Mobile In Banking And Finance What Make Sense And What Not

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In recent years, the banking & financial services industry has been undergoing rapid changes, reflecting a number of underlying developments. Internet, wireless technology, and global straight-through processing have created a paradigm shift - from brick-and-mortar banks to banking virtually across time zones, geographical locations, access points and delivery channels. Today Mobile revolution has disrupted banking industry and this presentation provides a detailed discussion about issues of Mobile Banking.

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Mobile In Banking And Finance What Make Sense And What Not

  1. 1. Mobile in Banking & Finance<br />“What Make Sense and What Not”<br />The 4th Mobiles Malaysia - 2005<br />4th February 2004, Kuala Lumpur<br />
  2. 2. Introduction<br />
  3. 3. Dynamics Of The Banking Industry <br /><ul><li>Banks today are faced with unprecedented challenges created by the three forces of
  4. 4. De-regulation </li></ul>Deregulation has created a climate of increased competition and changing business structures. New competitors have emerged from both different geographies and other industry sectors -- such as insurance -- challenging the value delivered to customers and the costs. There are more opportunities for mergers, and they must offer a return on investment through greater reach and economies of scale. <br />Globalisation<br />Customers have better access to information and new expectations. The Internet, cable news, mailing lists and newsgroups are just a few examples of how regular investors are provided with information that was previously unavailable to them. As service industries have moved to availability through a variety of communications and support 24x7, customer expectations have hit new highs.<br /><ul><li>Technology
  5. 5. The innovations in computing and telecommunications have improved all the functions in retail banking. Computers have empowered the production and telecommunications have created new distribution channels that have instantaneous and global reach. The advances in communication and information technology have accelerated and broadened the dissemination of financial information while lowering the costs of many financial activities. </li></li></ul><li>Financial Services Industry<br />Globalization and technology are fundamentally changing the financial services industry worldwide<br />Competition has accelerated and is fierce for “best credits”/corporates in most countries<br />New competitors have entered the market<br />Margins and fees are narrowing significantly<br />Opportunity<br />Leverage financial, information & communication technologies to reduce transaction costs, enhance quality, increase service value, improve reach and thus expanding services to larger number of clients - profitably.<br />
  6. 6. Changing Face of Banking & Finance<br />In recent years, the banking & financial services industry has been undergoing rapid changes, reflecting a number of underlying developments. Internet, wireless technology, and global straight-through processing have created a paradigm shift - from brick-and-mortar banks to banking virtually across time zones, geographical locations, access points and delivery channels.<br />Customers are increasingly fickle and demanding.<br />Unprecedented advances in technology are changing the rules of the game. <br />New entrants to the industry are picking off profitable niche businesses. <br />A rash of mergers & acquisitions will most probably evolve into massive global consolidation across the industry as a whole. <br />And last not the least diminishing lines between banking and other financial services.<br />
  7. 7. Three Pillars of Strategy<br /><ul><li>Principal issues that will determine the transformation of Banking & Financial Services:</li></ul>Transparency, or the ability of all market participants to determine the available range.<br />Differential pricing, in which finer and finer distinctions must be made among groups of customers, setting their prices based upon the revenue streams they generate, the costs to serve them, and their resulting profitability;<br />Dis-intermediation or bypass, in which direct interaction eliminates the role previously enjoyed by financial advisors, retail stock brokers, and insurance agents.<br />Or traditionally<br />Price (interest rate)‏<br />Quantity (deposit and loan size) <br /><ul><li>Quality (reputation-relationship)</li></li></ul><li>Shifting the Productivity Frontier<br />How?<br />Generating Growth:<br />Through profitable marketing strategies<br />Productivity Frontier<br />(Future state of Best Practice)‏<br />Improving Asset Quality:<br />Through enhanced risk management<br />Lower unit costs per transaction or service<br />Increasing Operating Efficiency: <br />Through technological innovation<br />Limited<br />Services To<br />Limited Number<br />Of Customers:<br />Unprofitable<br />Broader service offerings & higher asset quality<br />
  8. 8. Capabilities To Succeed<br /><ul><li>Key capabilities that are pivotal to Banks’ future success are</li></ul>Flexibility<br />Efficiency<br />Innovation<br />Convenience <br />Experience<br />Security<br />
  9. 9. Technology: Fast Changing Landscape<br />Availability of convergence, a concentration of computer power in a variety of devices such as laptops, dashboard computers, mobile phones and personal digital assistants has led to an explosion in mobility and therefore – higher productivity levels. <br /><ul><li>The growth of the Internet has coincided with another major phenomenon – the introduction of the mobile phone. The growth in the number of cellular subscribers has eclipsed that of any other technological development in the 20th century, including the Internet. Statistics are proving that mobility will be increasingly important. This year alone, there will be nearly 1200 million mobile subscribers, as against 600 million on-line personal computer users. </li></ul>Microprocessors are rapidly becoming smaller, faster, more power- efficient and less expensive, which means they will be used more often, in more places to create a host of intelligent devices that will increase access to those services. <br />Wired and wireless bandwidth is expanding at a rapid rate, providing the final component necessary to create “universal connectivity” among all of those new devices and the instant availability of the information and services they help to deliver. <br />
  10. 10. Technology Evolution in Banking<br /> More than most other industries, financial institutions rely on gathering, processing, analysing, and providing information in order to meet the needs of customers. Given the importance of information in banking, it is not surprising that banks were among the earliest adopters of automated information processing technology. <br />The technological revolution in banking actually began in the 1950s, when the first automated bookkeeping machines were installed at a few U.S. banks. Automation in banking became common over the following decade as bankers quickly realized that much of their labour-intensive, information-handling processes could be automated on the computer. <br />A second revolution occurred in the 1970s with the advent of electronic payments technology. <br /><ul><li>Next in the line the world's first Internet bank opened its virtual doors in the fall of 1995. Today, all banks in USA and 80% of banks in Europe offer Internet based banking.</li></ul>The euphoria surrounding the m banking being the latest in the technology advancement in Banking.<br />
  11. 11. Technology Architecture<br />Wide Area Network<br />Local Area Network<br />Mainframe/Parallel Simplex<br />Application Architecture<br />Branch Architecture<br />Branch Banking<br />ATM<br />Call Centre<br />POS<br />ATM<br />Technological Organization <br />& Key Processes<br />Call Centre<br />Program & Project Mngt.<br />POS<br />Mobile Banking<br />Change Mngt.<br />Service Mngt.<br />SWIFT/MERVA<br />Recovery Mngt.<br />Bank<br />Quality Mngt.<br />Wireless <br />Security Mngt.<br />Operations Mngt.<br />Financial Technology<br />
  12. 12. Disruptive Technologies<br /> Key technologies which completely changed Banking & Financial Services Industry are…<br />Computerization & Automation<br />Payment and Settlement Systems<br />Electronic Funds Transfer (EFT) <br />Real Time Gross Settlement System (RTGS) <br />Centralized Funds Management System (CFMS) <br />Structured Financial Messaging Solution (SFMS) <br />Monitoring of Clearing Systems <br />Imaging of Instruments<br />Electronic Clearing Services<br />And now “Mobile”<br />
  13. 13. Branch<br />2.95 USD <br />CallCenter<br />0.56 USD<br />Internet<br />0.04 USD<br />ATM<br />0.01 USD<br />Mobile<br />0.004USD<br />Delivery Channels<br />Alternative electronic delivery channels provide a major means to cut costs. The proliferation of ATMs, plastic cards, PINs and a totally revised customer value system. <br />The first renaissance was profound but took about 20 years to fully take hold.<br />The second renaissance is driven by the Internet and is now in the early stages and migrating towards a more convenient wireless banking. <br />The most striking difference between the two periods is the financial customer. In the '70s and '80s, financial customers were being led by the financial industry. Today, financial customers are waiting for the industry to catch up to their expectation levels.<br />Average transaction cost<br />
  14. 14. Delivery Channels - Convenience<br />ATM<br /><ul><li>Benefits:Transaction Cost Reduction, 24-hour availability, Saving of Customer Time.
  15. 15. Fact: Even today, for a retail bank, an average of 30% of consumers still do not bear an ATM card.</li></ul>Call Centre<br /><ul><li>Benefits:Transaction Cost Reduction, 24-hour availability, Saving of Customer Time, Anywhere Banking.
  16. 16. Fact:Transaction fulfilled by a live agent over the phone can be as low as 1/6th of that of the branch agent and IVR and automated call handling is ineffective so far.</li></ul>Internet<br /><ul><li>Benefits:Transaction Cost Reduction, 24-hour availability, Saving of Customer Time. Anywhere Banking.
  17. 17. Fact:Very effective but requirement for computer with network connection, basic computer and browser literacy</li></ul>Mobile <br /><ul><li>Benefits:Transaction Cost Reduction, 24-hour availability, Saving of Customer Time. Anywhere Banking.</li></ul>Fact:Mass Appeal<br />Other channels under development are TV, RFID etc.<br />
  18. 18. Issues in Mobile Internet<br />
  19. 19. SMS<br />SIM Tool kit<br />WAP<br />GPRS<br />EDGE<br />UMTS<br />1998<br />1999<br />2000<br />2001<br />2002<br />2003<br />Mobile Internet Service Evolution<br />Multimedia service<br />Video communication<br />VOD<br />AOD<br />Game<br />mCommerce<br />Application<br />Transaction-based service<br />On-line betting<br />E-Salary<br />Advertising<br />Auction<br />Broking<br />Shopping<br />banking<br />Content-based service<br />Instant message<br />Ring tone download<br />Directory service<br />Music download<br />Ticket reservation<br />information<br />Wireless infrastructure technologies<br />
  20. 20. Mobile Internet Service Evolution<br />Growth<br />Hype<br />Disappointment<br />Current Situation<br />1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004<br />Business perspective<br /><ul><li>Low fee according to packet based method
  21. 21. Fierce competition to get customer</li></ul>Technology perspective<br /><ul><li>CDMA 1X, HDR
  22. 22. Java, VOD/AOD multimedia technology
  23. 23. Enhance reliability from higher security technology like WPKI</li></ul>Business perspective<br /><ul><li>High fee
  24. 24. Low quality contents& service
  25. 25. Limited CP profit model
  26. 26. Capital investment for infrastructure set-up</li></ul>Technology perspective<br /><ul><li>Inconvenient user interface
  27. 27. Low speed due to narrow bandwidth
  28. 28. Low reliability due to security problem</li></li></ul><li>MobilePortalProviders<br />Infrastructure&EquipmentVendors<br />TechnologyPlatformVendors<br />ApplicationPlatformVendors<br />MobileNetworkOperators<br />MobileServiceProviders<br />ApplicationDevelopers<br />ContentProviders<br />ContentAggregators<br />HandsetVendors<br />Financial <br />Facilities<br />Service<br />Carriers<br />M-Commerce Value Chain <br />Dominant Role<br />OS<br />MICROBROWSER<br />MIDDLEWARE (GATEWAY)‏<br />ME/WAP<br />HSCSD<br />GPRS<br />EDGE<br />UMTS<br />News<br />Sports<br />Game<br />Stock<br />Traffic<br />CONTENTS <br />PACKAGING<br />MOBILE PHONE<br />COMMUNICATOR<br />
  29. 29. Barriers to M-Commerce<br />Technology Aspect<br />Market Aspect<br />Customer Dissatisfaction<br />Security And Privacy<br />Inconvenience According <br />To Mobility<br />Terminal User Interface<br />Weak Profit Structure Compared <br />To Infra Investment<br />Reliability Of Network<br />Poor Quality Of Content<br />Poor Standardization<br />Bandwidth<br />High Price<br />
  30. 30. Networks<br /><ul><li>Bandwidth
  31. 31. Interoperability
  32. 32. Cell Range
  33. 33. Roaming</li></ul>Localisation<br /><ul><li>Upgrade of N/W
  34. 34. Upgrade of Device
  35. 35. Precision</li></ul>Mobile Middleware<br /><ul><li>Standards
  36. 36. Distribution</li></ul>Mobile Devices<br /><ul><li>Battery
  37. 37. Memory
  38. 38. CPU
  39. 39. Display Size</li></ul>Security<br /><ul><li>Mobile Device
  40. 40. Network
  41. 41. Gateway </li></ul>Limiting Technological factors<br />
  42. 42. Mobile Advantage : Some Attributes<br />Mobility—users carry cell phones or other mobile devices<br />Broad reach—people can be reached at any time<br />Ubiquity—easier information access in real-time<br />Convenience—devices that store data and have Internet, intranet, extranet connections<br />Instant connectivity—easy and quick connection to Internet, intranets, other mobile devices, databases<br />Personalization—preparation of information for individual consumers<br />Localization of products and services—knowing where the user is located at any given time and match service to them<br />
  43. 43. 2000<br />2003<br />2005<br />USA<br />20<br />120<br />224<br />Africa<br />4<br />34<br />78<br />Asia/Pacific<br />29<br />151<br />282<br />Western Europe<br />101<br />324<br />409<br />Rest of the World<br />7<br />64<br />159<br />World Total<br />184<br />737<br />1,187<br />People With Mobile Internet Access<br />( In Millions)‏<br />
  44. 44. House Holds with Mobile/Pc/TV<br />Mobile Subscribers<br />TV Households<br />Millions<br />PCs<br />
  45. 45. Seamless Communication<br />1,000<br />Wireline<br />800<br />(millions)‏<br />600<br />Wireless<br />400<br />Internet<br />200<br />0<br />1996<br />1998<br />2000<br />2002<br />2004<br />
  46. 46. Wireless Challenge<br />Mobile and wireless business applications have definite allure, but these applications can involve few fearsome obstacles: <br />Application design and development<br />Application deployment <br />Network-related issues<br /><ul><li>Building a mobile banking solution is complex, and requires advanced technical skills to bring successful solutions to market quickly.
  47. 47. Financial institutions are faced with technical barriers when developing mobile banking solutions, such as integrating:
  48. 48. Disparate networks</li></ul>Devices<br /><ul><li>Operating systems</li></ul>In addition, as customers use the public Internet to convey confidential information to highly portable devices, rigorous security issues must be addressed. <br />
  49. 49. Mobile Service Scenarios<br /> Communications<br /><ul><li>Short Messaging
  50. 50. Multimedia Messaging
  51. 51. Unified Messaging
  52. 52. E-mail
  53. 53. Chat Rooms
  54. 54. Video - Conferencing</li></ul> Entertainment<br /><ul><li>Music
  55. 55. Games
  56. 56. Graphics
  57. 57. Video
  58. 58. Pornography</li></ul> Tracking<br />M- Services<br /> Transactions<br /><ul><li>Banking
  59. 59. Broking
  60. 60. Shopping
  61. 61. Auctions
  62. 62. Betting
  63. 63. Booking & Reservations
  64. 64. Mobile Wallet
  65. 65. Mobile Purse</li></ul> Information<br /><ul><li>News
  66. 66. City Guides
  67. 67. Directory Services
  68. 68. Maps
  69. 69. Traffic And Weather
  70. 70. Corporate Information
  71. 71. Market Data</li></ul> Marketing & Advertisement<br />
  72. 72. M-Commerce Application<br />Transportation<br />Bank<br /><ul><li> Train/Bus ticket
  73. 73. Prepaid card
  74. 74. Air ticket
  75. 75. Bank card
  76. 76. Credit card
  77. 77. e-money</li></ul>Smart phone<br />e-Ticket<br /><ul><li> Concert
  78. 78. Sports event</li></ul>UIM<br />Contact lessIC Card R/W <br />Shopping<br />Governmental Service<br /><ul><li> Coupon
  79. 79. Shopping point card
  80. 80. ID card
  81. 81. Driver’s license</li></li></ul><li>1268M<br />798M<br />785M<br />775M<br />614M<br />469M<br />206M<br />e-commerce<br />entertainment<br />intranet<br />navigation<br />internet<br />messaging<br />financial services<br />source: ARC Group<br />Top Mobile Services - 2005<br /> Users want Financial Services as a core offering in their portfolio <br />
  82. 82. Mobile Application: Financial Tool<br /> Mobile Banking Services<br /> Mobile Payment Services<br /> Mobile Financial Services<br />
  83. 83. M Banking: Any time and Anywhere<br />Mobile banking is a subset of on-line banking. Based on an existing back office on-line banking operation, mobile banking can be deployed in a straightforward manner. It requires the elements in the form of a private information service, SIM Tool kit or WAP support and security. services mainly considered for offering through mobile banking are:<br />Public Information<br />check exchange rates<br />check interest rates<br />Private Information<br />check account and credit card balances<br />administer credit lines<br />check interest earned on deposits<br />check last transactions<br />Transaction <br />transfer funds<br />pay invoices<br /><ul><li>apply for credit line</li></li></ul><li>Mobile Payment Services<br />“ transform mobile phones into secure, self-contained purchasing tools capable of instantly authorizing payments…”<br />Types:<br />Micropayments<br />Wireless Wallets (M-wallet)‏<br />Bill Payments<br />Example<br /><ul><li>Swedish Postal Bank - Check Balances/Make Payments & Conduct simple transactions
  84. 84. Dagens Industri - Receive Financial Data and Trade on Stockholm Exchange
  85. 85. Citibank - Access balances, pay bills & transfer funds using SMS</li></li></ul><li>Mobile Finance Services<br />“ transform mobile phones into information, trading and transaction tool capable of instantly initiate transactions…”<br />Types<br /><ul><li>Mobile Brokerage: This service offers the user information about the stock market and also transaction capabilities. The commands for the service could be given through a voice recognition server, SMS, WAP etc. Notifies users when anything changes or event happens that is of interest to them. </li></ul>Example<br />Merrill Lynch, Fidelity, Charles Schwab and E*Trade<br />
  86. 86. Mobey Forum<br />Financial industry-driven forum founded in May, 2000<br />Founding members:<br /><ul><li>ABN AMRO, BNP Paribas, Deutsche Bank, HSBC, Nokia, Nordea, Santander Central Hispano, Siemens, USB</li></ul>Goal:<br /><ul><li>to encourage the use of mobile technology in financial services such as payment, remote banking and brokerage
  87. 87. Supports dual-chip technology </li></li></ul><li>Mobile Electronic Transactions (MeT)‏<br />Founding members:<br /><ul><li>Ericsson, Motorola, Nokia</li></ul>Goals:<br /><ul><li>to establish a framework for secure mobile transactions, the ability to buy goods and services using a mobile device
  88. 88. to ensure that interoperable mobile transaction solutions are developed around the world - enabling consumers to access goods and services seamlessly wherever they may be</li></li></ul><li>Global Open Platform <br />In 1999, organizations interested in issuing multiple application smart cards founded a global alliance under the leadership of Visa.<br />GOP adopted the Open Platform card specifications and terminal framework. <br />Goal:<br /> - to promote global smart card use and to assure interoperability of smart card.<br /><ul><li>Interoperability issues have not been completed yet. Some core parts are still left up to vendor’s individual interpretation and left optional. </li></li></ul><li>SIM<br />Mobile Payment Forum<br />Founding members:<br />Amex, JCB, MasterCard, Visa<br />Goal:<br /><ul><li>to develop methods for standardized, secure and authenticated mobile payments, using payment card accounts
  89. 89. Supports dual chip technology </li></li></ul><li>Ingredients of Success <br />
  90. 90. Customer Proposition<br />Convenience<br />Ease of use & enrolment<br />Speed<br />Price<br />Freedom to choose any bank, operator & handset<br />Wide usability of mobile payment methods<br />Security<br />Protection against fraudsters and hackers<br />Assurance of genuine payment destination<br />Privacy<br />Personal information remains confidential<br />
  91. 91. Business Priorities<br />Security<br />Effective customer authentication<br />Issuing bank mandates the level of authentication<br />Transaction-level security<br />Versatility<br />Scalability across all payment opportunities<br />Support to multiple payment products<br />Operator-independent service<br /><ul><li>Merchants’ demands</li></ul>Bank and operator independent payment products<br />Low transaction costs & running costs<br />Non-repudiation to protect from charge-backs<br />
  92. 92. Technical Considerations<br />Independence of different players<br />Banking relationship and operator relationship should be independent of each other - avoid walled gardens<br />Handset independence<br />No proprietary technologies - use of open standards<br />Use of existing standards & systems<br />Existing infrastructure must be utilized as much as possible<br />Security: confidentiality, integrity, authentication, non-repudiation<br />
  93. 93. Implementation Keys<br />Cost factors<br />Cost for a bank<br />Cost for a merchant<br />Consumer’s total cost<br />Speed to market<br />Availability of existing solutions<br />Speed of roll-out<br />
  94. 94. The Story so Far: <br />Some Clicked some got Kicked<br />
  95. 95. Good Experiences: M -Brokerage<br />Four of the top 10 U.S. securities houses <br />Merrill Lynch, Fidelity, Charles Schwab and E*Trade<br />launched mobile services.<br />The Current State:<br /><ul><li>Fidelity has around 100,000 registered users
  96. 96. E*Trade less than 25,000 registered users
  97. 97. Schwab has about 100,000 registered users </li></ul>During a typical month:<br /><ul><li>About 20,000 to 25,000 of the total Schwab-Wireless users access the service
  98. 98. Each user averaging 14 times during a typical month</li></li></ul><li>Bad Experiences: M–Retail Banking <br /><ul><li>Bank of Montreal - launched its Veev in 1999, which allowed customers to conduct a range of banking and investment activities. It was broadened in June 2001 to offer real-time news feeds, tailored news on topics from sports, politics, stocks. On August 31, 2002 Bank of Montreal shut down its wireless banking service.
  99. 99. Wells Fargo - launched its mobile retail services in Jan 2001. Service required Web-ready phones with Sprint PCS service and Palm VII or i705 organizers. On September 1, 2002 Wells Fargo says it will discontinue its mobile banking service due to limited adoption.
  100. 100. In 2001, Top U.S., Canadian and European banks launched mobile banking services. They were Bank Of America, First Union (US), Quick & Reily, Keybank, Washington Mutual (Canada), and NatWest, Bank of Ireland (Europe). All of these Banks closed done their mobile retail services by late 2001 or early 2002. </li></li></ul><li>Conclusion – Lessons Learned<br />
  101. 101. Road to Mobilisation<br /><ul><li>Serve a market
  102. 102. Avoid unpleasant surprises </li></ul>Capitalize on location, location, and location <br /><ul><li>Make the most of wait states
  103. 103. Fit it in-wherever possible
  104. 104. Anticipate and avert problems
  105. 105. Do things once </li></li></ul><li>Desirables<br /><ul><li>Convenient user experience: Financial services have to be easy-to-use, fast-to-use and they have to offer value for money.</li></ul> <br /><ul><li>Flexibility: Freedom to choose bank, operator and handset, and change them independently of each other. All three are reissued or renewed in varying cycles.
  106. 106. Customer habit enhanced: The habit of using mobile financial services has to be formed within the user by starting service provisioning with today’s technologies and exploiting new technologies as they emerge. </li></li></ul><li>Features<br />Ease-of-use<br />Protection against fraud<br />Speed/transaction time<br />Price (for customer)‏<br />Confidence that data will not be forwarded<br />Customer and merchant authentication<br />Assurance of genuine payment destination<br />SIM change independence<br />Standards based (interoperable)‏<br />Transaction level security<br />
  107. 107. Features<br />Merchant acceptances<br />Not operator-specific<br />Use of existing or planned infrastructure<br />Set-up costs per consumer<br />Customer enrolments<br />Cost to implement (merchant)‏<br />Cost to implement (consumer)‏<br />Existing solution availability<br />Support of multiple payment products<br />Potential to add brand<br />
  108. 108. Market Pull<br />Business modelling<br />Business <br />analysis<br />Concept definition of<br />the product/service<br />Technology<br />Push<br />Yes<br />No<br />Marketing <br />plan<br />Sustainable<br />ok?<br />Market analysis<br />(interest, sustainability, competition, <br />competitive advantage)‏<br />Service development<br />and investment<br />analysis<br />Definition and use <br />of market analysis<br />Business plan<br />Yes<br />No<br />Stop<br />Sustainable<br />ok?<br />Business Plan - Tool<br />Development Process for new Products & Services<br />
  109. 109. Strategy <br /><ul><li>Business Comes Before “e, m or t” </li></ul>Technology is Big, but the Processes are Bigger <br /><ul><li>Build on a Solid Technical Foundation
  110. 110. Look Beyond the Business </li></ul>Involve the Right People <br /><ul><li>Create a Clear Plan of Action
  111. 111. Refresh the Strategy </li></li></ul><li>Vision<br />M - Banking Realization<br />Service <br />Differentiation<br />Customer Solution<br />Infrastructure <br />Investment<br /><ul><li>Brand awareness
  112. 112. High customer loyalty
  113. 113. New Technology Innovations
  114. 114. Efficient and effective operation know how
  115. 115. Close cooperation with partner
  116. 116. Capital capacity for investment</li></ul>Core Competence<br />
  117. 117. Thank You<br />Presentation By:-<br />Deepak Pareek<br />Resource4Business<br />+91 98982 69489<br />deepak@r4b.in<br />

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