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Curriculum Development

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Curriculum Development

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Process and steps of developing school curriculum at secondary level

Process and steps of developing school curriculum at secondary level

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Curriculum Development

  1. 1. 1. Planning Curriculum is one of the significant aspects of school education. The quality of school education is largely depends on the quality of curriculum. Curriculum is dynamic and evolving in nature. It should be revised and modified according to the needs, requirements and aspirations of the society and students. The National Policy on Education (1986) recommended for reviewing curriculum in every five years to maintain high standard and incorporate new contents. The Govt. of India as well as different states has responded to the recommendation by reviewing and modifying school curriculum. The NCERT responded the recommendation of NPE by preparing National Curriculum Framework (NCF) in the year 1975, 1988, 2000 and 2005. The NCF is means of evolving a national system of education capable of responding India’s diversity of geographical and cultural milieus while ensuring a common core of values along with academic components. As per the NCF-05, all the states required are to develop their state curriculum framework (SCF) suiting to the needs, demands and requirements. The West Bengal (WB) state supposed to prepare West Bengal State curriculum framework following NCF-05. In this connection, the sectary, West Bengal Board of Secondary Education requested to the Principal RIE, Bhubaneswar vide Letter No.SSA/186/07 for organising training programme on curriculum development so that West Bengal State can develop SCF. The Principal RIE, Bhubaneswar entrusted this responsibility to Dr. Ramakanta Mohalik. After due process, this become one of the PAC (Planning and Advisory Committee) approved programme of the RIE, Bhubaneswar for the year 2007-08.
  2. 2. Objectives To train the KRPs of West Bengal state in preparing curriculum for secondary level. Content The content for this programme was consisting of both theoretical and practical components of curriculum development. The theoretical aspect of curriculum like; conceptualization of curriculum determinants of secondary school curricular, curriculum design and models, NCF-05 and its implication for cum, development at state level. The practical aspects of curriculum related to writing objectives for different school subject, deciding content outline and learning strategy, evaluating students outcome in different subjects. Method The mode of transaction was mainly integrative and participation in nature. The resource persons presented theoretical topics by using multi- medic projector. It was followed by question-answer section and direction. The practical topic were transacted in small group discussion followed by group work. The participants shared, and interchanged their views in small group, it was thoroughly discussed with RPS. Finally participants developed a written outline of the content in each subject for secondary level.
  3. 3. B. Preparation The programme co-ordinator collected all relevant materials and documents required for developing training material relating to curriculum development for secondary level. A two days workshop was organised from 13th to 14th Sept. 2007 at RIE, Bhubaneswar with purpose of (i) discussion and deliberation on National Curriculum Framework, secondary school text books and CF (ii) selection of topics to be discussed in the 5- days training programme (iii) selection of RPS to deal selected topics and (iv) decision about training strategy to be adopted during 5-days training programme. Two days Workshop-13th and 14th Sept. 2007 The co-ordinator invited resource persons; 5 from W.B, 5 from Orissa and 5 from RIE, BBSR for the workshop. Finally 12 RPS including internal resource persons from RIE, Bhubaneswar attended the workshop held at ET cell. 13th Sept. 2007 The workshop was held at ET-cell of RIE, Bhubaneswar. At the outset the programme co-ordinator Dr. Ramakanta Mohalik, well come all the RPS to the workshop. He briefed about the rationale of organising this workshop and that all the RDs will supposed to do in this two days. Dr. Mohalik informed all the RPs about the origin of selecting the theme of training programme. He also requested all the participants to participate activity in the workshop so that the purpose of workshop will be realised. The discussion basin on NCF-2005. Mr. L. Behera, Faculty of Edn., RIE, Bhubaneswar presented the salient features of NCF-05 and its guiding principles. Mainly the guiding principle like (i) Connecting knowledge to outside the school. (ii) ensuring that learning to shifted away
  4. 4. from rote method. (iii) enriching the cum to provide for overall development of children rather than remain textbook centric (iv) making examination more flexile and integrated into classroom life and (v) nurturing an overriding identity informed by caring concerns within the democratic polity of the country were thoroughly discussed. How these guidelines can be incorporated into the curriculum was deliberated by the RPs. The RPs from West Bengal (WB) led the discussion on state curriculum framework (SCF) what is the status of preparing SCB by W.B. Government. Other participation shared their opinion about having separate SCF. It was came out that states are differ from each other with regards to language, culture, food habits, history, therefore each state showed prepare SCF. It was suggested also suggested by the NCERT that each state required by the NCERT that each state required to develop their own curriculum framework in the list of NCF-05 and that rational character of education can be maintained. RPs viewed that this programme will help W.B. state in preparing SCF. 14th Sept. 2007 Dr. Mohalik, Programme Co-ordinator welcomed all the RPs to the workshop. And requested Dr. G.C. Nanda, Additional Director OPEPA, Bhubaneswar for initiating discussion on text books with reference to NCF-05. The RPs from W.B. shared their views about the existing secondary school text books and ways of improving the shailty of the text book. It was decided that two session need to be allotted for discuss on text book developing during 5-days training programme. The programme coordinator suggested let us decide now the topics for 5-days training programme. All the RPs given their view about the related topics for training programme. The views of all the RPs was thoroughly discussed and critically looked with reference to its relevant for
  5. 5. curriculum development. Finally it was decided that out of total 5-days, first three days will be devoted for discussing theoretical concepts of curriculum, last two days will be spread for subject specific discussion with reference to objectives, content, strategy, evaluation etc. It was decided in the workshop that presentation followed by discussion by using multimedia will be used as training strategy for theoretical discuss on curriculum deity. And group work, group discussion will be used for subject specific discussion. Total 18 topics related to theoretical aspects and subject specific curriculum was selected for 5-days training programme. All the topics was distributed among participants depending on their specialisation and interest. The co-ordinator had requested all the RPs to prepare a write up for assign topic and sent to him at earliest so that it can be made available to participants during 5-days training programme. Lastly the co-ordinator given a formal vote of thank to all the RPs for co-operation and participation in the workshop. He wished happy journey to all outside RPs.
  6. 6. c. Implementation The five-days training programme was held at RIE, Bhubaneswar from 21.01.08 to 25.01.08. The programme coordinator invited 30 key resource person (KRP) from West Bengal state representing various subjects specialisation. All the 30 KRPs attended the training programme. The following presents the distribution of participant. Table-1- Subject wise distribution of participant Subject Language Math. Physical Science Life Science History Geography Total February 10 04 04 04 04 04 30 Table-2- Age wise distribution of participants Range of Age Frequency 30-39 11 40-49 12 50-59 & above 07 Total 30 Table-3- Genderwise distribution of participants Gender Frequency Male 27 Female 03 Total 30 Table-4- Educational qualification wise duration of participants Educational qualification Frequency M.A.B.Ed. 18 M.Sc., B.Ed. 12
  7. 7. Total 30 Table-5- Teaching experience wise distribution of participants Educational qualification Frequency 5-9 03 10-14 10 15-19 06 20-14 05 25-29 06 Total 30
  8. 8. Registration 21.01.08 The first day of the training programme began at 9 a.m. with registration of the participants at RIE, Bhubaneswar in the CT cell. Inaugural Session The registration was followed by the inaugural session. At the out set programme co-ordinator Dr. R.K. Mohalik welcomed the participants resource persons from outside, Prof. V.K. Sunwani, Principal and RIE, Bhubaneswar, Prof. J.S. Padhi, Head, Extension Education, RIE, BBSR and Prof. S.C. Jain, Dean of Instruction, RIE, BBSR. The programme coordinator explained that the purpose of this training programme is to empower the KRPs in preparing secondary school curriculum and writing text book. He also briefly explained about the contents and nature of the five days training programme. The training programme was inaugurated by Prof. V.K. Sunwani, Principal, RIE, Bhubaneswar. In his inaugurated address, he stressed on preparing curriculum by following constructvist approach as suggested by NCF-2005. He also emphasised on integration of ICT in Secondary school curriculum. The inaugural address of Principal was followed by address of Prof. S.C. Jain and Prof. J.S. Padhi. The inaugural session was formally ended with vote of thanks by Mr. L. Behera, Faculty of Education. After inauguration, real training programme started with Lecture on conceptualisation of curriculum and syllabus by Prof. S.M. Pay. He further illustrated the related terms like syllabus, courses of study, lesson science and how these terms are different from curriculum. He also explained the different types of curriculum, subject centred, child centred, core, activity based etc. to the participants.
  9. 9. In the after noon session, Prof. Pany again started his discussion on determinants of secondary school curriculum. He illustrated the determinants like educational history and trends, socio-economic conditions, cultural and social changes, political insurance, physical facilities resources available all these determinants with suitable examples from secondary level. The participants activity participated in the discussion and shared their views about factor of curriculum developments. The last session of the first day was taken by Dr. G.C. Nanda relating to curriculum components and design. He stated that curriculum consist of four components, objectives, content, strategy and evaluation. All these components are interdependent on each other. He completely elaborated all the components separately with reference to source, criteria of selection and arrangement. He further illustrated that curriculum development to continuous process of evolution, never ends. Every curriculum far chance for retirement and modification. 22.02.08 The second day was completely devoted for discussion on National Curriculum framework-05. The first session was taken by Mr. L. Behera, on guiding principles of curriculum and aims of education as suggested by NCF-05. He explained that curriculum should be constructed by following principles; (i) connecting knowledge to life outside the school (ii) learning is shifted away from role mental. (iii) overall development of children (iv) more flexible and integral examination and (v) caring democratic polity of the country. He further discussed that aim and is to build commitment to democracy, equality, justice, freedom, secularism and concern for others well being. The second session was devoted for discussion on constructs and its application in curriculum development and transaction. Dr. H.K.
  10. 10. Senapaty explained the constructivism as student centred approach that places responsibility on students to take charge of their learning experiences. He further compared the traditional approach and constructivist approach, their relative advantage and disadvantage. The NCF-05 was prepared by following constructivist approach. In constructivist approach students create their own knowledge relating to their previous knowledge and experience. Dr. Senapathy elucidated the role of teacher in constructivist classroom. The after noon session was taken by Mr. S. Singh and Mr. L. Paikray relating to school and classroom environment. Mr. Singh started discussion on physical environment of school and its effect n students learning the emphasised on creating an enabling school environment where children feel secure, absence of fear and experience equality and equity. Mr. L. Paikray focussed on inclusive education and strategy of its implementation. He emphasised on bring different kinds of children into one fold/platform where they all feel equal. Again Mr. Singh discussed on importance of library and need for developing reading habits among children. Further he explained about preparing flexible time table basing on maturity level of statements and local climate and festival. ‘Systematic reform’ is one of the chapter in NCF-2005. Dr. P. Das elaborately touched upon points like maintaining quality in school education, modification of teacher education, reducing stress and anxiety during examination and involving Panchayat Raj Institutions in management of education. He comprehending explained the ways of reducing stress in public examination at class X and Class XII. He explained how shifting contemplated testing to problem solving and competency basis testing helps in reducing memorization. He further discussed the advantages of involving Panchayat Raj institutions in managing primary education.
  11. 11. 23.01.08 The purpose of education is to bring holistic development of the students. The various domain of students mind should be simultaneously inculcated through school activities. Mr. S.G. Rao has illustrated the issues in non- scholastic areas like art education, health and physical education and peace education and its implication for curriculum development. He shown different models of art production prepared by him/students for making his presentation alike and active. He suggested various activities that can be included in secondary school curriculum. The NCF-05 introduced concept of peace education and how it will create a peaceful mind in students. Dr. J. Mohapatra discussed peace education and its relevance in incorporating school curriculum. Text book is one of the sources of learning. So text book should be written in such a way that it will provide scope for thinking and activity for students. Dr. S.K. Dash explained elaborately the process of developing text book. He highlighted all the steps of textbook development; preparation, production, distillation, use, evaluation and revision. He narrated how all the steps contribute for developing right kind of text book. He further discussed the essential components of text book; text, illustrations, activity and exercise etc. Dr. G.C. Nanda started the afternoon session with curriculum evaluation. He said curriculum evaluative is the process of delineating, obtaining and providing information useful by making decisions and judgements about curricula. He discussed different criteria for evaluation, consistency with objectives, comprehensiveness, sufficient diagnostic value, ** and continuity. He stressed on formative curriculum evaluation; evaluation that done during the developmental phase of curriculum. The curriculum should be evaluated by external persons at the end of
  12. 12. curriculum development. Curriculum evaluation will contribute for revising the existing curriculum. West Bengal state is unique with respect to language, culture, living style etc. Mr. A.K. Acharya discussed the trends and issues of curriculum development in West Bengal states. He elaborated issues like; who prepare school curriculum, medium of instruction, examination pattern, standard of textbook, curriculum revision and text book writing. 24.01.08 The last two days was completely devoted for discussion on curricular issues in different school subjects, language, science, math, social studies etc. Prof. S.M. Pany discussed on curricular issues is language as reflected in NCF-2005 for us. Children can develop language competency in different language as our society is multilingual. He stressed on innovative ways of teaching language; providing real live situation with examples from familiar context. Dr. R.P. Devi focussed her discussion on curricular issues in science as reflected in NCF-05. She comprehensively illustrated, points like; objectives of teaching science at secondary level, nature of science content and its organization, new and innovative teaching strategy and evaluating performance of students in Science. She concluded her presentation by subjecting to participants that they should develop scientific temper, inventiveness, creativity and keen observation quality in students. Mathematics is one of the compulsory subject being taught at school level. It was discussed by Dr. P. Dash who comprehensively explained different curricular and pedagogical issues in Math. He stressed on the point that Math teaching should be directed towards development of abstract thinking, reasoning power and application. As student fear and
  13. 13. fail in Math. Subject in public examination, it should be taught in such a way that difficulty level of content can be reduced and every body can easily learning math. Mr. S. Singh shared his knowledge and experience in preparing social studies curriculum for secondary school. He also discussed curricular issues of social studies as reflected in NCF-05. The social studies content to dynamic in nature as it deals with social realities. He also focussed his presentation on process of making social studies class alike and simulative. He shown the C.D brought by NCERT relating to social studies text book, nature of content, style of content presentation, illustration in form of pictures, maps, fighters etc. In the after noon session, the whole group was divided into four small group on bias of their subject specialisation. The group like language group, science group, math group and social studies group were formed. The coordinator distributed photocopy of model syllabus prepared by NCERT basing on NCF-05 to all the groups The groups were instructed by the co-ordinator to go through the model syllabus and NCF-05, prepare a model syllabus shifting to needs and requirements of West Bengal state. The coordinator also requested the resource persons; Prof. S.M. Pany, Dr. R.P. Devi, Dr. P. Dash and Mr. S. Singh for guiding the groups in preparing the model syllabus. The groups were required to write content outline for class IX and X. At the end of the session Dr. Mohalik suggested all the group members for continuing. This work as Guest House in evening. 25.01.08 The group members discussed with resource persons about the nature of load to be given in different classes and its organisation. On the guidance of Resource persons and reference of model syllabus of NCERT and NCF- 05, the groups prepared a draft syllabus in respective subjects.
  14. 14. The draft syllabus were presented by the particular before the whole group and resource persons. It was thoroughly discussed and deliberated, cross examined by resource persons and participants. On the basis comments and suggestions, the draft syllabus were modified. All the Groups had handed over the final version of draft syllabus to the coordinator. Valedictory Session Every phase ended with a formal valedictory function. Dr. R.K. Mohalik, Coordinator welcomed the gathering. Dr. Mohalik informed to the Principal of all Lecture hands out were distributed to the participants. He further said that NCF-05 which was purchased from publication Dept. of NCERT were distributed to all participants for their reference and undergoing. He appraise to the Principal that programme was capital on as per schedule and planned. Prof. V.K. Sunwani, Principal, RIE, BBSR chaired the function and distributed the certificates to the participation. Prof. V.K. Sunwani emphasised that the training inputs should be utilized by the participants and West Bengal Government in formulating secondary school curriculum. He expressed his happiness on the success of the programme and that Dr. Mohalik for his effort. Prof. S.M. Pany, Dr. R.P. Devi, Mr. S. Singh and Mr. L. Behera were present in this session. Finally the programme ended with a vote of thanks by Mr. L. Behera.
  15. 15. D. Evaluation and Follow up There is need to evaluate the different aspects of programme; resource persons-competency, transaction strategy content knowledge, material, provided its relevance, quality content duration, usefulness and overall effectiveness. The coordinator evaluated the programme by collecting response from the participants at the end of the programme. All the 30 participants responded the questionnaire. The questionnaire consisted of both closed ended and open-ended items. The responses collected from participants were analysed of qualitatively and qualitatively to find out the inherent meaning of the responses. The following table presents responses in frequency and percentage. Table- : Frequency and percentage of participants responses. Sl.No. Item Yes (%) No(%) 1. Relevance of the content of training programme. 30 00 2. Competency of resource persons. 29 01 3. Suitability of transaction approach. 29 02 4. Appropriateness of material provided. 28 02 5. Usefulness of the programme. 30 00 The above table indicates that all of the participants expressed that content of the 5-days training programme was related and relevant for curriculum development. It also revealed that majority of resource persons were highly competent and used suitable transaction approaches. The coordinator distributed printed material which was appropriate as per the responses of the participants. All the participants viewed this programme is useful for them in preparing state and school curriculum and writing text books.
  16. 16. The coordinator also qualitatively analysed the responses of participants by asking opended questions. The coordinator asked question like “write four strong points and four weak points of this 5-days training programme”. The participants responded differently which is presented below. Strong Points 1. The programme was well planned and systematic. All the sessions were held as per schedule. 2. The programme was very effective in terms of its organisation, resource persons, use of technology and support of coordinator. 3. The resource persons have adequate authority and mastery over the topic they discussed. All sessions were openly discussed and participated by participation. 4. This programme made us aware about NCF-2005 and construction. It will help us in developing professional competency as a teacher and designing and writing school text book. Weak Points 1. The duration of the programme was short for understanding and developing skills of preparing and writing curriculum and text book. 2. The medium of transaction ensures was barrier for most of the participants. Because all most all participants taught in them school in Bengali medium. 3. The more discussion should be developed for subject specific discussion and shows work.
  17. 17. The following program presents the original response of the selected participation that describes strong and weak points of the programme. The programme is very effective, as I have accumulated so much experience in training curriculum. I am very much impressed by Dr. Mohalika for his portability and coordination. The overall approach of this program is very clear. Teachers need such programme for the improvement. Mr. Paritosh Paik Strong Points 1. Resource persons have adequate authority and mastery over the topics they discussed. 2. The sessions are well organised, thanks to the programme co- ordinator. 3. The deliberations are duly aided by necessary technical and technological devices. 4. The RPs was viewed and co-operative making the sessions lively and joyful. Work Points 1. Information came in succession with little room for the participants to feed back in a few presentations. 2. The medium being English, many of the participants failed to come up with observation/ queries. 3. Little room/ space has been provided with left for the group pair work necessary for effective participation.
  18. 18. 4. Motivational aspect has not been given due to importance in some of the speeches. (Mr. Manotosh Sarkar)
  19. 19. Strong Points : (i) The programme is very effective, as I have accumulated so much experience in framing secondary curriculum. (ii) The programme is lightened NCF 2005 which help me very much. (iii) The materials provided by you are appropriate and helpful. (iv) The programme would help us in developing school curriculum in our state and it decrease students burden. Weak Point : (i) The training programme is very much. (ii) It is difficult to express my obtain because due to lack of language. (Mrs. Kakli Halder)
  20. 20. STRONG POINTS 1. It enabled me/us to understand the significant of the NCF’05. I only acquitted with the name of NCF before, but a substantial enlightenment on it, is obviously a treasure to me. 2. You have provided the hard copies of almost all of the sides. It will be helpful to recapitutude the themes and to supply to the persons who are interested. 3. Some of you resource persons like Prof. P. Das, Dr. G.C. Nanda, and Prof. S. Singh have an excellent capacity of communication and mastery on the subject matter as well. They have enriched us to a great extent. 4. You are busy much punctual.
  21. 21. SCHOOL AND CLASSROOM ENVIRONMENT • PHYSICAL ENVIRONMENT • NCRT RING AN EMBANCING ENVIRONMENT • PARTICIPATION OF ALL CHILDRENS • CHILDRENS RIGHT • POLICY OF INCLUSION • DISCIPLINE AND PARTICIPATORY MANAGEMENT • SPACE FOR PATTERNS AND COMMUNITY • CURRCULUM SITES AND LEARNING RESOURCES • TESTS AND BOOKS • LIBRARIES • EDUCATIONAL TECHNOLOGIES • OTHER SITES AND SPACES • NEED FOR PLURALITYAND ALTERNATIVE MATERIALS • ORGANISING AND POOLING RESOURCES • TML • TEACHERS AT TO ANY AND PROFESSIONAL INDISPLINE • TIME FOR REELECTION AND PLANNING The physical and psychological dimensions of environment are important and are interrelated. Through this presentation we will examine these environments to understand how they significantly influence children’s learning.
  22. 22. Nurturing an enabling environment Where children feel secure, where there is absence of fear and which is governed by relationships of equality and equity. Classroom spaces, where children can ask questions freely, engaging in a dialogue with teachers as well as with the peers. To generate environment which will facilitate the self-confidence and self- esteem of learners of all ages. School must be conscious of the importance of creating equitable classroom environment in which students are not subjected it to unfair treatment and denied opportunities on the basis of their sex or membership of caste, tribe or minority group. Physical Environment Present situation of classrooms in our country. (a) Space (b) Building (c) Furniture (d) Equipment (e) Time. What kind of physical environment learners need? Participation of all children Children’s right India has signed the convention on the Rights of the child (CRC). The three most important principles of this convention are : (a) The right to participation. (b) The right to association or the right to organization. (c) The right to information.
  23. 23. Policy of inclusiveness. Why inclusiveness? When boys and girls come from different socio-economic and cultural background and different levels of ability study together, the classroom ethos is enriched and becomes more inspiring. Discipline and Participatory Management Rules regarding maintaining silence in classrooms, answering one at a time, and answering only if u know the right answer, can undermine the values of equality and equal opportunity. Such rules may also discourage processes that are integral to children’s learning. For instance noisy classrooms are frowned upon by teachers as well as headmasters, but it is possible that rather than the noise being evidence of the teacher not being in control it may be evidence of a living and participatory class. Systems for the participatory management of the school by the children and administrators need to be evolved. Children should be encouraged to elect their own representatives to children. Curriculum sites and learning resources • Texts and books • Dictionaries • Supplementary books, work books and extra reading • Atlas • Manuals-Teachers work books
  24. 24. Space for parents and community • In order to make the school environment supportive of children and to strengthen the relationship of the school with parents and the local community there are institutionalized structures such as, • Parent teacher association • Local levels committees • Alumni associations • Community involvement helps in many ways. Libraries One period a week to be devoted to library reading, during this time, children sit and read silently in the library. They return the books borrowed the previous week and borrow new ones. If there is nolibrary roomb, the teacher can bring outbooks appropriate to the age group and allow children to choose rather than having the teacher distribute the books. Library books can be brought in to the language class. For class projects, children can be ask to look up a reference in the library. Children can be asked to write about the books they have read that week during the language class. Children can be asked to shrare story they have read with the other children in class. The school library should be kept open during vacations. Educational Technology • Focus is on use of ET facilities need to be used at all levels of school, cluster and block resource centers, district, state, and national level institutions. • Need to develop encyclopedias and documentaries for children.
  25. 25. • Integrations of knowledge and experience with ET, so that would take away the sense of burden and boredom that our present day education induces. For example (1) Child studying about village life should have easy access to Satyaijit Ray’s classic, Pather Panchali, either as a CD to be borrowed from the CRC or to be viewed on a national managed website. (2) A middle school text book that discusses the history of Rajasthan and mentions Meera should be able to offer the test of a Bhajan composed by her and also refer to a source where that Bhajan has been achieved, so that children can listen to M.s. Subhakalakshmi singing it. Other Sites and spaces • Local monuments and museums. • Natural physical features such as rivers and hills. • Everyday spaces such as market places and post office. • Exchange visits between schools in different part of the country could become important ways of promoting mutual understandings. Tools and Laboratories • Focus on the need for science lab, mathematical corner and social sicence museum in school especially in rural areas. • Absence of such facilities drastically narrows subject options for children, denying them equal opportunities for learning and future life chances. • While elementary school can benefit from a sciences and maths corner, secondary and higher secondary schools require well equipped laboratories.
  26. 26. Need for Plurality and Alternative Methods Multiplicity of textbooks. Organising and pooling resources. • Maps, picture folders, models can be shared among schools if they are placed in the cluster center. • Laborites can be installed at cluster level. Time • Total number of days for curriculum should be two hundred days as suggested by NCF 1988. • Schools annual calendar should be plugged at amore decentralized level so that it is closer to the calendar of loyal activities and climate and weather. The plan for such calendar could be decentralized to the district level, and decided in consultation with zila parishad. • Flexibility in annual calendar based on local weather conditions but flexibility should not be misused. • Timing of the school day could be decided at each school level in consultation with Gram Panchayat keeping in mind issues such as how far children need to travel to get a school. • No compromise with time or reduced below six hours a day and three hours ECCE period. • Morning assembly. • Home work • Period has presented as a basic unit of 45 minutes to teaching learning in the time table. • Larger period for craft drawing and lab work. Time for reflection and planning
  27. 27. • On a daily basis (at least 45 minutes to review the day make notes on children to follow up the next day, and organize materials for the next days lesson (This is in addition to the time that they may need to correct their home works). • On a weekly basis (at least two/three hours) to take stock of learning to work out details of actives and projects proposed and to plan a group of lesson (units) for the coming week. • At the beginning and end of the year, two or three days each need to be allocated to evolve an annual plan for the school. • Current in service training related time allocation (compulsory 20 days per year). • Monthly meeting organized for teachers at the cluster could be based on group of teachers teaching similar subjects and grade levels, so that they can share ideas and plan teaching for the forthcoming month together. Teacher’s autonomy and professional independence What? • Teachers require space, freedom, flexibility and respect. Why? • currently the system of hierarchies and control examination and centralized planning for curriculum reform all constrain the autonomy be headmaster and teacher. • Often technologies such as radio and TV are introduced in to their classroom without consulting teachers on whether they would like to have these and what they would like these to do for them. Once these are there in the classroom, teachers are expected to use them when
  28. 28. they have no control over what will be delivered or how to will integrate their own teaching plans. Summary • Availability of minimum infrastructure and material facilities, and support for planning a flexible daily schedule, are critical for improved teacher performance. • A school culture that natures children children’s identifies as learners enhances the potential and interests of each child. • Specific activities ensuring participation of all children abled and disabled are essential for learning by all. • The value of self discipline among learners through democratic functioning is as relevant as ever. • Participation of community members in sharing knowledge and experiences in a subject areas help in forgoing a partnership between school and community. • Reconceptualiaciation of learning resources in terms of • Textbooks focused on elaboration on concepts, activities, problems and exercises encouraging reflecting thinking and group work. • Supplementary books, work books, teachers, handbooks, etc. based on fresh thinking and new perspectives. • Multimedia and ICT as sources for two interaction rather than one way reception. • School libraries as an intellectual space for teachers, learners, and members of the community, to deepen their knowledge and connect with the wider world.
  29. 29. • Decentralized planning of school calendar and daily schedule and autonomy for teacher professionalism practices are basic to creating a learning environment.
  30. 30. Background The social science encompass diverse concerns of society and includes a wide rare of content, drawn from the disciplines of history, geography, political science, economics and sociology. The selection and organisation of material into a meaningful social sciences curriculum, enabling students to develop critical understanding of society, is therefore a challenging task. The possibilities of including new dimensions and especially in view of the students own life experiences. Social Sciences curriculum in 1975,1988, 2000 and 2005. Conceptualizing the National Curriculum Framework 2005 Prevailing perception of the social sciences. • Non utility subject………….. Result of this fact??? • Merely transmits information and it is text book centric. • Text is required to be memorized for examinations. • The content of these text book is considered to be unconnected to daily realities. • Providing unnecessary details about the past. • Exams reward the memorization of these super flows ‘facts’ with children’s conceptual understanding being largely ignored. • Not many desirable job options are open to students specializing in social science education. • It is felt that the social since are the skills require to be functioned in the real world. This provides the impression that the subject is redundant.
  31. 31. Issues to be addressed • Popularity and local content. • Scientific rigour • Normative concerns • Interrelations among disciplines. The proposed epistemological Frame Based on certain considerations of dominant perceptions as well as issues to be addressed the following points serve as the foundational logic in the drafting of new syllabi • The curriculum must be able to show how the nation and national unity figures in local perceptions of the people, local perceptions therefore, have to be articulated through reorienting curriculum. • The notion of text book be changed from being merely instructive to more suggestive. It is argued that this would offer enough scope of the learner even to go beyond the very text look, creating more appetite for further reading that is necessary to enrich the understanding of a given social phenomenon. • The major thrust of the social science curriculum as remind utilitarian in nature. That is to say, it puts more emphasis on development issues that are important but not sufficient to understand the normative dimension issues of equality, justice and dignity of society policy. Teaching of social sciences has thus been linked upto thereof an individual in contributing to this ‘development’. In view of this gap, there is a need to achieve a shift informs from utilitarianism to egalitarianism that would address the normative concerns are mentioned above.
  32. 32. • It is suggested to bring a change in nomenclature from civics to political science. Civics as a subject had in the Indian school curriculum in the colonial period in the background of increasing disloyalty among Indians towards the Raj. Emphasis on the obedience and loyalty of the citizens and creation of civil society according to the universal values of progress were they key features of the colonial civics. Whereas, political science suggests dynamism that involves the process that produces structure of dominations and their contestaitons by social forces. Political science imagines civil society as the sphere where more informed, receptive and responsible citizens could be produced. • Gender concerns need to be addressed in terms of making the perspectives of women integral tot he discussion of nay historical event and contemporary concern. This shift from highlighting individuals for fore fronting women’s struggles both historically as well as on a daily basis, requires an epistemic shift from the particle nationalist frame. The epistemic shift proposed can be summarized as follows. From the text book as the only source of information to the text book as suggestive of a particular way of understanding issues. From the main stream account of the past to one where more groups and more regions are taken into account. From utilitarian to egalitarian. From the text book being perceived as a closed box to the text book as a dynamic document. Change in from civics to political science. Gender concerns. Teaching the social sciences Studying the social science is vital for many reasons. It enable children:
  33. 33. • to understand the society in which they live to learn how society is structured, managed, and governed, and also about the forces seeking to transform and redirect society in various ways. • To appreciate the values enshrined the Indian Constitution such as justice, liberty, equality and fraternity and the unity and integrity of the nation and the building of socialist, secular and democratic society. • To grow up as active, responsible and reflective members of society. • To learn to respect differences of opinion life style, and cultural practices. • To question and examine received ideas institutions, and practices. • To acquire pleasure in reading by providing them with enjoyable reading material. • To undertake actives that will help them develop social and life skills and make them understand that these skills are important for social interaction. In textbooks and in the classroom, the content, language, and images should be comprehensible, gender-sensitive, and critical of social hierarchies and inequalities of all kinds. Secondary Stage • The objectives of teaching the social sciences at the secondary stages are to develop among the learner analytical and conceptual skills enable him/her to: • Understand the process of economic and social change and development with examples form modern and contemporary India and other part of the world.
  34. 34. • Critically examine social and economic issues and challenges like poverty, child labour, destitution, illiteracy, and various dimensions of inequality. • Understand the rights and responsibilities of citizens in a democratic and secular society, understand the roles and responsibilities of the state in the fulfillment of constitutional obligations. • Understand the process of change and development in India in relation to the world economy and polity. • Appreciate the rights of local communities in relation to their environment, the judicious utilization of resources, as well as the need for the conservation of the natural environment. Content • At the secondary stage, the social sciences comprise elements of history, geography, political science and economics. • The main focus will be on contemporary India and the learner will be initiated into a deeper understanding of the social and economic challenges facing the nation. • Effort should be made to relate the content as much as possible to the children’s everyday lives. • History : The contribution of various sections of/regions to India’s freedom struggle can be studied, as well as the other aspects of recent history, in the context of developments in the modern world. • Geography : It should be taught keeping in mind the need to inoculate in the child a critical appreciation for conservation and environment concerns. • Political Science : The focus should be on discussing the philosophical foundations that underlie the value framework of the Indian constitution
  35. 35. i.e. an in depth discusison of equality, liberty, justice, fraternity, dignity, plurality and freedom from exploitation. • Economics: is introduced to the child at this level and it is important that the topics discussed should be from the perspective of masses. • For example : the discussion on poverty and unemployment should no long be undertaken in terms of statistics, but instead derive from an understanding of the elitist functioning of many economic institutions and the inequality sustained by economic relations. Approaches to teaching Processes of learning should promote the spirit of inquiry and creativity among both children and teachers. Development of democratic culture. Participatory learning. Clarification of concepts through the lived experience of individuals and communities. Open ended approach to teaching. Use of supplementary material. Shift away from rote learning to comprehension through the implementation of projects.
  36. 36. PLANNING OF THE TALK What is the general perception regarding a textbook. How a Textbook differ from an ordinary book? What is the scope of textbook? Textbook is a controversial issue in Education. Definition of Textbook and its purpose. Matters concerning Textbook development. Significant aspects of a Textbook program. Textbook development is a team-work. What is the general perception regarding a Textbook Textbooks is a Teaching Learning Device used to transmit the Accumulated and Refined gains of civilization that is called culture to an issue understudy. Textbook is Teacher in Print based on predetermined course of study called syllabus. Textbook is Treasure House of knowledge fully equipped with instruction objective. Through textbook the subject-matter receives a rich dose pedagogy with all its implications, such as, • Device for practices. • Application
  37. 37. • Motivation • Fixation of learning. How does a Textbook differ from an ordinary Book? Strictly based on the syllabus. Combines teaching learning techniques and motives. Does not consist of individual’s inspirational outpouring except when such outpourings themselves from the subject matter of the syllabus. Science of pedagogy is well defined. Content of the subject is characterized by its selectivity and systematic organization that suits the intended learners. Materials presented is culted from various pertinent sources and then organized for study. Adopt effective mode of communication skill in accordance of the view point of the individual subject at the corresponding level. Textbook is treated as the stored Treasured House of knowledge which is ever groing or adjusting to the ever changing pattern of the society. According to text material in modern Education University of ILLIONS, 1958, PP12 Cronbach, Lee J (Ed). The text maker is a Gate Keeper who lets us have the knowledge he considers of most value. WHAT IS THE SCOPE OF TEXTBOOKS? Preparation of dependent supporting materials such as workbooks for pupils and teacher manual.
  38. 38. Preparation of independent supporting materials such as Atlas, Dictionary, Encyclopedia. Some textbook incorporate exercises which may be answered on its body itself like workbook. Some textbooks incorporate lively colorful scientific diagrams. Incorporate pondering questions. Incorporate examples relating to daily life situations. Incorporate National Preamble Incorporate short Biography of the eminent personalities related to the subject. Incorporate summary Bibliography, appendix, Hints for solving different question etc. According to the report of Education commission, 1964-66, Ministry of Education, Govt. of India, pp.229 on Education and National Development: • Proliferation of Low-Quality substandard books in most of our school subjects can be checked by developing the quality text books. The cost is an overriding consideration in our country unlike the affluent developed countries. The optimization of the quality within the price permissiveness is a task to tackle. In the era of explosion of knowledge their a scope to develop the quality textbooks and continuously revise them after regular interval of time inspite of the complete rewriting to fit in with the latest changes. Unless this is don the gap of backwardness continues to increase.
  39. 39. The Textbook is a Controversial issue in Education According to UNESCO Document entitled Handbook for the improvement of textbook 1949, pp.9. It is claimed that –“the best planned programmes, carried out by the most able teachers can not achieve maximum effectiveness unless implemented by first class textbook and teaching materials”. In the same document it is remarked that-“textbook education is a derogatory phrase in educational parlance”. Section of educationists urge to put less and less reliance on a textbook because it is thought to be protective, prescriptive, static and above all cramping in effect. According to Kilpatrick, William H. Remarking the curriculum 1936, pp.92 caution against furnishing student with final orderly statement of our expert thinking so that simply learns understands for doing “so we shall very likely prevent him from building and adequate knowledge”. So, textbook education is contrasted with experimental, experience based or problem solving education appeared to help in achieving the design growth of learning. It is taken to symbolize conservative, authoritarian, essentialist or traditional outlook to which it can, no doubt degenerate unless properly guarded against. The uses of a textbook have both a dark and a bright side. It is therefore, necessary to keep safe from the danger of straying into the dark one.
  40. 40. WHAT IS THE DEFINITION OF TEXTBOOK? According to California administrative code, Title 5, Article 6, Section 53, Quoted in the list of authorized textbook for schools, 1964-66, Publication No.426, Textbook section, Division of Instructional service, City schools, Los Angles U.S.A.), a textbook is defined as : “a volume intended for use by pupils and meeting in style and organization the basic requirements of the course for which it is intended”. Some of the purposes which textbook can normally we expected to serve are : • The textbook seeks to concretize, the syllabus by furnishing a good outlines of course in the form of a common body of pertinent subject matter. To an experienced tear the textbook offers guidance in planning his lesson. • The textbook helps the dissemination of knowledge through its compactness, communicability, comprehensiveness ad reference worthiness. • Since the textbook is a widely and intensively used instructional material, it can be employed as an instrument of change in a planned and deliberate manner. • Above all, the textbooks, facilities pupils learning and does so in a variety of ways- individual and collective, independent and directed, before, during and after the lesson-depending upon their nature and the manner of their use. The matters concerning the textbook development are very complex The complexity of textbook development is pervasive: it covers: Its preparation
  41. 41. Its production Its distribution According to reports of workshops conducted by NCERT, New Delhi MS University Baroda entitled Major aspects textbook programme : The program of textbook preparation and production keep in view of: • The total curriculum plan of the school • The syllabus of the course • The syllabi of the preceding and subsequent classes. • The nature of the subject • The method of teaching in vague • The human and material resource of the community • The cultural milieu • The political set up • The educational system • The teachers • The pupils. It is said that a Textbook is brought out to satisfy a felt need. This apparent use of need through in singular number represents and encompassing plurality such as : The needs of he educational program.
  42. 42. The needs of the educational agency. The needs of the teacher The needs of the learner visualized in all their dimensions viz. • Physical • Physiological • Emotional • Cultural • Spiriual • Social • Intellectual These are matters for very serious considerations for the preparation of quality textbook. WHAT ARE THE SIGNIFICANT ASPECTS OF A TEXT BOOK PROGRAMM Broadly a textbook project in its completeness comprises of the following six significant aspects: 1. Preparation 2. Production 3. Distribution 4. Use
  43. 43. 5. Evaluation 6. Revision PREPARATION The preparation of Textbook falls under a series of steps. Beginning with visualization of the need for it and ending up with the finalization of the manuscript. The whole process of preparation of a textbook consists of FOUR broad steps: A. Planning B. Writing (including illustrating) C. Vetting (including reproduction review and try-out). D. Editing. A. Planning of the Textbook Planning of the textbook consists of the following three steps : a) arriving at basic decisions about predisposing factors. b) Selecting the content. c) Organizing the content a. Pre-disposing factors. It consists of steps like: • Total curriculum plan • National goals to be reflected
  44. 44. • Available resources • Cost range • Format • Bulk It is desirable to associate a production specialist, especially the book does to help to take certain decisions at the initial stage on preparation of manuscript. Follow up the basic decision the author will go for the selection of the corner relevant to a course of study. This involves : Going to various sources and picking out what suits the purpose best which covers the nature and content of illustrations or learning exercise. After suitable selection of content another important step comes in that is organization of the content into meaningful units: • These unit may have different levels and may go under various hierarchical levels, such as parts, sections, chapters etc. • It should be se done that at this stage on outline image of the book that is its blueprint-should clearly emerge out. B. Writing of the Textbook The main tasks of writing textbook comprises : Preparation of written matter in the form of main textbook.
  45. 45. Preparation and incorporation of teaching learning devices like activities, key questions, assignments, exercise etc. according to the general planning of the book. Preparation of illustrations. Preparation of other additional material like prefer, glossary, appendices, bibliography etc. C. Vetting of the textbook After the draft is ready, it needs to be closely examined. Various ways of doing it are: Examined in a group of knowledgeable persons representing content experts, pedagogy specialist and working teachers. Examined in a actual teaching-learning situation involving the group of experts, working teachers and learners. D. Editing of the textbook Textbook editing requires : A god understanding of the subject concerned. Proper awareness of the science of pedagogy. A commanding expression. The editor takes care of : • Readable ness of the book. • Eliminates disparities in style, sequence and even in the organization of matter. • Illustrations and mechanical details, such as consistency in spellings, puntualtions, etc. aimed at giving the book the final ship shape.
  46. 46. Production Along with the preparation of the textbook manuscript, the printing and publication work is also required to be done meticulously. The process of taken together is called production of the book. The production falls into the following seven principal steps: Production editing of the manuscript Designing of the book Preparation of the dummy Procurement of the paper Printing Binding Pricing Designing of the book The book designer of a textbook should pay particular attention to the following things: • Format or page size to suit the type size and face length of line, illustrations etc. from stand points of the reader’s age group and textual matter. • Evenness of text area as also interword and inter-line spacing throughout the book. • Balance in page lay-out, such as between text and visuals.
  47. 47. • Proper indentation of paragraph. • Impressive lay-out of the title page • Width of the marginal to ensure proper ground print effect. • Suitable choice of paper keeping in views cost range durability and legibility. Production editing It involves insertion of print specifications, such as head lines, captions, sub-captions of the illustration. Along with marked manuscript a statement of other necessary instruction to the press should be accompanied. Preparation of the dummy The dummy represents an attempt to visualize the design of the book in concrete. It helps in casting off that is in the estimation of the bulk of the book. The final dummy is prepared with paged galley proof. It is very necessary where the task involves varying page designs and incorporation of illustrations, such as in case of Geography and Science books. Procurement of the paper Paper is the base material of the book. The final choice of the paper will primarily be guided by the consideration of: • Availability
  48. 48. • Cost • Longevity Printing Decision about the process of printing should be taken at the stage of designing the book. Whatever the process, print should be • Regular • Sharp • Even Printing includes proof-reading which has been carefully done both at the galley-and page-proof levels with proper care on typographical errors. Binding Binding includes processes like: • Folding • Stitching • Putting cover page Binding method depend on the: • Bulk • Cost • Use
  49. 49. • Use of the book Binding is important from view point of : • Usability • Durability • Storability Pricing The cost of production of the textbook decides the pricing of the book keeping in view of the purchasing ability of the lower income group. Distribution After the textbook is produced, it should be distributed in such a way that it reaches every learner at the proper time. To ensure such distribution a suitable administrative-cum-business machinery has to be set up especially in view of the nationalization of textbooks. Use The teacher may not be aware of the potential of a particular book. The textbook may provide guidance through: • Note for teachers • Teachers manual or handbook • Curriculum guide.
  50. 50. Evaluation After use the textbook it should be evaluated by a Non-controversial body. The evaluation process is strengthened by collecting the responses of the planned questionnaires from : • Students of both rural and urban areas • Teachers • Parents • Teacher trainers Revision Howsoever perfect a textbook may be, it can not continue to be so for long time. So a text book should have to be revised from time to time. Textbook Development is a Team Work A textbook is a creative and unique composition. It is hard to organise a number of persons in a creative literacy work. It is no doubt difficult but not impossible. So the members of textbook development teams should need a well coordinated planning, execution and mutual understanding to achieve a Quality Textbook.
  51. 51. CURRICULUM COMPONENTS AND DESIGN Curriculum is the total plan that arranges curricular parts/component Components/Elements arranged in a Curriculum design are • Aims/Goals/objectives • Subject matter/content • Method and organisation of content/learning experience • Appraisal /Evaluation Four elements seek to answer four questions • What is to be done? • What subject matter is to be used? • What methods and what organization are to be employed? • How are the results to be appraised? - Each of these elements related to others. - Design regarding any of them deponent on decision made on others. - Inter-relatedness of components Component –I Purpose-global-to prepare children for primary school (purpose of pre- primary education). Golas/Aims-Flexible, less global and more specific.
  52. 52. • Facilitate self actualization • Effect cognitive Development • Develop communication skill. Objectives-outcome-orientation, cognitive, affective psychomotor Level-National, Regional, local, institutional. Guidelines for formulating objectives • Matching – objectives to match with goals. • Worth – Attaining the objectives will have value for the student at present and in future. • Clarity – Students understand the outcomes. • Appropriateness-Students need. • Logical grouping – Organizational coherence. • Revision- Objectives to respond to periodical change. Component-2 Selection and structuring of content. • Facts-concepts/ideas- generalization. • Criteria for selection of content. • Self-sufficiency – to be attained in the most economical manner. • Significance-meaningful experience for the learner.
  53. 53. • Validity-Meets the demand of Goal/objective. • Interest-Student’s interest-Maturity, previous knowledge. • Utility-Use/application of the content. • Learnability-Intellectual ability, within the range of students, experience. • Feasibility – In terms of cost, time, resources available. Component-3 • Method of organization • Scope-what is covered in terms of breadth and depth? Continuity of Learning • Repetition of curriculum components. • Sequence-vertical progress form one level to another. • Integration- Relationship between the learning’s in various areas of the curriculum (horizontal relationship among disciplinary/subjects). Principles of sequencing • Simple to complex learning • Pre-requisite learning • Whole to part learning • Chronological learning
  54. 54. • Articulation - Inerrelatedenss of various aspects of curriculum. • Vertical - Curriculum-syllabus Text book- topic from one grade to another. • Horizontal - Interrelation between social study and language of a particular class. Balance • Child centred vs subject centred. • Need of the individual vs. Need of the society. • Common Education vs specialized education. • Breadth and depth of curriculum content. • Traditional vs. innovative content. • Varying learning style of different students. • Different teaching methods and educational experience. • Work and play. • Community and school. Centres of Curriculum Organization • Subject centred design • Broad field design
  55. 55. • Learner centred design • Core-design Component-4 Evaluation • A process of finding the value for the programme in terms of process and product. • Objective-based • Desired process and expected outcome. • Comprehensive-covers various kinds of objective. • Continuous-Assessment during the programme. • Student evaluation • Curriculum evaluation Curriculum Design • Arrangement of the elements of a curriculum so as to make it a substantive entity. Main Phases of Curriculum Development 1. Predevelopment: analysis of background variables including aims, resources and existing curriculum. 2. Trials and ‘formative’ evaluation of classroom interactions and a wide range of outcomes.
  56. 56. 3. Documentation of information that helps others decide whether the programme is suitable for their particular situation. 4. Monitoring under field conditions to allow continuing adaptation and improvement in the specific context. Curriculum Evaluation Definition Curriculum evaluation is the process of delineating, obtaining and providing information useful for making decisions and judgements about curricula. Mapping Sentence of curriculum evaluation Evaluation is the provision of information at the Pre-development Development Dissemination Installed programme Stage of curriculum Development
  57. 57. Concerning Aims Contexts Materials Transactions Outcomes From the point of view Eliciting processes yielding outcomes meeting standards avoiding problems On the basis of Measurement description observation judgement Summarised in a Qualitative Quantitative For the sake of making Decisio ns about Modifying selecting elements of qualifying the use of accepting or rejecting The programme Criteria for a programme Evaluation • Consistency with objectives • Comprehensiveness • Sufficient Diagnostic value • Validity • Unity of Evaluative Judgement
  58. 58. • Continuity A Comprehensive Evaluation Programme A comprehensive evacuation programme requires answering the following questions : • What are the objectives which underlie the curriculum programme? (Formulation and clarification of objectives). • Under What conditions or in which situations will students have an opportunity to demonstrate the behaviour? (Selection and construction of the appropriate devices for getting evidence). • By what criteria would one appraise students achievement of an objective? (Application of evaluative criteria) • What factors determine the attainment of educational objectives and how can one determine these factors? (Information on the background of students and the nature of instructions in the light of which to interpret the evidence) • What implications do the findings have for curriculum teaching or guidance of students? (Translation of evaluation findings into improvement of the curriculum and instruction).
  59. 59. CONSTRUCTIVIST LEARNING ENVIRONMENT By Dr. H.K. Senapaty What is constructivism? Contructivism is basically a theory- based on observation and scientific study – about how people learn. It says that people learn. It says that people construct their own understanding and reflecting on those experiences. • Constructivism is a student-centred approach that places responsibility on students to take charge of their learning experiences. Teachers create activities and assignments that foster the creation of knowledge. Students are challenged to produce reality based products such as portfolios and papers. The construtivist educational philosophy operates on four major assumptions. Four Major Assumptions • Knowledge depends on past constructions. We know the world through our mental framework and we transform and interpret new information through this framework. • Constructions come through systems of assimilation and accommodation into our existing mental framework. If information is incongruent with that framework, it can not be assimilated. But we can develop a higher-level of cognition to accommodate this new information and zones of new development. • Learning is an organic process of invention, not mechanical. Knowledge is more than facts or information. Learners must be able to hypothesize, predict, manipulate, and construct knowledge.
  60. 60. • Meaningful learning occurs through reflection and scaffolding of new knowledge upon existing framework of knowledge. Cognitive developmental abilities play a key role in all four premises and the ability and evolution of each students ability to learn and assimilate knowledge. In the classroom The constructivist view of learning can point towards a number of different teaching practices. In the most general sense, it usually means encouraging students to use active techniques to create more knowledge and then to reflect on and talk about what they are doing and how their understanding is changing. Our past experience about learning (i) Learning as response strengthening (ii) Learning as knowledge acquisition (iii) Learning as knowledge construction Learning as response strengthening • According to the first view, learning occurs when learner strengthens or weakens an association between a stimulus and a response. • This first view developed in the first half of 20th century. • The role of learner is to passively receive towards and punishments. • The instructional designer role is to create environments where the leaner repeatedly is cued to give a simple response, which is immediately followed by a feedback.
  61. 61. Learning as knowledge acquisition • Learning occurs when a learner places new information in long-term memory. • This view developed in 1950s, 1960s and 1970s and was based largely on the study of human learning in artificial laboratory settings. • The role of the learner is to passively acquire information, and the teacher’s job is to present information, such as in textbooks and lectures. • According to this view, information is a commodity that can be transmitted directly from teacher to learner. • The instructional designer’s role is to create environments in which the learner is exposed to large amount of information through textbooks, lectures and computer based multimedia programmes. Learning as knowledge construction • Learning occurs when a leaner actively constructs a knowledge representation in working memory. • This view emerged in 1980s and 1990s and was based on largely on the study of human learning in increasingly realistic settings. • According to this view, the learner is a sense maker, whereas the teacher is a cognitive guide who provides guidance and modeling on authentic academic tasks. • The instructional designer’s role is to reate environments in which the learner interacts meaningfully with academic material, including fostering the learner’s processes of selecting organizing and integrating information.
  62. 62. How construtivism is different from traditional ideas about teaching and learning? Traditional classroom Constructivist classroom • Curriculum begins with the parts of the whole. • Curriculum emphasizes big concepts, beginning with the whole and expanding to include the parts. • Emphasizes basic skills strict adherence to fixed curriculum is highly valued. • Pursuit of student questions and interests is valued. • Materials are primarily textbooks and workbooks. • Materials include primary sources of material and manipulative materials. • Learning is based on repetition. • Learning is interactive, building on what the student already knows. • Teacher’s role is directive, rooted in authority. • Teacher’s role is interactive, rooted in negotiation • Assessment is through testing, correct answers. • Assessment includes student works, observations and points of view, as well as tests. Process is as important as product. • Knowledge is seen as inert • Knowledge is seen as dynamic, ever changing with our experiences. • Student work primarily alone. • Students work primarily in groups.
  63. 63. What the constructivist teacher has to do in his classroom? He may : • pompt students to formulate their own questions (inquiry). • allow multiple interpretations and expressions of learning (multiple intelligence). • Encourage group work and the use of peers as resources (collaborative learning). In a constructivist classroom, learning is • Constructive • Active • Reflective • Collaborative • Inquiry based • Evolving History of Constructivism • The concept of constructivism has roots in classical antiquity, going back to Socreates’s’. • Jean Plaget and John Dewey developed heoreis of childhood development and education, what we now call Progressive education that led to the evolution of constructivism.
  64. 64. • Lev Vygostsky, Jerome Bruner, and David Ansubel. Some critical perspectives of constructivism • It’s elitist • Critics say the collaborative aspects of constructivist classrooms tend to produce a “tyranny of the majority”, in which a few students voices or interpretations dominate the group’s conclusions. • Critics say that constructivists, by rejecting evaluation through testing and other external criteria, have made themselves unaccountable for their student’s progress. Benefits of constructivism • Children learn more, and enjoy learning more when they are actively involved, rather than passive listeners. • Education works best when it concentrates on thinking and understanding, rather than on rote memorization. Constructivism concentrates on learning how to think and understand. • Constructivist learning is transferable in constructivist classrooms, students crate organizing principles that they can take with them to other learning settings. • Constructivism gives students ownership of what they learn, since learning is based on students questions and exploitations. Engaging the creative instincts develops students abilities to express knowledge through a variety of ways. The students are also more likely to rein and transfer the new knowledge to real life.
  65. 65. • By grounding learning activities in an authentic, real-world context, constructivism stimulates and engages students. Students in constructivist classrooms learn to question things and to apply their natural curiosity to the world. • Constructivism promotes social and communication skills by creating a classroom environment that emphasizes collaboration and exchange of ideas. The constructivist learning : A paradigm shift • Constructivist learning depends on the activation of several cognitive processes in the learner during learning, including selecting relevant information, organizing incoming information, and integrating incoming information with existing knowledge. This is called as the SOI model. SOI Model Instructional message working memory long-term memory Pictures → Images → Visual mental model Selecting Organising → Prior knowledge Words → Sounds → Verbal Material model Selecting Organizing The constructivist revolution If offers a new vision of the learner as an active sense-maker and suggests new methods of instruction. It facilitates presentation of materials in a constructivist way and engage students in an active explorative learning. This new approach allows the learners to have more
  66. 66. control over their own learning to think analytically and critically, and to work collaboratively. This constructivist approach is an effort at educational reform made easier by technology. Interpretation Construction (ICON) Design Model • Observation : Students make observations of authentic artifacts anchored in authentic situations. • Interpretation Construction : Students construct interpretations of observations and construct arguments for the validity of their interpretations. • Contextualization: Students access background and contextual materials of various sorts to aid interpretation and argumentation. • Cognitive Apprenticeship : Students serve as apprentices to teachers to master observation, interpretation and contextualization. • Collaboration : Students collaborate in observation, interpretation and contextualization. • Multiple Interpretations: Students gain cognitive flexibility by being exposed to multiple interpretations. • Multiple Manifestations : Students gain transferability by seeing multiple manifestations of the same interpretations. EXAMPLE FROM SCIENCE • Students study astronomy and science in general by using observations of telescopic plates and a computer simulation of the sky to construct and test interpretations of astronomical phenomena. Students examine and make measurements on photographic plates from observatory telescopes and compute simulations of the sky
  67. 67. (Observation), then elate these analyses to reference materials (Contextualization) containing what is know about astronomical objects (i.e. stars, planets, etc.). • The teacher initially talks through how he would analyze and interpret examples of such astronomical data (cognitive apprenticeship) then the students from groups to work on some data (collaboration), while the teacher coaches and advises them as they proceed. • The students develop their own hypotheses and test them against the astronomical data (interpretation construction). Students defend their hypotheses using their analyses and reference materials both within and between the groups, and such argumentation together with background readings exposes them to various was to interpret the data (Multiple Interpretation). • As they proceed through the course, the students see how basic principles of astronomy, physics and chemistry can be use dot make sense of different sets of astronomical data (Multiple Manifestations). Example from History • Presents the students with a graphic simulation of an archaeological site, then the students study the history of the site through simulated digging up of artifacts, making various measurements of the artifacts in a simulated laboratory (Observation), and relating the objects to what is already known using a wide variety of reference materials (contextualization). • The students work cooperatively in groups (collaboration), while the teacher models how to deal with such a site then fades her involvement while coaching and supporting the students in their own study efforts (cognitive apprenticeship).
  68. 68. • The students develop ownership of their work by developing their own interoperations of the history of the site and mustering various kinds of evidence for their conclusions (Interpretation construction). By arguing with the other students and studying related interpretations in the historical literature, they get a sense of other perspectives (Multiple Interpretations). • By going through the process a number of times bringing each contextual background to bear on a number of different artifacts, the students learn and understand the many ways that the general principles behind what they are doing become manifest (Multiple Manifestations). Example form English • Students study Shakespearean drama and English literature in general by using the text of the play and two or more videos of performances of the play. Students can read a portion of Macbeth (e.g., a scene) and then immediately jump to see one or two performances of what they have read (observation). • The students can also use this indexing system to jump to commentaries on the same portion of the play (contextualization). Using portions of the play, the teacher models how to integrate reading the play, watching the performances and reading the commentaries (cognitive apprenticeship) and the students work together in groups (collaboration) to develop their own interpretations of the play and how it should be performed (Interpretation construction). • Comparing their interpretations of the play with the other students both within the same group and then in different groups gives the students a sense of the many different reactions that people can have to a play like Macbeth (Multiple interpretations).
  69. 69. • The multimedia indexing system also facilitates the students jumping around in the text and vieos to see how the same entities (e.g. characters, themes, etc.) can be manifested in many different ways in the text and performances (Multiple Manifestations).
  70. 70. Instructional Issues in Mathematics of the Secondary Level Dr P. Das Former Reader in Edn. RIE, Bhubaneswar. Overview There is no difference of opinion on the need for teaching of Mathematics as a part of general education. After independence the Secondary Education Commission (1952-53), the Education Commission (1964-66), curriculum for ten years school-A framework (1975), the National Policy on Education (NPE-1986, 1992), A National Curriculum for Elementary and Secondary Education. A Framework (1988-NCERT), National Curriculum for school Education (NCFSE-2000, NCERT) and National Curriculum Framework (2005, NCERT) have not only emphasised the importance of mathematics as a core subject fill the end of general school education but also strongly recommended specific changes of mathematics curriculum to meet the emerging technological needs of the society. Following the above recommendations various steps are being taken bot at national as well as state levels for qualitative improvement of mathematics realised our goals due to various issues related to instructional objectives, content of the curriculum methods of instruction and evaluation of students learning. Objectives After completing the module you should be able to : • Understand the objectives of teaching mathematics at the secondary level. • Understand the guidelines for curriculum construction, • Identify appropriate methods of instruction; and
  71. 71. • Plan for suitable evaluation strategies for students learning in mathematics. Objectives of teaching Mathematics NCF (2005) has clearly stated that (a) Mathematisation (ability to think logically, formulate and handle abstractions) rather than ‘knowledge’ of mathematics (formal and mechanical procedures) is the main goal of teaching mathematics. (b) The teaching of mathematics should enhance children’s ability to think and reason, to visualize and handle abstractions, to formulate and solve problems. Access to quality mathematics education is the right of every child. Following the recommendations NCF (2005) the Central and Board of Secondary Education (CBSE) have specified the following broad objectives of teaching mathematics of secondary stage in its secondary school curriculum (2006). To help the learners to - Consolidate the mathematical knowledge and skills acquired at the upper primary stage; - Acquire knowledge and understanding of the terms, symbol concepts, principles, processes etc, - Develop mastery of basic algebraic skills, - Develop drawing skills. - Apply mathematical knowledge and skills to solve real life problems of developing objectives to analyze, to see interrelations involved to think and reason, - Develop the ability to articulate logically, - Develop awareness of the need for national unit, national integration, elimination of sex biases,
  72. 72. - Develop necessary skills to work with modern technological devices such as calculators computers etc; - Develop interest in mathematics as a problem solving tool in various fields for its beautiful structures and pattern etc; - Develop reverence and respect towards great Mathematicians, particularly Indian mathematics for their contributions to the field of Mathematics. Bihar Curriculum Framework (BCF 2006) was also developed in the * of NCF (20050 and stated following new goals for students in Mathematics. - Learning to value Mathematics - Becoming confident to one’s own ability - Becoming a mathematical problem solver - Learning to communicate mathematics - Learning to reason Mathematics. In the light of the above, you may formulate more specifically the objectives of teaching mathematics of secondary level for your state. Guidelines for the curriculum construction The NCF (2005) suggested specific guidelines for curriculum construction. These are : - Connecting knowledge to the outside school; - Ensuring the learning is shifted away from role models.
  73. 73. - Enriching curriculum to provide for overall development of children rather remain textbook centric; - Making examination more flexible and integrated into classroom life & - Nurturing an over riding identity informed by caring concerns within the democratic policy of the country. Following the guidelines of NCF (2005) and objectives of teaching mathematics, the CBSE has developed course structure in Mathematics as follows : Class-IX (one paper, Time : 3 hours, Full Marks 1 hours) Unit Marks No. of periods Number system 06 10 Algebra 24 42 Commercial Mathematics 16 22 Geometry 24 60 Trigonometry 08 16 Mensuration 10 15 Statistics 12 15 Total 100 180 Class-X (One paper, Time : 3 hours, Full Marks : 100) Unit Marks No. of periods Algebra 26 55 Commercial Mathematics 12 15 Geometry 22 55 Trigonometry 10 20 Mensuration 10 15 Statistics 12 15
  74. 74. Co-ordinate geometry 08 12 Total 100 180 You may look at the CBSE format and its detail syllabus which is already in fore and compare if with your. Existing state syllabus in mathematics and suitably develop the consent of curriculum. It is further noted by the NCF (2005) that the curriculum should provide challenges to the talented minority. Methods of Teaching Mathematics In order to achieve the objectives of teaching mathematics it is essential to involve our students in different kinds of actives for concept building and problem solving. The office of activities may be based on different stages of Piaget’s intellectual development model: a) Sensory motor stage (0-2 years of age) b) Pre-operational stage (2-7 years of age) c) Concrete operational stage (7-11 years of age) The CBSE has also stressed that the teaching of Mathematics should be imparted through activities which may involve the use of concrete materials, models, pattern, charts pictures, toilers quizs, puzzles, projects and experiments. Following the recommendations of NCFSE (2000) and NCF (2005) CBSE has published three documents entitled : (i) Mathematics Laboratory in schools towards joyful learning (ii) Guidelines for mathematics laboratory in schools for class IX and (iii) Guidelines for Mathematics Laboratory in schools for curriculum workers and teachers for designing activity oriented learned are strategies in Mathematics. Moreover there are some hardspots in Mathematics which need to carefully identified and veridical instruction should be designed for them.
  75. 75. Similarly needs of talented children may be addressed by providing enrichment programmes. Evaluation for students learning NCF (2005) has recommended flexibility in evaluation of students learning which may go beyond paper pencil test. Oral testing project work evaluation should be encourage. These innovations would have the added advantage of shifting the focus of examinations for testing such as interpretation analysis and problem solving skills. It is well documented, that much of the higher failure and dropout rates in rural schools can be attributed to poor performance in two subjects-Mathematics and English. Therefore the evaluation should be continuous diagnostic, flexible and improvement oriented. Recently CBSE (2006) has worked out the scheme of evaluation for class X. The following weightages have been assigned to Board’s theory examination and school based internal assessment for class X examination. The scheme will be effective form March 2007 examination onwards. Theory examination- 80 Marks Internal assessment- 20 marks Internal assessment of 20 marks based on school based examination will have the following break up : Year end assessment of the activities – 10 Marks Assessment of the project work – 05 Marks Continuous assessment – 05 Marks BCF (2006) has also recommended that at secondary level assessment may be based on more on written tests and project works. Continuous evaluation is also stressed as an integral part of teaching learning process
  76. 76. making full use of models of self-assessment, pier group evaluation and assessment of group work. You may look at the above guidelines of NCF/2005, CBSE (2006) and BCF (2006) and guidelines evaluation and scheme of in Mathematics for class IX and X.
  77. 77. REGIONAL INSTITUTE OF EDUCATION, BHUBANESWAR-751022 Training Programme on Development of Secondary School Curriculum for KRPs of West Bengal From 21.01.08 to 25.01.08 Venue – ET Cell Date/Time 9.30 a.m. to 11 a.m. 11- 11.15 a.m. 11.15 am-1 pm 1 pm to 2 pm 2 pm to 3.15 pm 3 21.01.08 9-10 am (Registration) 10-11 am (Inauguration) T E A B R E A K Conceptualization of Curriculum/ Syllabus (SM Pany) L U N C H B R E A K Determinants of curriculum at secondary (SM Pany) 22.01.08 NCF-05 (Salient features of cum, aims of education) (L. Behera) NCF-05 (Learning and Knowledge, Cosntructivism) (HK Senapathy) NCF-05 (School and classroom environment) (S. Singh) (L. Paikaray) 23.01.08 Curricular issues in non- scholastic subject-art, peace, health and physical education (SG Rao)/ J. Mohapatra Process of writing textbook (SK Das) Evaluation of cum/textbook and renewal of textbook (G.C. Nanda) (L. Paikray) 24.01.08 Curricular issues in Languages/ SS/Math/Science Plenary Session SMP/SS/PD/RPD/ L.Pay/A.KA Continue SMP/SS/PD/RPD LP/AKA Preparation of model cum for secondary level by participants with help of resource persons Group work SMP/SS/PD/RPD LP/AKA 25.01.08 Finalisation of model cum SMP/SS/PD/RPD / LP/AKA Presentation of model cum SMP/SS/PD/ RPD Action plan for cum development RM/GCN
  78. 78. RESOURCE PERSONS TEAM A. External Resource Persons 1. Prof. S.M. Pany Retd. Principal, RNIASE, Cuttack. 2. Dr. G.C. Nanda Additional Director (Training) OPEPA, Bhubaneswar. 3. Mr. L. Paikray Lecturer in Education Gadibrahima College, Delanga, Puri. 4. Dr. P. Dash Retd., Reader in Education RIE, Bhubaneswar. 5. Mr. S. Singh Lecturer in Geography RIE, Bhubaneswar. 6. Mr. A.K. Acharya Lecturer, Tara Sankar Bandyopadhyay B.Ed. Institution West Bengal. 7. Dr. R.P. Devi Reader in Education RNIHSE, Cuttack.
  79. 79. Evaluation of Training Programme on Development of Secondary School Curriculum for KRPs of West Bengal Instructions : The purpose of this evaluation is to obtain feedback of the participants regarding different aspects of the training programme. Kindly feel free to supply information on the supplied questionnaire. Your responses will be kept confidential. A. PERSONAL INFORMATION 1. Name _______________________2. Age (in years)_____________ 3. Sex : Male /Female (Put a tick mark). 4. Full Postal Address ______________________________________ _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ 5. Educational Qualification : ________________________________ 6. Teaching Experience (in year): B. CONTENT OF THE PROGRAMME 1. The content of the programme is relevant for developing secondary school curriculum. Yes/No 2. The resource persons are competent/ effective in transacting different sessions. Yes/No 3. The materials provided are appropriate. Yes/No 4. The duration of the programme is adequate. Yes/No 5. This programme would help us in developing school curriculum in our state. Yes/No 6. The transaction approaches followed in different sessions need improvement. Yes/No 7. The overall quality of the programme is ________ [Effective, Average, Ineffective] Yes/No 8. Please indicate four strong points and four weak points of the programme. [Please write in the back size of this page].
  80. 80. Training programme on development of secondary school curriculum for KRP’s of West Bengal 21.01.08 to 25.01.08 We the participants of the above said programme has *** the copy of NCF- 2005 from the co-ordinator Dr. R.K. Mohalik free. Sl.No. Name & Phone No./E-mail Address of School Signature 1. Sarathi Tamang Mob.9474389448 St. Philomends School, Kalimpong, Dist. Darjeeling. 2. Dipka Dash Mob-9732639426 Chhatri Vivekandna Vidyabhawan, Po-Chhatri, Dist-Purba Medinipore, State-West Bengal. 3. Habibur Rahaman M-9434951400 School Ph.No.03482-273250 Guddhia High School (H.S) Vill/P.O.-Gudhia Dist-Murshidabad Pin-742101, West Bengal. 4. Sajal Kanti Biswal Mob.9474577761 Balarmpur High School (H.S.) Balarampur Colony Berhampur, Murshidabad-742191, West Bengal. 5. Parthasarathi Day Mobile-09474423852 Teacher of Bengali Language Palla K.P.C. High School, Palla, 24, PGS(N), N.B. Ph.(03215) 260319 6. Lakshman Sahu Mob-09434401075 Halna High School (H.S) P.O.-Habra, Dist-N-24 Pgs. 7. Ajay Kumar Singh Mob-990378767 (M) (033)-2637-850 (Phone) Sneopur Ambika Hindi High School (H.S.) 37-38, Umacharan Bose Lane, Sheopur, Howarh- 711102. Phone- (033)-2638- 0396. 8. Parbati Ranjan Kar Mob-9434525173 03242-289526 Tilumi Kmpanaya High School (10+2) Tilumi, Bankura (W.B) Phone-03241-277402 9. Subrata Kumar Ghosh Mob.No.9434672316 Banpas Sikshniketan (H.S.M.P.)
  81. 81. Head Master Villl & P.O.-Banpas, P.S-Bhatar, Dist-Burdwan, Pincode-713127 Phone No.03452- 263212 10. Gautam Sarkar Mob.9831542123 H.M. Shyam Sundar Children High School, P.O.-Bhadreswan, Hooghly 11. Toyad Baran Datta School-0332555-6068 Mob-9830924061 Shambazar A.V. School, 88, Shyambazar Street, Kolkata-700005 12. Saumyader Bikas Chatopahdya Mob-9831432879 Maharaja Cossimbazar Polytechnic Institute 03, Nandalal Bose Lane, Baghabazar, Kolkata-03. 13. Lili Prasad Nath 03242-262308 Vill-Nathedanga Hills, Po-Brachandihar, Dist-Baukura. 14. Raghunath Pramanik Mob-9434456760 North Krishna Pally Po & Dist-Malda, West Bengal. 15. Shiv Sundar Payal 03472-250124 Talpura Road, Kashinagar, Noida (WB) 16. Sibesh Chakrabarty 03523-250706 (R) 09434120706 (M) C/o-Lt. Samaresh Chakrabatry, Po-Raigang, Rabindrapalli, Utar Dink pur, Pin- 733134, West Bengal. 17. Gopal de 9434247751 0353-2522336 40-Dinabandhu Mitra Sarai Subhapally, SILIGURI. 18. S.K. Monirla Islam 0947484997 Bagnam (Near Circus Maidan) Howrah. Pin- 711303. 19. Pranab Kishore Sarkar Mob-0947484997 Bangi Biswarpur Po-Bi Dist-D/Dikajpur Pin-733101. 20. Paritosh Paik 09836003784/033-24339477 Vill-Shibpur, P.O.-Tajpur, P.S.-Mathurpur Dist-24 Pgs(S), W.B. Pin-743354. Pirtala High School. 21. Kakali Halder Vill-Sarisha, P.S.-
  82. 82. 09433222044 Diamond Habbour, Dist- South, 24 Pgs, W.B. Kishorepur Girls, Jr. High School. 22. Rita Bhattacharya 09434413122 Pundibari GDL Balika Vidyalaya (H.S.), P.S.-Pundibasi, Dist-Coch Behar (W.B). 23. M.Z. Nadeem Mob-943374088(M) Islamia High School (HS) 44, Beninputeau Rd. Kol-14. 24. Kansik Dasgupta H.M. Kharagpur, P.N. Roy Vidyaniketan, Po-Rakhajungle, Kharagpur. 25. Md. Mozammad Hoqu A.T.-Mollapur High School, Po-Mollabpur, Birbhum. 26. Suresh Panior Golar S. Vidyapith P.O.-Golar, Keshpur, Paschim Medinipur. 27. Jachchi Dananda Mukherjee Moutaoh M.S. High School (H.S) Post-Moutosh, Dist- Pusulia (W.B.) 28. Surjit Bhattaharya Kanyapur High School (H.S), P.O.-Kanyapur, burdwon, Ansarol West Bengal. 29. Muktimay Sinha Chakdeipa High School, Vill-Po-Chakdeipa, Haldia, Purba Medinipur West Bengal. 30. Manotosh Sarkar Bishnupur High School P.O.-Purba Bishnupur, Dist-Noida.

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