Submitted to: Submitted by:
Dr. Sapna Sharma Deepak
Roll no –
o History of Hypnosis
o State of Hypnosis
o Techniques of Hypnosis
o Requirements of Hypnosis
o Theories of Hypnosis
o Effects of Hypnosis
o Key Points
o Forensic Hypnosis
People have been entering hypnotic-
type trances for thousands and
thousands of years - meditation
Scientific conception of hypnotism
wasn't born until the late 1700s.
The father of modern hypnotism is
Franz Mesmer, an Austrian
physician. Mesmer believed hypnosis
to be a mystical force flowing from
the hypnotist into the subject (he
called it "animal magnetism").
Why is Hypnosis Relevant in Criminal
Context present in the 1970s supported
the active use of hypnosis by police
Martin Orne's research suggesting any
potential value of hypnosis is offset by the
risks of "false confidence" and distortion
The Case of the Hillside Strangler
Between October 1977 and 1978, 10 young women were
raped, tortured, and strangled to death. Their bodies
were found at various locations on hillsides northeast of
In January 1979, Kenneth Bianchi, a suspect in the case,
was arrested in Washington State-but denied any
Under hypnosis, Bianchi began to display manifestations
of multiple personality. A psychiatrist (Glenn Allison) and
psychologist (John Watkins) were convinced of the
legitimacy of a multiple-personality diagnosis. Later, Orne
"tricked" Bianchi, revealing that the symptoms were
being faked. Bianchi eventually pleaded guilty to several
of the murders, exchanging a guilty plea to avoid the
Hypnotists say that subjects under hypnosis are a lot like little
kids: playful and imaginative, fully embracing bizarre
What is it?
What are the states of hypnosis?
What are the techniques & requirements of
What are some major effects of hypnosis?
How do psychologists explain hypnosis?
An altered state of consciousness during
which an individual demonstrates
heightened susceptibility to suggestions or
commands of the hypnotist.
The subconscious regulates your bodily
sensations, such as taste, touch and
sight, as well as your emotional feelings
and the storehouse of your memories.
Hypnosis is a way to access a person's
subconscious mind directly.
Theorized that deep relaxation and focusing
exercises of hypnotism work to calm and
subdue the conscious mind. In this state,
you're still aware of what's going on, but your
conscious mind takes a back seat to your
subconscious mind. This allows the hypnotist
to work directly with the subconscious.
Before hypnotists bring a subject into a full
trance, they generally test the willingness and
capacity to be hypnotized. The typical testing
method is to make several simple suggestions,
such as "Relax your arms completely," and work
up to suggestions that ask the subject to
suspend disbelief or distort normal thoughts,
such as "Pretend you are weightless.
Trance State- characterized by extreme suggestibility,
relaxation and heightened imagination
Heightened State of Awareness - like
Self-hypnosis - movies, etc.
Fixed-gaze induction or eye fixation
Progressive relaxation and imagery
Loss of balance
The subject must want to be hypnotized.
The subject must believe they can be
The subject must eventually feel comfortable
According to role theory, hypnosis does not
create a special state of consciousness.
The procedures for inducing hypnosis
provide a socially-acceptable reason to
follow these suggestions.
According to state theory, hypnosis creates
an altered state of consciousness.
Evidence for this perspective comes from
observing differences between hypnotized
and non-hypnotized subjects.
According to this theory, hypnosis is not
one specific state, but rather a general
condition in which people reorganize the
ways in which their behaviour is controlled.
Usually, the ego or self, determines what
people pay attention to.
This centralized control can be temporarily
broken up by a process known as
Increased suggestibility (People are more
likely to carry out behaviours and experience
feelings and perceptions-even if these are
inconsistent with existing environmental
Dissociation (a division of consciousness-the
Perceptual Distortions (flawed judgment).
Reduced Awareness (of one's environment).
HYPNOSIS AND MEMORY
The view that hypnosis does not induce a state
of automatism could be seen as good news for
those wishing to promote the use of hypnosis as
a memory enhancement tool; nevertheless, the
evidence for the use of hypnosis in this role has
also been the source of some controversy.
o Highly Suggestible BUT your sense of
safety and mortality remain - the hypnotist
cannot make you do something you don’t
want to do.
Forensic hypnotism, investigators access
a subject's deep, repressed memories of a
past crime to help identify a suspect or fill
in details of the case. Since hypnotists
may lead subjects to form false memories,
this technique is still very controversial in
the forensics world.