Molecular Beam Epitaxy


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A presentation on Molecular Beam Epitaxy made by Deepak Rajput. It was presented as a course requirement at the University of Tennessee Space Institute in Fall 2008.

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Molecular Beam Epitaxy

  1. 1. Molecular Beam Epitaxy MSE 576     Thin Films 09/26/2008 MSE 576: Thin Films Deepak Rajput Graduate Research Assistant Center for Laser Applications Materials Science & Engineering University of Tennessee Space Institute Tullahoma, Tennessee 37388-9700 Email: Web: 1 of xx
  2. 2. Outline Epitaxy MSE 576     Thin Films Molecular Beam Epitaxy Molecular Beam Problems and Diagnostics 2 2 of xx
  3. 3. Epitaxy Method of depositing a monocrystalline film. MSE 576     Thin Films Greek root: epi means “above” and taxis means “ordered”. Grown from: gaseous or liquid precursors. Substrate acts as a seed crystal: film follows that ! Two kinds: Homoepitaxy (same composition) and Heteroepitaxy (different composition). 3 3 of xx
  4. 4. Epitaxy Homoepitaxy: MSE 576     Thin Films # To grow more purified films than the substrate. # To fabricate layers with different doping levels Heteroepitaxy: # To grow films of materials of which single crystals cannot be grown. # To fabricate integrated crystalline layers of different materials 4 4 of xx
  5. 5. Epitaxy Vapor Phase Epitaxy (VPE) SiCl4(g) + 2H2(g) ↔ Si(s) + 4HCl(g) (at 12000C) # VPE growth rate: proportion of the two source gases MSE 576     Thin Films Liquid Phase Epitaxy (LPE) Czochralski method (Si, Ge, GaAs) # Growing crystals from melt on solid substrates # Compound semiconductors (ternary and quaternary III-V compounds on GaAs substrates) Molecular Beam Epitaxy (MBE) # Evaporated beam of particles # Very high vacuum (10-8 Pa); condense on the substrate 5 5 of xx
  6. 6. Molecular Beam Epitaxy MSE 576     Thin Films 6 Source: William R. Wiley Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA xx 6 of
  7. 7. Molecular Beam Epitaxy: Idea ! Objective: To deposit single crystal thin films ! MSE 576     Thin Films Inventors: J.R. Arthur and Alfred Y. Chuo (Bell Labs, 1960) Very/Ultra high vacuum (10-8 Pa) Important aspect: slow deposition rate (1 micron/hour) Slow deposition rates require proportionally better vacuum. 7 7 of xx
  8. 8. Molecular Beam Epitaxy: Process Ultra-pure elements are heated in separate quasi-knudson effusion cells (e.g., Ga and As) until they begin to slowly MSE 576     Thin Films sublimate. Gaseous elements then condense on the wafer, where they may react with each other (e.g., GaAs). The term “beam” means the evaporated atoms do not interact with each other or with other vacuum chamber gases until they reach the wafer. 8 8 of xx
  9. 9. Molecular Beam A collection of gas molecules moving in the same direction. MSE 576     Thin Films Simplest way to generate: Effusion cell or Knudsen cell Oven Orifice Sample Test Chamber Pump 9 Knudson cell effusion beam system 9 of xx
  10. 10. Molecular beam Oven contains the material to make the beam. MSE 576     Thin Films Oven is connected to a vacuum system through a hole. The substrate is located with a line-of-sight to the oven aperture. From kinetic theory, the flow through the aperture is simply the molecular impingement rate on the area of the orifice. 10 10 of xx
  11. 11. Molecular Beam Impingement rate is: 1 1 ⎛ p ⎞ ⎛ 8kT ⎞ I = nv = ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ 4 4 ⎝ kT ⎠ ⎝ πm ⎠ MSE 576     Thin Films The total flux through the hole will thus be: pπr 2 Q = IA = 2πmkT The spatial distribution of molecules from the orifice of a knudsen cell is normally a cosine distribution: 1 ⎛ cos ϑ ⎞ I ' = nv ⎜ ⎟ 4 ⎝ π ⎠ 11 11 of xx
  12. 12. Molecular Beam The intensity drops off as the square of the distance from the orifice. ⎛ cos ϑ ⎞⎛ 1 ⎞ I sub = IA⎜ ⎟⎜ 2 ⎟ MSE 576     Thin Films ⎝ π ⎠⎝ L ⎠ or , 2 ⎡ p ⎤⎛ r ⎞ I sub =⎢ ⎥⎜ ⎟ cos ϑ ⎣ 2πmkT ⎦⎝ L ⎠ High velocity, greater probability; the appropriate distribution: dnv ⎛ v3 ⎞ ⎛ − v2 ⎞ = 2⎜ 4 ⎟ exp⎜ 2 ⎟dv n ⎜α ⎟ ⎜α ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ 12 where α = 2kT / m 12 of xx
  13. 13. Molecular Beam Integrating the equation gives: Etr = 2kT MSE 576     Thin Films as the mean translational energy of the molecules # Intensity is maximum in the direction normal to the orifice and decreases with increasing θ, which causes problems. θ Iθ # Use collimator, a barrier with a small hole; it intercepts all of the 13 flow except for that traveling towards the sample. 13 of xx
  14. 14. MBE: In-situ process diagnostics RHEED (Reflection High Energy Electron Diffraction) is used to monitor the growth of the crystal layers. MSE 576     Thin Films Computer controlled shutters of each furnace allows precise control of the thickness of each layer, down to a single layer of atoms. Intricate structures of layers of different materials can be fabricated this way e.g., semiconductor lasers, LEDs. Systems requiring substrates to be cooled: Cryopumps and Cryopanels are used using liquid nitrogen. 14 14 of xx
  15. 15. ATG Instability Ataro-Tiller-Grinfeld (ATG) Instability: Often encountered during MBE. MSE 576     Thin Films If there is a lattice mismatch between the substrate and the growing film, elastic energy is accumulated in the growing film. At some critical film thickness, the film may break/crack to lower the free energy of the film. The critical film thickness depends on the Young’s moduli, mismatch size, and surface tensions. 15 15 of xx
  16. 16. Assignment Solve the equation to find the mean translational energy (Etr) of the molecules: ⎛ v3 ⎞ ⎛ − v2 ⎞ MSE 576     Thin Films dnv ⎟dv = 2⎜ 4 ⎟ exp⎜ 2 ⎟ n ⎜α ⎟ ⎜α ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ where α = 2kT / m What fraction of the molecules in a molecular beam of N2 formed by effusion of N2 gas initially at 300 K from an orifice at a large Knudsen number will have kinetic energies greater than 8kcal/mol? 16 16 of xx