recommendation of NPE by preparing
National Curriculum Framework (NCF) in the year 1975, 1988, 2000 and
2005. The NCF is means of evolving a national system of education
capable of responding India’s diversity of geographical and cultural
milieus while ensuring a common core of values along with academic
components. As per the NCF-05, all the states required are to develop
their state curriculum framework (SCF) suiting to the needs, demands and
The West Bengal (WB) state supposed to prepare West Bengal
State curriculum framework following NCF-05. In this connection, the
sectary, West Bengal Board of Secondary Education requested to the
Principal RIE, Bhubaneswar vide Letter No.SSA/186/07 for organising
training programme on curriculum development so that West Bengal State
can develop SCF. The Principal RIE, Bhubaneswar entrusted this
responsibility to Dr. Ramakanta Mohalik. After due process, this become
one of the PAC (Planning and Advisory Committee) approved programme
of the RIE, Bhubaneswar for the year 2007-08.
To train the KRPs of West Bengal state in preparing curriculum for
The content for this programme was consisting of both theoretical and
practical components of curriculum development. The theoretical aspect of
curriculum like; conceptualization of curriculum determinants of secondary
school curricular, curriculum design and models, NCF-05 and its
implication for cum, development at state level.
The practical aspects of curriculum related to writing objectives for
different school subject, deciding content outline and learning strategy,
evaluating students outcome in different subjects.
The mode of transaction was mainly integrative and participation in
nature. The resource persons presented theoretical topics by using multi-
medic projector. It was followed by question-answer section and direction.
The practical topic were transacted in small group discussion followed by
group work. The participants shared, and interchanged their views in small
group, it was thoroughly discussed with RPS. Finally participants
developed a written outline of the content in each subject for secondary
The programme co-ordinator collected all relevant materials and
documents required for developing training material relating to curriculum
development for secondary level. A two days workshop was organised
Sept. 2007 at RIE, Bhubaneswar with purpose of (i)
discussion and deliberation on National Curriculum Framework, secondary
school text books and CF (ii) selection of topics to be discussed in the 5-
days training programme (iii) selection of RPS to deal selected topics and
(iv) decision about training strategy to be adopted during 5-days training
Two days Workshop-13th
The co-ordinator invited resource persons; 5 from W.B, 5 from Orissa and
5 from RIE, BBSR for the workshop. Finally 12 RPS including internal
resource persons from RIE, Bhubaneswar attended the workshop held at
The workshop was held at ET-cell of RIE, Bhubaneswar. At the outset the
programme co-ordinator Dr. Ramakanta Mohalik, well come all the RPS to
the workshop. He briefed about the rationale of organising this workshop
and that all the RDs will supposed to do in this two days. Dr. Mohalik
informed all the RPs about the origin of selecting the theme of training
programme. He also requested all the participants to participate activity in
the workshop so that the purpose of workshop will be realised.
The discussion basin on NCF-2005. Mr. L. Behera, Faculty of Edn.,
RIE, Bhubaneswar presented the salient features of NCF-05 and its
guiding principles. Mainly the guiding principle like (i) Connecting
knowledge to outside the school. (ii) ensuring that learning to shifted away
from rote method. (iii) enriching the cum to provide for overall
development of children rather than remain textbook centric (iv) making
examination more flexile and integrated into classroom life and (v)
nurturing an overriding identity informed by caring concerns within the
democratic polity of the country were thoroughly discussed. How these
guidelines can be incorporated into the curriculum was deliberated by the
The RPs from West Bengal (WB) led the discussion on state
curriculum framework (SCF) what is the status of preparing SCB by W.B.
Government. Other participation shared their opinion about having
separate SCF. It was came out that states are differ from each other with
regards to language, culture, food habits, history, therefore each state
showed prepare SCF. It was suggested also suggested by the NCERT
that each state required by the NCERT that each state required to develop
their own curriculum framework in the list of NCF-05 and that rational
character of education can be maintained. RPs viewed that this
programme will help W.B. state in preparing SCF.
Dr. Mohalik, Programme Co-ordinator welcomed all the RPs to the
workshop. And requested Dr. G.C. Nanda, Additional Director OPEPA,
Bhubaneswar for initiating discussion on text books with reference to
NCF-05. The RPs from W.B. shared their views about the existing
secondary school text books and ways of improving the shailty of the text
book. It was decided that two session need to be allotted for discuss on
text book developing during 5-days training programme.
The programme coordinator suggested let us decide now the topics
for 5-days training programme. All the RPs given their view about the
related topics for training programme. The views of all the RPs was
thoroughly discussed and critically looked with reference to its relevant for
curriculum development. Finally it was decided that out of total 5-days,
first three days will be devoted for discussing theoretical concepts of
curriculum, last two days will be spread for subject specific discussion
with reference to objectives, content, strategy, evaluation etc.
It was decided in the workshop that presentation followed by
discussion by using multimedia will be used as training strategy for
theoretical discuss on curriculum deity. And group work, group discussion
will be used for subject specific discussion.
Total 18 topics related to theoretical aspects and subject specific
curriculum was selected for 5-days training programme. All the topics was
distributed among participants depending on their specialisation and
interest. The co-ordinator had requested all the RPs to prepare a write up
for assign topic and sent to him at earliest so that it can be made available
to participants during 5-days training programme.
Lastly the co-ordinator given a formal vote of thank to all the RPs
for co-operation and participation in the workshop. He wished happy
journey to all outside RPs.
The five-days training programme was held at RIE, Bhubaneswar from
21.01.08 to 25.01.08. The programme coordinator invited 30 key resource
person (KRP) from West Bengal state representing various subjects
specialisation. All the 30 KRPs attended the training programme. The
following presents the distribution of participant.
Table-1- Subject wise distribution of participant
Subject Language Math. Physical
History Geography Total
February 10 04 04 04 04 04 30
Table-2- Age wise distribution of participants
Range of Age Frequency
50-59 & above 07
Table-3- Genderwise distribution of participants
Table-4- Educational qualification wise duration of participants
Educational qualification Frequency
M.Sc., B.Ed. 12
Table-5- Teaching experience wise distribution of participants
Educational qualification Frequency
The first day of the training programme began at 9 a.m. with registration of
the participants at RIE, Bhubaneswar in the CT cell.
The registration was followed by the inaugural session. At the out set
programme co-ordinator Dr. R.K. Mohalik welcomed the participants
resource persons from outside, Prof. V.K. Sunwani, Principal and RIE,
Bhubaneswar, Prof. J.S. Padhi, Head, Extension Education, RIE, BBSR
and Prof. S.C. Jain, Dean of Instruction, RIE, BBSR. The programme
coordinator explained that the purpose of this training programme is to
empower the KRPs in preparing secondary school curriculum and writing
text book. He also briefly explained about the contents and nature of the
five days training programme.
The training programme was inaugurated by Prof. V.K. Sunwani,
Principal, RIE, Bhubaneswar. In his inaugurated address, he stressed on
preparing curriculum by following constructvist approach as suggested by
NCF-2005. He also emphasised on integration of ICT in Secondary school
curriculum. The inaugural address of Principal was followed by address of
Prof. S.C. Jain and Prof. J.S. Padhi. The inaugural session was formally
ended with vote of thanks by Mr. L. Behera, Faculty of Education.
After inauguration, real training programme started with Lecture on
conceptualisation of curriculum and syllabus by Prof. S.M. Pay. He further
illustrated the related terms like syllabus, courses of study, lesson science
and how these terms are different from curriculum. He also explained the
different types of curriculum, subject centred, child centred, core, activity
based etc. to the participants.
In the after noon session, Prof. Pany again started his discussion on
determinants of secondary school curriculum. He illustrated the
determinants like educational history and trends, socio-economic
conditions, cultural and social changes, political insurance, physical
facilities resources available all these determinants with suitable examples
from secondary level. The participants activity participated in the
discussion and shared their views about factor of curriculum
The last session of the first day was taken by Dr. G.C. Nanda
relating to curriculum components and design. He stated that curriculum
consist of four components, objectives, content, strategy and evaluation.
All these components are interdependent on each other. He completely
elaborated all the components separately with reference to source, criteria
of selection and arrangement. He further illustrated that curriculum
development to continuous process of evolution, never ends. Every
curriculum far chance for retirement and modification.
The second day was completely devoted for discussion on National
Curriculum framework-05. The first session was taken by Mr. L. Behera,
on guiding principles of curriculum and aims of education as suggested by
NCF-05. He explained that curriculum should be constructed by following
principles; (i) connecting knowledge to life outside the school (ii) learning
is shifted away from role mental. (iii) overall development of children (iv)
more flexible and integral examination and (v) caring democratic polity of
the country. He further discussed that aim and is to build commitment to
democracy, equality, justice, freedom, secularism and concern for others
The second session was devoted for discussion on constructs and
its application in curriculum development and transaction. Dr. H.K.
Senapaty explained the constructivism as student centred approach that
places responsibility on students to take charge of their learning
experiences. He further compared the traditional approach and
constructivist approach, their relative advantage and disadvantage. The
NCF-05 was prepared by following constructivist approach. In
constructivist approach students create their own knowledge relating to
their previous knowledge and experience. Dr. Senapathy elucidated the
role of teacher in constructivist classroom.
The after noon session was taken by Mr. S. Singh and Mr. L.
Paikray relating to school and classroom environment. Mr. Singh started
discussion on physical environment of school and its effect n students
learning the emphasised on creating an enabling school environment
where children feel secure, absence of fear and experience equality and
equity. Mr. L. Paikray focussed on inclusive education and strategy of its
implementation. He emphasised on bring different kinds of children into
one fold/platform where they all feel equal. Again Mr. Singh discussed on
importance of library and need for developing reading habits among
children. Further he explained about preparing flexible time table basing
on maturity level of statements and local climate and festival.
‘Systematic reform’ is one of the chapter in NCF-2005. Dr. P. Das
elaborately touched upon points like maintaining quality in school
education, modification of teacher education, reducing stress and anxiety
during examination and involving Panchayat Raj Institutions in
management of education. He comprehending explained the ways of
reducing stress in public examination at class X and Class XII. He
explained how shifting contemplated testing to problem solving and
competency basis testing helps in reducing memorization. He further
discussed the advantages of involving Panchayat Raj institutions in
managing primary education.
The purpose of education is to bring holistic development of the students.
The various domain of students mind should be simultaneously inculcated
through school activities. Mr. S.G. Rao has illustrated the issues in non-
scholastic areas like art education, health and physical education and
peace education and its implication for curriculum development. He shown
different models of art production prepared by him/students for making his
presentation alike and active.
He suggested various activities that can be included in secondary
school curriculum. The NCF-05 introduced concept of peace education
and how it will create a peaceful mind in students. Dr. J. Mohapatra
discussed peace education and its relevance in incorporating school
Text book is one of the sources of learning. So text book should be
written in such a way that it will provide scope for thinking and activity for
students. Dr. S.K. Dash explained elaborately the process of developing
text book. He highlighted all the steps of textbook development;
preparation, production, distillation, use, evaluation and revision. He
narrated how all the steps contribute for developing right kind of text book.
He further discussed the essential components of text book; text,
illustrations, activity and exercise etc.
Dr. G.C. Nanda started the afternoon session with curriculum
evaluation. He said curriculum evaluative is the process of delineating,
obtaining and providing information useful by making decisions and
judgements about curricula. He discussed different criteria for evaluation,
consistency with objectives, comprehensiveness, sufficient diagnostic
value, ** and continuity. He stressed on formative curriculum evaluation;
evaluation that done during the developmental phase of curriculum. The
curriculum should be evaluated by external persons at the end of
curriculum development. Curriculum evaluation will contribute for revising
the existing curriculum.
West Bengal state is unique with respect to language, culture, living
style etc. Mr. A.K. Acharya discussed the trends and issues of curriculum
development in West Bengal states. He elaborated issues like; who
prepare school curriculum, medium of instruction, examination pattern,
standard of textbook, curriculum revision and text book writing.
The last two days was completely devoted for discussion on curricular
issues in different school subjects, language, science, math, social studies
etc. Prof. S.M. Pany discussed on curricular issues is language as
reflected in NCF-2005 for us. Children can develop language competency
in different language as our society is multilingual. He stressed on
innovative ways of teaching language; providing real live situation with
examples from familiar context.
Dr. R.P. Devi focussed her discussion on curricular issues in
science as reflected in NCF-05. She comprehensively illustrated, points
like; objectives of teaching science at secondary level, nature of science
content and its organization, new and innovative teaching strategy and
evaluating performance of students in Science. She concluded her
presentation by subjecting to participants that they should develop
scientific temper, inventiveness, creativity and keen observation quality in
Mathematics is one of the compulsory subject being taught at
school level. It was discussed by Dr. P. Dash who comprehensively
explained different curricular and pedagogical issues in Math. He stressed
on the point that Math teaching should be directed towards development
of abstract thinking, reasoning power and application. As student fear and
fail in Math. Subject in public examination, it should be taught in such a
way that difficulty level of content can be reduced and every body can
easily learning math.
Mr. S. Singh shared his knowledge and experience in preparing
social studies curriculum for secondary school. He also discussed
curricular issues of social studies as reflected in NCF-05. The social
studies content to dynamic in nature as it deals with social realities. He
also focussed his presentation on process of making social studies class
alike and simulative. He shown the C.D brought by NCERT relating to
social studies text book, nature of content, style of content presentation,
illustration in form of pictures, maps, fighters etc.
In the after noon session, the whole group was divided into four
small group on bias of their subject specialisation. The group like
language group, science group, math group and social studies group were
formed. The coordinator distributed photocopy of model syllabus prepared
by NCERT basing on NCF-05 to all the groups The groups were instructed
by the co-ordinator to go through the model syllabus and NCF-05, prepare
a model syllabus shifting to needs and requirements of West Bengal state.
The coordinator also requested the resource persons; Prof. S.M. Pany, Dr.
R.P. Devi, Dr. P. Dash and Mr. S. Singh for guiding the groups in
preparing the model syllabus. The groups were required to write content
outline for class IX and X. At the end of the session Dr. Mohalik suggested
all the group members for continuing. This work as Guest House in
The group members discussed with resource persons about the nature of
load to be given in different classes and its organisation. On the guidance
of Resource persons and reference of model syllabus of NCERT and NCF-
05, the groups prepared a draft syllabus in respective subjects.
The draft syllabus were presented by the particular before the whole
group and resource persons. It was thoroughly discussed and deliberated,
cross examined by resource persons and participants. On the basis
comments and suggestions, the draft syllabus were modified. All the
Groups had handed over the final version of draft syllabus to the
Every phase ended with a formal valedictory function. Dr. R.K. Mohalik,
Coordinator welcomed the gathering. Dr. Mohalik informed to the Principal
of all Lecture hands out were distributed to the participants. He further
said that NCF-05 which was purchased from publication Dept. of NCERT
were distributed to all participants for their reference and undergoing. He
appraise to the Principal that programme was capital on as per schedule
and planned. Prof. V.K. Sunwani, Principal, RIE, BBSR chaired the
function and distributed the certificates to the participation. Prof. V.K.
Sunwani emphasised that the training inputs should be utilized by the
participants and West Bengal Government in formulating secondary
school curriculum. He expressed his happiness on the success of the
programme and that Dr. Mohalik for his effort. Prof. S.M. Pany, Dr. R.P.
Devi, Mr. S. Singh and Mr. L. Behera were present in this session. Finally
the programme ended with a vote of thanks by Mr. L. Behera.
D. Evaluation and Follow up
There is need to evaluate the different aspects of programme; resource
persons-competency, transaction strategy content knowledge, material,
provided its relevance, quality content duration, usefulness and overall
effectiveness. The coordinator evaluated the programme by collecting
response from the participants at the end of the programme. All the 30
participants responded the questionnaire. The questionnaire consisted of
both closed ended and open-ended items. The responses collected from
participants were analysed of qualitatively and qualitatively to find out the
inherent meaning of the responses. The following table presents
responses in frequency and percentage.
Table- : Frequency and percentage of participants responses.
Sl.No. Item Yes (%) No(%)
1. Relevance of the content of training
2. Competency of resource persons. 29 01
3. Suitability of transaction approach. 29 02
4. Appropriateness of material provided. 28 02
5. Usefulness of the programme. 30 00
The above table indicates that all of the participants expressed that
content of the 5-days training programme was related and relevant for
curriculum development. It also revealed that majority of resource persons
were highly competent and used suitable transaction approaches. The
coordinator distributed printed material which was appropriate as per the
responses of the participants. All the participants viewed this programme
is useful for them in preparing state and school curriculum and writing text
The coordinator also qualitatively analysed the responses of
participants by asking opended questions. The coordinator asked question
like “write four strong points and four weak points of this 5-days training
programme”. The participants responded differently which is presented
1. The programme was well planned and systematic. All the sessions
were held as per schedule.
2. The programme was very effective in terms of its organisation,
resource persons, use of technology and support of coordinator.
3. The resource persons have adequate authority and mastery over
the topic they discussed. All sessions were openly discussed and
participated by participation.
4. This programme made us aware about NCF-2005 and construction.
It will help us in developing professional competency as a teacher
and designing and writing school text book.
1. The duration of the programme was short for understanding and
developing skills of preparing and writing curriculum and text book.
2. The medium of transaction ensures was barrier for most of the
participants. Because all most all participants taught in them school
in Bengali medium.
3. The more discussion should be developed for subject specific
discussion and shows work.
The following program presents the original response of the
selected participation that describes strong and weak points of the
The programme is very effective, as I have accumulated so much
experience in training curriculum. I am very much impressed by Dr.
Mohalika for his portability and coordination. The overall approach of this
program is very clear. Teachers need such programme for the
Mr. Paritosh Paik
1. Resource persons have adequate authority and mastery over the
topics they discussed.
2. The sessions are well organised, thanks to the programme co-
3. The deliberations are duly aided by necessary technical and
4. The RPs was viewed and co-operative making the sessions lively
1. Information came in succession with little room for the participants
to feed back in a few presentations.
2. The medium being English, many of the participants failed to come
up with observation/ queries.
3. Little room/ space has been provided with left for the group pair
work necessary for effective participation.
4. Motivational aspect has not been given due to importance in some
of the speeches.
(Mr. Manotosh Sarkar)
Strong Points : (i) The programme is very effective, as I
have accumulated so much
experience in framing secondary
(ii) The programme is lightened NCF
2005 which help me very much.
(iii) The materials provided by you are
appropriate and helpful.
(iv) The programme would help us in
developing school curriculum in our
state and it decrease students
Weak Point : (i) The training programme is very
(ii) It is difficult to express my obtain
because due to lack of language.
(Mrs. Kakli Halder)
1. It enabled me/us to understand the significant of the NCF’05. I only
acquitted with the name of NCF before, but a substantial
enlightenment on it, is obviously a treasure to me.
2. You have provided the hard copies of almost all of the sides. It will
be helpful to recapitutude the themes and to supply to the persons
who are interested.
3. Some of you resource persons like Prof. P. Das, Dr. G.C. Nanda,
and Prof. S. Singh have an excellent capacity of communication and
mastery on the subject matter as well. They have enriched us to a
4. You are busy much punctual.
SCHOOL AND CLASSROOM ENVIRONMENT
• PHYSICAL ENVIRONMENT
• NCRT RING AN EMBANCING ENVIRONMENT
• PARTICIPATION OF ALL CHILDRENS
• CHILDRENS RIGHT
• POLICY OF INCLUSION
• DISCIPLINE AND PARTICIPATORY MANAGEMENT
• SPACE FOR PATTERNS AND COMMUNITY
• CURRCULUM SITES AND LEARNING RESOURCES
• TESTS AND BOOKS
• EDUCATIONAL TECHNOLOGIES
• OTHER SITES AND SPACES
• NEED FOR PLURALITYAND ALTERNATIVE MATERIALS
• ORGANISING AND POOLING RESOURCES
• TEACHERS AT TO ANY AND PROFESSIONAL INDISPLINE
• TIME FOR REELECTION AND PLANNING
The physical and psychological dimensions of environment are important
and are interrelated.
Through this presentation we will examine these environments to
understand how they significantly influence children’s learning.
Nurturing an enabling environment
Where children feel secure, where there is absence of fear and which is
governed by relationships of equality and equity.
Classroom spaces, where children can ask questions freely, engaging in a
dialogue with teachers as well as with the peers.
To generate environment which will facilitate the self-confidence and self-
esteem of learners of all ages.
School must be conscious of the importance of creating equitable
classroom environment in which students are not subjected it to unfair
treatment and denied opportunities on the basis of their sex or
membership of caste, tribe or minority group.
Present situation of classrooms in our country.
What kind of physical environment learners need?
Participation of all children
India has signed the convention on the Rights of the child (CRC). The
three most important principles of this convention are :
(a) The right to participation.
(b) The right to association or the right to organization.
(c) The right to information.
Policy of inclusiveness.
When boys and girls come from different socio-economic and cultural
background and different levels of ability study together, the classroom
ethos is enriched and becomes more inspiring.
Discipline and Participatory Management
Rules regarding maintaining silence in classrooms, answering one at a
time, and answering only if u know the right answer, can undermine the
values of equality and equal opportunity. Such rules may also discourage
processes that are integral to children’s learning.
For instance noisy classrooms are frowned upon by teachers as well as
headmasters, but it is possible that rather than the noise being evidence
of the teacher not being in control it may be evidence of a living and
Systems for the participatory management of the school by the children
and administrators need to be evolved. Children should be encouraged to
elect their own representatives to children.
Curriculum sites and learning resources
• Texts and books
• Supplementary books, work books and extra reading
• Manuals-Teachers work books
Space for parents and community
• In order to make the school environment supportive of children and to
strengthen the relationship of the school with parents and the local
community there are institutionalized structures such as,
• Parent teacher association
• Local levels committees
• Alumni associations
• Community involvement helps in many ways.
One period a week to be devoted to library reading, during this time,
children sit and read silently in the library. They return the books borrowed
the previous week and borrow new ones.
If there is nolibrary roomb, the teacher can bring outbooks
appropriate to the age group and allow children to choose rather than
having the teacher distribute the books.
Library books can be brought in to the language class. For class
projects, children can be ask to look up a reference in the library.
Children can be asked to write about the books they have read that
week during the language class. Children can be asked to shrare story
they have read with the other children in class.
The school library should be kept open during vacations.
• Focus is on use of ET facilities need to be used at all levels of school,
cluster and block resource centers, district, state, and national level
• Need to develop encyclopedias and documentaries for children.
• Integrations of knowledge and experience with ET, so that would take
away the sense of burden and boredom that our present day education
(1) Child studying about village life should have easy access to Satyaijit
Ray’s classic, Pather Panchali, either as a CD to be borrowed from the
CRC or to be viewed on a national managed website.
(2) A middle school text book that discusses the history of Rajasthan and
mentions Meera should be able to offer the test of a Bhajan composed
by her and also refer to a source where that Bhajan has been
achieved, so that children can listen to M.s. Subhakalakshmi singing
Other Sites and spaces
• Local monuments and museums.
• Natural physical features such as rivers and hills.
• Everyday spaces such as market places and post office.
• Exchange visits between schools in different part of the country could
become important ways of promoting mutual understandings.
Tools and Laboratories
• Focus on the need for science lab, mathematical corner and social
sicence museum in school especially in rural areas.
• Absence of such facilities drastically narrows subject options for
children, denying them equal opportunities for learning and future life
• While elementary school can benefit from a sciences and maths
corner, secondary and higher secondary schools require well equipped
Need for Plurality and Alternative Methods
Multiplicity of textbooks.
Organising and pooling resources.
• Maps, picture folders, models can be shared among schools if they are
placed in the cluster center.
• Laborites can be installed at cluster level.
• Total number of days for curriculum should be two hundred days as
suggested by NCF 1988.
• Schools annual calendar should be plugged at amore decentralized
level so that it is closer to the calendar of loyal activities and climate
and weather. The plan for such calendar could be decentralized to the
district level, and decided in consultation with zila parishad.
• Flexibility in annual calendar based on local weather conditions but
flexibility should not be misused.
• Timing of the school day could be decided at each school level in
consultation with Gram Panchayat keeping in mind issues such as how
far children need to travel to get a school.
• No compromise with time or reduced below six hours a day and three
hours ECCE period.
• Morning assembly.
• Home work
• Period has presented as a basic unit of 45 minutes to teaching learning
in the time table.
• Larger period for craft drawing and lab work.
Time for reflection and planning
• On a daily basis (at least 45 minutes to review the day make notes on
children to follow up the next day, and organize materials for the next
days lesson (This is in addition to the time that they may need to
correct their home works).
• On a weekly basis (at least two/three hours) to take stock of learning to
work out details of actives and projects proposed and to plan a group
of lesson (units) for the coming week.
• At the beginning and end of the year, two or three days each need to
be allocated to evolve an annual plan for the school.
• Current in service training related time allocation (compulsory 20 days
• Monthly meeting organized for teachers at the cluster could be based
on group of teachers teaching similar subjects and grade levels, so that
they can share ideas and plan teaching for the forthcoming month
Teacher’s autonomy and professional independence
• Teachers require space, freedom, flexibility and respect.
• currently the system of hierarchies and control examination and
centralized planning for curriculum reform all constrain the autonomy
be headmaster and teacher.
• Often technologies such as radio and TV are introduced in to their
classroom without consulting teachers on whether they would like to
have these and what they would like these to do for them. Once these
are there in the classroom, teachers are expected to use them when
they have no control over what will be delivered or how to will integrate
their own teaching plans.
• Availability of minimum infrastructure and material facilities, and
support for planning a flexible daily schedule, are critical for improved
• A school culture that natures children children’s identifies as learners
enhances the potential and interests of each child.
• Specific activities ensuring participation of all children abled and
disabled are essential for learning by all.
• The value of self discipline among learners through democratic
functioning is as relevant as ever.
• Participation of community members in sharing knowledge and
experiences in a subject areas help in forgoing a partnership between
school and community.
• Reconceptualiaciation of learning resources in terms of
• Textbooks focused on elaboration on concepts, activities, problems
and exercises encouraging reflecting thinking and group work.
• Supplementary books, work books, teachers, handbooks, etc. based on
fresh thinking and new perspectives.
• Multimedia and ICT as sources for two interaction rather than one way
• School libraries as an intellectual space for teachers, learners, and
members of the community, to deepen their knowledge and connect
with the wider world.
• Decentralized planning of school calendar and daily schedule and
autonomy for teacher professionalism practices are basic to creating a
The social science encompass diverse concerns of society and includes a
wide rare of content, drawn from the disciplines of history, geography,
political science, economics and sociology.
The selection and organisation of material into a meaningful social
sciences curriculum, enabling students to develop critical understanding
of society, is therefore a challenging task. The possibilities of including
new dimensions and especially in view of the students own life
Social Sciences curriculum in 1975,1988, 2000 and 2005.
Conceptualizing the National Curriculum Framework 2005
Prevailing perception of the social sciences.
• Non utility subject………….. Result of this fact???
• Merely transmits information and it is text book centric.
• Text is required to be memorized for examinations.
• The content of these text book is considered to be unconnected to daily
• Providing unnecessary details about the past.
• Exams reward the memorization of these super flows ‘facts’ with
children’s conceptual understanding being largely ignored.
• Not many desirable job options are open to students specializing in
social science education.
• It is felt that the social since are the skills require to be functioned in
the real world. This provides the impression that the subject is
Issues to be addressed
• Popularity and local content.
• Scientific rigour
• Normative concerns
• Interrelations among disciplines.
The proposed epistemological Frame
Based on certain considerations of dominant perceptions as well as
issues to be addressed the following points serve as the foundational logic
in the drafting of new syllabi
• The curriculum must be able to show how the nation and national unity
figures in local perceptions of the people, local perceptions therefore,
have to be articulated through reorienting curriculum.
• The notion of text book be changed from being merely instructive to
more suggestive. It is argued that this would offer enough scope of the
learner even to go beyond the very text look, creating more appetite for
further reading that is necessary to enrich the understanding of a given
• The major thrust of the social science curriculum as remind utilitarian
in nature. That is to say, it puts more emphasis on development issues
that are important but not sufficient to understand the normative
dimension issues of equality, justice and dignity of society policy.
Teaching of social sciences has thus been linked upto thereof an
individual in contributing to this ‘development’. In view of this gap,
there is a need to achieve a shift informs from utilitarianism to
egalitarianism that would address the normative concerns are
• It is suggested to bring a change in nomenclature from civics to
political science. Civics as a subject had in the Indian school
curriculum in the colonial period in the background of increasing
disloyalty among Indians towards the Raj. Emphasis on the obedience
and loyalty of the citizens and creation of civil society according to the
universal values of progress were they key features of the colonial
civics. Whereas, political science suggests dynamism that involves the
process that produces structure of dominations and their contestaitons
by social forces. Political science imagines civil society as the sphere
where more informed, receptive and responsible citizens could be
• Gender concerns need to be addressed in terms of making the
perspectives of women integral tot he discussion of nay historical event
and contemporary concern. This shift from highlighting individuals for
fore fronting women’s struggles both historically as well as on a daily
basis, requires an epistemic shift from the particle nationalist frame.
The epistemic shift proposed can be summarized as follows.
From the text book as the only source of information to the text book as
suggestive of a particular way of understanding issues.
From the main stream account of the past to one where more groups and
more regions are taken into account.
From utilitarian to egalitarian.
From the text book being perceived as a closed box to the text book as a
Change in from civics to political science.
Teaching the social sciences
Studying the social science is vital for many reasons. It enable children:
• to understand the society in which they live to learn how society is
structured, managed, and governed, and also about the forces seeking
to transform and redirect society in various ways.
• To appreciate the values enshrined the Indian Constitution such as
justice, liberty, equality and fraternity and the unity and integrity of the
nation and the building of socialist, secular and democratic society.
• To grow up as active, responsible and reflective members of society.
• To learn to respect differences of opinion life style, and cultural
• To question and examine received ideas institutions, and practices.
• To acquire pleasure in reading by providing them with enjoyable
• To undertake actives that will help them develop social and life skills
and make them understand that these skills are important for social
In textbooks and in the classroom, the content, language, and images
should be comprehensible, gender-sensitive, and critical of social
hierarchies and inequalities of all kinds.
• The objectives of teaching the social sciences at the secondary stages
are to develop among the learner analytical and conceptual skills
enable him/her to:
• Understand the process of economic and social change and
development with examples form modern and contemporary India and
other part of the world.
• Critically examine social and economic issues and challenges like
poverty, child labour, destitution, illiteracy, and various dimensions of
• Understand the rights and responsibilities of citizens in a democratic
and secular society, understand the roles and responsibilities of the
state in the fulfillment of constitutional obligations.
• Understand the process of change and development in India in relation
to the world economy and polity.
• Appreciate the rights of local communities in relation to their
environment, the judicious utilization of resources, as well as the need
for the conservation of the natural environment.
• At the secondary stage, the social sciences comprise elements of
history, geography, political science and economics.
• The main focus will be on contemporary India and the learner will be
initiated into a deeper understanding of the social and economic
challenges facing the nation.
• Effort should be made to relate the content as much as possible to the
children’s everyday lives.
• History : The contribution of various sections of/regions to India’s
freedom struggle can be studied, as well as the other aspects of recent
history, in the context of developments in the modern world.
• Geography : It should be taught keeping in mind the need to inoculate
in the child a critical appreciation for conservation and environment
• Political Science : The focus should be on discussing the philosophical
foundations that underlie the value framework of the Indian constitution
i.e. an in depth discusison of equality, liberty, justice, fraternity, dignity,
plurality and freedom from exploitation.
• Economics: is introduced to the child at this level and it is important
that the topics discussed should be from the perspective of masses.
• For example : the discussion on poverty and unemployment should no
long be undertaken in terms of statistics, but instead derive from an
understanding of the elitist functioning of many economic institutions
and the inequality sustained by economic relations.
Approaches to teaching
Processes of learning should promote the spirit of inquiry and creativity
among both children and teachers.
Development of democratic culture.
Clarification of concepts through the lived experience of individuals and
Open ended approach to teaching.
Use of supplementary material.
Shift away from rote learning to comprehension through the
implementation of projects.
PLANNING OF THE TALK
What is the general perception regarding a textbook.
How a Textbook differ from an ordinary book?
What is the scope of textbook?
Textbook is a controversial issue in Education.
Definition of Textbook and its purpose.
Matters concerning Textbook development.
Significant aspects of a Textbook program.
Textbook development is a team-work.
What is the general perception regarding a Textbook
Textbooks is a Teaching Learning Device used to transmit the
Accumulated and Refined gains of civilization that is called culture to an
Textbook is Teacher in Print based on predetermined course of study
Textbook is Treasure House of knowledge fully equipped with instruction
Through textbook the subject-matter receives a rich dose pedagogy with
all its implications, such as,
• Device for practices.
• Fixation of learning.
How does a Textbook differ from an ordinary Book?
Strictly based on the syllabus.
Combines teaching learning techniques and motives.
Does not consist of individual’s inspirational outpouring except when such
outpourings themselves from the subject matter of the syllabus.
Science of pedagogy is well defined.
Content of the subject is characterized by its selectivity and systematic
organization that suits the intended learners.
Materials presented is culted from various pertinent sources and then
organized for study.
Adopt effective mode of communication skill in accordance of the view
point of the individual subject at the corresponding level.
Textbook is treated as the stored Treasured House of knowledge which is
ever groing or adjusting to the ever changing pattern of the society.
According to text material in modern Education University of ILLIONS,
1958, PP12 Cronbach, Lee J (Ed). The text maker is a Gate Keeper who
lets us have the knowledge he considers of most value.
WHAT IS THE SCOPE OF TEXTBOOKS?
Preparation of dependent supporting materials such as workbooks for
pupils and teacher manual.
Preparation of independent supporting materials such as Atlas, Dictionary,
Some textbook incorporate exercises which may be answered on its body
itself like workbook.
Some textbooks incorporate lively colorful scientific diagrams.
Incorporate pondering questions.
Incorporate examples relating to daily life situations.
Incorporate National Preamble
Incorporate short Biography of the eminent personalities related to the
Incorporate summary Bibliography, appendix, Hints for solving different
According to the report of Education commission, 1964-66, Ministry of
Education, Govt. of India, pp.229 on Education and National Development:
• Proliferation of Low-Quality substandard books in most of our school
subjects can be checked by developing the quality text books.
The cost is an overriding consideration in our country unlike the affluent
developed countries. The optimization of the quality within the price
permissiveness is a task to tackle.
In the era of explosion of knowledge their a scope to develop the quality
textbooks and continuously revise them after regular interval of time
inspite of the complete rewriting to fit in with the latest changes. Unless
this is don the gap of backwardness continues to increase.
The Textbook is a Controversial issue in Education
According to UNESCO Document entitled Handbook for the improvement
of textbook 1949, pp.9.
It is claimed that –“the best planned programmes, carried out by the most
able teachers can not achieve maximum effectiveness unless
implemented by first class textbook and teaching materials”.
In the same document it is remarked that-“textbook education is a
derogatory phrase in educational parlance”.
Section of educationists urge to put less and less reliance on a textbook
because it is thought to be protective, prescriptive, static and above all
cramping in effect.
According to Kilpatrick, William H. Remarking the curriculum 1936, pp.92
caution against furnishing student with final orderly statement of our
expert thinking so that simply learns understands for doing “so we shall
very likely prevent him from building and adequate knowledge”.
So, textbook education is contrasted with experimental, experience based
or problem solving education appeared to help in achieving the design
growth of learning.
It is taken to symbolize conservative, authoritarian, essentialist or
traditional outlook to which it can, no doubt degenerate unless properly
The uses of a textbook have both a dark and a bright side. It is therefore,
necessary to keep safe from the danger of straying into the dark one.
WHAT IS THE DEFINITION OF TEXTBOOK?
According to California administrative code, Title 5, Article 6, Section 53,
Quoted in the list of authorized textbook for schools, 1964-66, Publication
No.426, Textbook section, Division of Instructional service, City schools,
Los Angles U.S.A.), a textbook is defined as :
“a volume intended for use by pupils and meeting in style and organization
the basic requirements of the course for which it is intended”. Some of the
purposes which textbook can normally we expected to serve are :
• The textbook seeks to concretize, the syllabus by furnishing a good
outlines of course in the form of a common body of pertinent subject
matter. To an experienced tear the textbook offers guidance in
planning his lesson.
• The textbook helps the dissemination of knowledge through its
compactness, communicability, comprehensiveness ad reference
• Since the textbook is a widely and intensively used instructional
material, it can be employed as an instrument of change in a planned
and deliberate manner.
• Above all, the textbooks, facilities pupils learning and does so in a
variety of ways- individual and collective, independent and directed,
before, during and after the lesson-depending upon their nature and
the manner of their use.
The matters concerning the textbook development are very complex
The complexity of textbook development is pervasive: it covers:
According to reports of workshops conducted by NCERT, New Delhi MS
University Baroda entitled Major aspects textbook programme :
The program of textbook preparation and production keep in view of:
• The total curriculum plan of the school
• The syllabus of the course
• The syllabi of the preceding and subsequent classes.
• The nature of the subject
• The method of teaching in vague
• The human and material resource of the community
• The cultural milieu
• The political set up
• The educational system
• The teachers
• The pupils.
It is said that a Textbook is brought out to satisfy a felt need. This
apparent use of need through in singular number represents and
encompassing plurality such as :
The needs of he educational program.
The needs of the educational agency.
The needs of the teacher
The needs of the learner visualized in all their dimensions viz.
These are matters for very serious considerations for the preparation of
WHAT ARE THE SIGNIFICANT ASPECTS OF A TEXT BOOK
Broadly a textbook project in its completeness comprises of the following
six significant aspects:
The preparation of Textbook falls under a series of steps. Beginning with
visualization of the need for it and ending up with the finalization of the
The whole process of preparation of a textbook consists of FOUR broad
B. Writing (including illustrating)
C. Vetting (including reproduction review and try-out).
A. Planning of the Textbook
Planning of the textbook consists of the following three steps :
a) arriving at basic decisions about predisposing factors.
b) Selecting the content.
c) Organizing the content
a. Pre-disposing factors.
It consists of steps like:
• Total curriculum plan
• National goals to be reflected
• Available resources
• Cost range
It is desirable to associate a production specialist, especially the book
does to help to take certain decisions at the initial stage on preparation of
Follow up the basic decision the author will go for the selection of the
corner relevant to a course of study.
This involves :
Going to various sources and picking out what suits the purpose best
which covers the nature and content of illustrations or learning exercise.
After suitable selection of content another important step comes in that is
organization of the content into meaningful units:
• These unit may have different levels and may go under various
hierarchical levels, such as parts, sections, chapters etc.
• It should be se done that at this stage on outline image of the book that
is its blueprint-should clearly emerge out.
B. Writing of the Textbook
The main tasks of writing textbook comprises :
Preparation of written matter in the form of main textbook.
Preparation and incorporation of teaching learning devices like activities,
key questions, assignments, exercise etc. according to the general
planning of the book.
Preparation of illustrations.
Preparation of other additional material like prefer, glossary, appendices,
C. Vetting of the textbook
After the draft is ready, it needs to be closely examined.
Various ways of doing it are:
Examined in a group of knowledgeable persons representing content
experts, pedagogy specialist and working teachers.
Examined in a actual teaching-learning situation involving the group of
experts, working teachers and learners.
D. Editing of the textbook
Textbook editing requires :
A god understanding of the subject concerned. Proper awareness of the
science of pedagogy. A commanding expression.
The editor takes care of :
• Readable ness of the book.
• Eliminates disparities in style, sequence and even in the organization
• Illustrations and mechanical details, such as consistency in spellings,
puntualtions, etc. aimed at giving the book the final ship shape.
Along with the preparation of the textbook manuscript, the printing and
publication work is also required to be done meticulously.
The process of taken together is called production of the book.
The production falls into the following seven principal steps:
Production editing of the manuscript
Designing of the book
Preparation of the dummy
Procurement of the paper
Designing of the book
The book designer of a textbook should pay particular attention to the
• Format or page size to suit the type size and face length of line,
illustrations etc. from stand points of the reader’s age group and
• Evenness of text area as also interword and inter-line spacing
throughout the book.
• Balance in page lay-out, such as between text and visuals.
• Proper indentation of paragraph.
• Impressive lay-out of the title page
• Width of the marginal to ensure proper ground print effect.
• Suitable choice of paper keeping in views cost range durability and
It involves insertion of print specifications, such as head lines, captions,
sub-captions of the illustration.
Along with marked manuscript a statement of other necessary instruction
to the press should be accompanied.
Preparation of the dummy
The dummy represents an attempt to visualize the design of the book in
It helps in casting off that is in the estimation of the bulk of the book.
The final dummy is prepared with paged galley proof.
It is very necessary where the task involves varying page designs and
incorporation of illustrations, such as in case of Geography and Science
Procurement of the paper
Paper is the base material of the book. The final choice of the paper will
primarily be guided by the consideration of:
Decision about the process of printing should be taken at the stage of
designing the book.
Whatever the process, print should be
Printing includes proof-reading which has been carefully done both at the
galley-and page-proof levels with proper care on typographical errors.
Binding includes processes like:
• Putting cover page
Binding method depend on the:
• Use of the book
Binding is important from view point of :
The cost of production of the textbook decides the pricing of the book
keeping in view of the purchasing ability of the lower income group.
After the textbook is produced, it should be distributed in such a way that
it reaches every learner at the proper time.
To ensure such distribution a suitable administrative-cum-business
machinery has to be set up especially in view of the nationalization of
The teacher may not be aware of the potential of a particular book.
The textbook may provide guidance through:
• Note for teachers
• Teachers manual or handbook
• Curriculum guide.
After use the textbook it should be evaluated by a Non-controversial body.
The evaluation process is strengthened by collecting the responses
of the planned questionnaires from :
• Students of both rural and urban areas
• Teacher trainers
Howsoever perfect a textbook may be, it can not continue to be so for long
So a text book should have to be revised from time to time.
Textbook Development is a Team Work
A textbook is a creative and unique composition.
It is hard to organise a number of persons in a creative literacy work.
It is no doubt difficult but not impossible.
So the members of textbook development teams should need a well
coordinated planning, execution and mutual understanding to achieve a
CURRICULUM COMPONENTS AND DESIGN
Curriculum is the total plan that arranges curricular parts/component
Components/Elements arranged in a Curriculum design are
• Subject matter/content
• Method and organisation of content/learning experience
• Appraisal /Evaluation
Four elements seek to answer four questions
• What is to be done?
• What subject matter is to be used?
• What methods and what organization are to be employed?
• How are the results to be appraised?
- Each of these elements related to others.
- Design regarding any of them deponent on decision made on others.
- Inter-relatedness of components
Purpose-global-to prepare children for primary school (purpose of pre-
Golas/Aims-Flexible, less global and more specific.
• Facilitate self actualization
• Effect cognitive Development
• Develop communication skill.
Objectives-outcome-orientation, cognitive, affective psychomotor
Level-National, Regional, local, institutional.
Guidelines for formulating objectives
• Matching – objectives to match with goals.
• Worth – Attaining the objectives will have value for the student at
present and in future.
• Clarity – Students understand the outcomes.
• Appropriateness-Students need.
• Logical grouping – Organizational coherence.
• Revision- Objectives to respond to periodical change.
Selection and structuring of content.
• Facts-concepts/ideas- generalization.
• Criteria for selection of content.
• Self-sufficiency – to be attained in the most economical manner.
• Significance-meaningful experience for the learner.
• Validity-Meets the demand of Goal/objective.
• Interest-Student’s interest-Maturity, previous knowledge.
• Utility-Use/application of the content.
• Learnability-Intellectual ability, within the range of students,
• Feasibility – In terms of cost, time, resources available.
• Method of organization
• Scope-what is covered in terms of breadth and depth?
Continuity of Learning
• Repetition of curriculum components.
• Sequence-vertical progress form one level to another.
• Integration- Relationship between the learning’s in various areas of the
curriculum (horizontal relationship among disciplinary/subjects).
Principles of sequencing
• Simple to complex learning
• Pre-requisite learning
• Whole to part learning
• Chronological learning
• Articulation - Inerrelatedenss of various
aspects of curriculum.
• Vertical - Curriculum-syllabus Text book-
topic from one grade to another.
• Horizontal - Interrelation between social
study and language of a
• Child centred vs subject centred.
• Need of the individual vs. Need of the society.
• Common Education vs specialized education.
• Breadth and depth of curriculum content.
• Traditional vs. innovative content.
• Varying learning style of different students.
• Different teaching methods and educational experience.
• Work and play.
• Community and school.
Centres of Curriculum Organization
• Subject centred design
• Broad field design
• Learner centred design
• A process of finding the value for the programme in terms of process
• Desired process and expected outcome.
• Comprehensive-covers various kinds of objective.
• Continuous-Assessment during the programme.
• Student evaluation
• Curriculum evaluation
• Arrangement of the elements of a curriculum so as to make it a
Main Phases of Curriculum Development
1. Predevelopment: analysis of background variables including aims,
resources and existing curriculum.
2. Trials and ‘formative’ evaluation of classroom interactions and a wide
range of outcomes.
3. Documentation of information that helps others decide whether the
programme is suitable for their particular situation.
4. Monitoring under field conditions to allow continuing adaptation and
improvement in the specific context.
Curriculum evaluation is the process of delineating, obtaining and
providing information useful for making decisions and judgements about
Mapping Sentence of curriculum evaluation
Evaluation is the
From the point of
On the basis of Measurement
Summarised in a Qualitative
For the sake of
use of accepting
Criteria for a programme Evaluation
• Consistency with objectives
• Sufficient Diagnostic value
• Unity of Evaluative Judgement
A Comprehensive Evaluation Programme
A comprehensive evacuation programme requires answering the following
• What are the objectives which underlie the curriculum programme?
(Formulation and clarification of objectives).
• Under What conditions or in which situations will students have an
opportunity to demonstrate the behaviour? (Selection and construction
of the appropriate devices for getting evidence).
• By what criteria would one appraise students achievement of an
objective? (Application of evaluative criteria)
• What factors determine the attainment of educational objectives and
how can one determine these factors? (Information on the background
of students and the nature of instructions in the light of which to
interpret the evidence)
• What implications do the findings have for curriculum teaching or
guidance of students? (Translation of evaluation findings into
improvement of the curriculum and instruction).
CONSTRUCTIVIST LEARNING ENVIRONMENT
By Dr. H.K. Senapaty
What is constructivism?
Contructivism is basically a theory- based on observation and
scientific study – about how people learn. It says that people learn. It says
that people construct their own understanding and reflecting on those
• Constructivism is a student-centred approach that places responsibility
on students to take charge of their learning experiences. Teachers
create activities and assignments that foster the creation of knowledge.
Students are challenged to produce reality based products such as
portfolios and papers. The construtivist educational philosophy
operates on four major assumptions.
Four Major Assumptions
• Knowledge depends on past constructions. We know the world through
our mental framework and we transform and interpret new information
through this framework.
• Constructions come through systems of assimilation and
accommodation into our existing mental framework. If information is
incongruent with that framework, it can not be assimilated. But we can
develop a higher-level of cognition to accommodate this new
information and zones of new development.
• Learning is an organic process of invention, not mechanical.
Knowledge is more than facts or information. Learners must be able to
hypothesize, predict, manipulate, and construct knowledge.
• Meaningful learning occurs through reflection and scaffolding of new
knowledge upon existing framework of knowledge. Cognitive
developmental abilities play a key role in all four premises and the
ability and evolution of each students ability to learn and assimilate
In the classroom
The constructivist view of learning can point towards a number of different
teaching practices. In the most general sense, it usually means
encouraging students to use active techniques to create more knowledge
and then to reflect on and talk about what they are doing and how their
understanding is changing.
Our past experience about learning
(i) Learning as response strengthening
(ii) Learning as knowledge acquisition
(iii) Learning as knowledge construction
Learning as response strengthening
• According to the first view, learning occurs when learner strengthens or
weakens an association between a stimulus and a response.
• This first view developed in the first half of 20th
• The role of learner is to passively receive towards and punishments.
• The instructional designer role is to create environments where the
leaner repeatedly is cued to give a simple response, which is
immediately followed by a feedback.
Learning as knowledge acquisition
• Learning occurs when a learner places new information in long-term
• This view developed in 1950s, 1960s and 1970s and was based largely
on the study of human learning in artificial laboratory settings.
• The role of the learner is to passively acquire information, and the
teacher’s job is to present information, such as in textbooks and
• According to this view, information is a commodity that can be
transmitted directly from teacher to learner.
• The instructional designer’s role is to create environments in which the
learner is exposed to large amount of information through textbooks,
lectures and computer based multimedia programmes.
Learning as knowledge construction
• Learning occurs when a leaner actively constructs a knowledge
representation in working memory.
• This view emerged in 1980s and 1990s and was based on largely on
the study of human learning in increasingly realistic settings.
• According to this view, the learner is a sense maker, whereas the
teacher is a cognitive guide who provides guidance and modeling on
authentic academic tasks.
• The instructional designer’s role is to reate environments in which the
learner interacts meaningfully with academic material, including
fostering the learner’s processes of selecting organizing and
How construtivism is different from traditional ideas about teaching
Traditional classroom Constructivist classroom
• Curriculum begins with the
parts of the whole.
• Curriculum emphasizes big
concepts, beginning with the
whole and expanding to
include the parts.
• Emphasizes basic skills strict
adherence to fixed curriculum
is highly valued.
• Pursuit of student questions
and interests is valued.
• Materials are primarily
textbooks and workbooks.
• Materials include primary
sources of material and
• Learning is based on
• Learning is interactive,
building on what the student
• Teacher’s role is directive,
rooted in authority.
• Teacher’s role is interactive,
rooted in negotiation
• Assessment is through testing,
• Assessment includes student
works, observations and
points of view, as well as
tests. Process is as important
• Knowledge is seen as inert • Knowledge is seen as
dynamic, ever changing with
• Student work primarily alone. • Students work primarily in
What the constructivist teacher has to do in his classroom?
He may :
• pompt students to formulate their own questions (inquiry).
• allow multiple interpretations and expressions of learning (multiple
• Encourage group work and the use of peers as resources
In a constructivist classroom, learning is
• Inquiry based
History of Constructivism
• The concept of constructivism has roots in classical antiquity, going
back to Socreates’s’.
• Jean Plaget and John Dewey developed heoreis of childhood
development and education, what we now call Progressive education
that led to the evolution of constructivism.
• Lev Vygostsky, Jerome Bruner, and David Ansubel.
Some critical perspectives of constructivism
• It’s elitist
• Critics say the collaborative aspects of constructivist classrooms tend
to produce a “tyranny of the majority”, in which a few students voices
or interpretations dominate the group’s conclusions.
• Critics say that constructivists, by rejecting evaluation through testing
and other external criteria, have made themselves unaccountable for
their student’s progress.
Benefits of constructivism
• Children learn more, and enjoy learning more when they are actively
involved, rather than passive listeners.
• Education works best when it concentrates on thinking and
understanding, rather than on rote memorization. Constructivism
concentrates on learning how to think and understand.
• Constructivist learning is transferable in constructivist classrooms,
students crate organizing principles that they can take with them to
other learning settings.
• Constructivism gives students ownership of what they learn, since
learning is based on students questions and exploitations. Engaging
the creative instincts develops students abilities to express knowledge
through a variety of ways. The students are also more likely to rein and
transfer the new knowledge to real life.
• By grounding learning activities in an authentic, real-world context,
constructivism stimulates and engages students. Students in
constructivist classrooms learn to question things and to apply their
natural curiosity to the world.
• Constructivism promotes social and communication skills by creating a
classroom environment that emphasizes collaboration and exchange of
The constructivist learning : A paradigm shift
• Constructivist learning depends on the activation of several cognitive
processes in the learner during learning, including selecting relevant
information, organizing incoming information, and integrating incoming
information with existing knowledge. This is called as the SOI model.
Instructional message working memory long-term memory
Pictures → Images → Visual mental model
→ Prior knowledge
Words → Sounds → Verbal Material model
The constructivist revolution
If offers a new vision of the learner as an active sense-maker and
suggests new methods of instruction. It facilitates presentation of
materials in a constructivist way and engage students in an active
explorative learning. This new approach allows the learners to have more
control over their own learning to think analytically and critically, and to
work collaboratively. This constructivist approach is an effort at
educational reform made easier by technology.
Interpretation Construction (ICON) Design Model
• Observation : Students make observations of authentic artifacts
anchored in authentic situations.
• Interpretation Construction : Students construct interpretations of
observations and construct arguments for the validity of their
• Contextualization: Students access background and contextual
materials of various sorts to aid interpretation and argumentation.
• Cognitive Apprenticeship : Students serve as apprentices to
teachers to master observation, interpretation and contextualization.
• Collaboration : Students collaborate in observation, interpretation
• Multiple Interpretations: Students gain cognitive flexibility by being
exposed to multiple interpretations.
• Multiple Manifestations : Students gain transferability by seeing
multiple manifestations of the same interpretations.
EXAMPLE FROM SCIENCE
• Students study astronomy and science in general by using
observations of telescopic plates and a computer simulation of the sky
to construct and test interpretations of astronomical phenomena.
Students examine and make measurements on photographic plates
from observatory telescopes and compute simulations of the sky
(Observation), then elate these analyses to reference materials
(Contextualization) containing what is know about astronomical objects
(i.e. stars, planets, etc.).
• The teacher initially talks through how he would analyze and interpret
examples of such astronomical data (cognitive apprenticeship) then the
students from groups to work on some data (collaboration), while the
teacher coaches and advises them as they proceed.
• The students develop their own hypotheses and test them against the
astronomical data (interpretation construction). Students defend their
hypotheses using their analyses and reference materials both within
and between the groups, and such argumentation together with
background readings exposes them to various was to interpret the data
• As they proceed through the course, the students see how basic
principles of astronomy, physics and chemistry can be use dot make
sense of different sets of astronomical data (Multiple Manifestations).
Example from History
• Presents the students with a graphic simulation of an archaeological
site, then the students study the history of the site through simulated
digging up of artifacts, making various measurements of the artifacts in
a simulated laboratory (Observation), and relating the objects to what
is already known using a wide variety of reference materials
• The students work cooperatively in groups (collaboration), while the
teacher models how to deal with such a site then fades her
involvement while coaching and supporting the students in their own
study efforts (cognitive apprenticeship).
• The students develop ownership of their work by developing their own
interoperations of the history of the site and mustering various kinds of
evidence for their conclusions (Interpretation construction). By arguing
with the other students and studying related interpretations in the
historical literature, they get a sense of other perspectives (Multiple
• By going through the process a number of times bringing each
contextual background to bear on a number of different artifacts, the
students learn and understand the many ways that the general
principles behind what they are doing become manifest (Multiple
Example form English
• Students study Shakespearean drama and English literature in general
by using the text of the play and two or more videos of performances of
the play. Students can read a portion of Macbeth (e.g., a scene) and
then immediately jump to see one or two performances of what they
have read (observation).
• The students can also use this indexing system to jump to
commentaries on the same portion of the play (contextualization).
Using portions of the play, the teacher models how to integrate reading
the play, watching the performances and reading the commentaries
(cognitive apprenticeship) and the students work together in groups
(collaboration) to develop their own interpretations of the play and how
it should be performed (Interpretation construction).
• Comparing their interpretations of the play with the other students both
within the same group and then in different groups gives the students a
sense of the many different reactions that people can have to a play
like Macbeth (Multiple interpretations).
• The multimedia indexing system also facilitates the students jumping
around in the text and vieos to see how the same entities (e.g.
characters, themes, etc.) can be manifested in many different ways in
the text and performances (Multiple Manifestations).
Instructional Issues in Mathematics of the Secondary Level
Dr P. Das
Former Reader in Edn.
There is no difference of opinion on the need for teaching of Mathematics
as a part of general education. After independence the Secondary
Education Commission (1952-53), the Education Commission (1964-66),
curriculum for ten years school-A framework (1975), the National Policy
on Education (NPE-1986, 1992), A National Curriculum for Elementary
and Secondary Education. A Framework (1988-NCERT), National
Curriculum for school Education (NCFSE-2000, NCERT) and National
Curriculum Framework (2005, NCERT) have not only emphasised the
importance of mathematics as a core subject fill the end of general school
education but also strongly recommended specific changes of
mathematics curriculum to meet the emerging technological needs of the
society. Following the above recommendations various steps are being
taken bot at national as well as state levels for qualitative improvement of
mathematics realised our goals due to various issues related to
instructional objectives, content of the curriculum methods of instruction
and evaluation of students learning.
After completing the module you should be able to :
• Understand the objectives of teaching mathematics at the secondary
• Understand the guidelines for curriculum construction,
• Identify appropriate methods of instruction; and
• Plan for suitable evaluation strategies for students learning in
Objectives of teaching Mathematics
NCF (2005) has clearly stated that (a) Mathematisation (ability to
think logically, formulate and handle abstractions) rather than ‘knowledge’
of mathematics (formal and mechanical procedures) is the main goal of
teaching mathematics. (b) The teaching of mathematics should enhance
children’s ability to think and reason, to visualize and handle abstractions,
to formulate and solve problems. Access to quality mathematics education
is the right of every child. Following the recommendations NCF (2005) the
Central and Board of Secondary Education (CBSE) have specified the
following broad objectives of teaching mathematics of secondary stage in
its secondary school curriculum (2006). To help the learners to
- Consolidate the mathematical knowledge and skills acquired at the
upper primary stage;
- Acquire knowledge and understanding of the terms, symbol concepts,
principles, processes etc,
- Develop mastery of basic algebraic skills,
- Develop drawing skills.
- Apply mathematical knowledge and skills to solve real life problems of
developing objectives to analyze, to see interrelations involved to think
- Develop the ability to articulate logically,
- Develop awareness of the need for national unit, national integration,
elimination of sex biases,
- Develop necessary skills to work with modern technological devices
such as calculators computers etc;
- Develop interest in mathematics as a problem solving tool in various
fields for its beautiful structures and pattern etc;
- Develop reverence and respect towards great Mathematicians,
particularly Indian mathematics for their contributions to the field of
Bihar Curriculum Framework (BCF 2006) was also developed in the *
of NCF (20050 and stated following new goals for students in
- Learning to value Mathematics
- Becoming confident to one’s own ability
- Becoming a mathematical problem solver
- Learning to communicate mathematics
- Learning to reason Mathematics.
In the light of the above, you may formulate more specifically the
objectives of teaching mathematics of secondary level for your state.
Guidelines for the curriculum construction
The NCF (2005) suggested specific guidelines for curriculum
construction. These are :
- Connecting knowledge to the outside school;
- Ensuring the learning is shifted away from role models.
- Enriching curriculum to provide for overall development of children
rather remain textbook centric;
- Making examination more flexible and integrated into classroom life &
- Nurturing an over riding identity informed by caring concerns within the
democratic policy of the country.
Following the guidelines of NCF (2005) and objectives of teaching
mathematics, the CBSE has developed course structure in Mathematics
as follows :
Class-IX (one paper, Time : 3 hours, Full Marks 1 hours)
Unit Marks No. of periods
Number system 06 10
Algebra 24 42
Geometry 24 60
Trigonometry 08 16
Mensuration 10 15
Statistics 12 15
Total 100 180
Class-X (One paper, Time : 3 hours, Full Marks : 100)
Unit Marks No. of periods
Algebra 26 55
Geometry 22 55
Trigonometry 10 20
Mensuration 10 15
Statistics 12 15
Co-ordinate geometry 08 12
Total 100 180
You may look at the CBSE format and its detail syllabus which is already
in fore and compare if with your. Existing state syllabus in mathematics
and suitably develop the consent of curriculum. It is further noted by the
NCF (2005) that the curriculum should provide challenges to the talented
Methods of Teaching Mathematics
In order to achieve the objectives of teaching mathematics it is
essential to involve our students in different kinds of actives for concept
building and problem solving. The office of activities may be based on
different stages of Piaget’s intellectual development model:
a) Sensory motor stage (0-2 years of age)
b) Pre-operational stage (2-7 years of age)
c) Concrete operational stage (7-11 years of age)
The CBSE has also stressed that the teaching of Mathematics
should be imparted through activities which may involve the use of
concrete materials, models, pattern, charts pictures, toilers quizs, puzzles,
projects and experiments. Following the recommendations of NCFSE
(2000) and NCF (2005) CBSE has published three documents entitled : (i)
Mathematics Laboratory in schools towards joyful learning (ii) Guidelines
for mathematics laboratory in schools for class IX and (iii) Guidelines for
Mathematics Laboratory in schools for curriculum workers and teachers
for designing activity oriented learned are strategies in Mathematics.
Moreover there are some hardspots in Mathematics which need to
carefully identified and veridical instruction should be designed for them.
Similarly needs of talented children may be addressed by providing
Evaluation for students learning
NCF (2005) has recommended flexibility in evaluation of students
learning which may go beyond paper pencil test. Oral testing project work
evaluation should be encourage. These innovations would have the added
advantage of shifting the focus of examinations for testing such as
interpretation analysis and problem solving skills. It is well documented,
that much of the higher failure and dropout rates in rural schools can be
attributed to poor performance in two subjects-Mathematics and English.
Therefore the evaluation should be continuous diagnostic, flexible and
improvement oriented. Recently CBSE (2006) has worked out the scheme
of evaluation for class X. The following weightages have been assigned to
Board’s theory examination and school based internal assessment for
class X examination. The scheme will be effective form March 2007
Theory examination- 80 Marks
Internal assessment- 20 marks
Internal assessment of 20 marks based on school based examination will
have the following break up :
Year end assessment of the activities – 10 Marks
Assessment of the project work – 05 Marks
Continuous assessment – 05 Marks
BCF (2006) has also recommended that at secondary level assessment
may be based on more on written tests and project works. Continuous
evaluation is also stressed as an integral part of teaching learning process
making full use of models of self-assessment, pier group evaluation and
assessment of group work.
You may look at the above guidelines of NCF/2005, CBSE (2006)
and BCF (2006) and guidelines evaluation and scheme of in Mathematics
for class IX and X.
REGIONAL INSTITUTE OF EDUCATION, BHUBANESWAR-751022
Training Programme on Development of Secondary School
Curriculum for KRPs of West Bengal From 21.01.08 to 25.01.08
Venue – ET Cell
Date/Time 9.30 a.m. to 11 a.m. 11-
11.15 am-1 pm 1 pm
to 2 pm
2 pm to 3.15 pm
21.01.08 9-10 am (Registration)
10-11 am (Inauguration) T
22.01.08 NCF-05 (Salient features
of cum, aims of
education) (L. Behera)
NCF-05 (School and
Singh) (L. Paikaray)
23.01.08 Curricular issues in non-
peace, health and
physical education (SG
Rao)/ J. Mohapatra
Process of writing
textbook (SK Das)
renewal of textbook
24.01.08 Curricular issues in
model cum for
secondary level by
help of resource
persons Group work
25.01.08 Finalisation of model
cum SMP/SS/PD/RPD /
Action plan for cum
RESOURCE PERSONS TEAM
A. External Resource Persons
1. Prof. S.M. Pany
Retd. Principal, RNIASE, Cuttack.
2. Dr. G.C. Nanda
Additional Director (Training)
3. Mr. L. Paikray
Lecturer in Education
4. Dr. P. Dash
Retd., Reader in Education
5. Mr. S. Singh
Lecturer in Geography
6. Mr. A.K. Acharya
Tara Sankar Bandyopadhyay B.Ed. Institution
7. Dr. R.P. Devi
Reader in Education
Evaluation of Training Programme on Development of Secondary
School Curriculum for KRPs of West Bengal
Instructions : The purpose of this evaluation is to obtain feedback of
the participants regarding different aspects of the
training programme. Kindly feel free to supply
information on the supplied questionnaire. Your
responses will be kept confidential.
A. PERSONAL INFORMATION
1. Name _______________________2. Age (in years)_____________
3. Sex : Male /Female (Put a tick mark).
4. Full Postal Address ______________________________________
5. Educational Qualification : ________________________________
6. Teaching Experience (in year):
B. CONTENT OF THE PROGRAMME
1. The content of the programme is relevant for
developing secondary school curriculum.
2. The resource persons are competent/ effective in
transacting different sessions.
3. The materials provided are appropriate. Yes/No
4. The duration of the programme is adequate. Yes/No
5. This programme would help us in developing school
curriculum in our state.
6. The transaction approaches followed in different
sessions need improvement.
7. The overall quality of the programme is ________
[Effective, Average, Ineffective]
8. Please indicate four strong points and four weak points
of the programme. [Please write in the back size of this
Training programme on development of secondary school curriculum for
KRP’s of West Bengal 21.01.08 to 25.01.08
We the participants of the above said programme has *** the copy of NCF-
2005 from the co-ordinator Dr. R.K. Mohalik free.
Sl.No. Name & Phone No./E-mail Address of School Signature
1. Sarathi Tamang
St. Philomends School,
2. Dipka Dash
3. Habibur Rahaman
Guddhia High School
4. Sajal Kanti Biswal
Balarmpur High School
5. Parthasarathi Day
Teacher of Bengali Language
Palla K.P.C. High
Palla, 24, PGS(N), N.B.
6. Lakshman Sahu
Halna High School
7. Ajay Kumar Singh
Sneopur Ambika Hindi
High School (H.S.)
37-38, Umacharan Bose
Lane, Sheopur, Howarh-
8. Parbati Ranjan Kar
Tilumi Kmpanaya High
Tilumi, Bankura (W.B)
9. Subrata Kumar Ghosh