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SECURE MOBILE TRANSACTIONS USING 
NEAR FIELD COMMUNICATION 
DEEPAK K.L 
Sree Chitra Thirunal 
College of Engineering
NFC – What is it ??? 
 NFC or Near Field Communication is a short range high 
frequency wireless communication technology. 
 A radio communication is established by touching the two 
phones or keeping them in a proximity of a few centimeters. 
 NFC is mainly aimed for mobile or handheld devices. 
 NFC is an extension of Radio frequency identification. 
 It is a form of contactless communication between devices.
WHY NFC? 
Can replace your wallets 
NFC tags for task launcher 
Can transfer electric charge from one device to another 
device 
Can work along with Bluetooth 
Pairing Bluetooth devices in quick time
Operating Ranges 
Distance: 10 cm or less 
Operates at rates ranging from 106kBit/s to 424 Kbit/s 
Lower power consumption
WORKING OF NFC 
NFC is based on inductive-coupling. 
NFC works using magnetic induction between two loop 
antennas. 
A reader emits a small electric current, which creates a 
magnetic field . 
That field is received by a similar coil in the client 
device, where it is turned back into electrical impulses to 
communicate data. 
So, NFC use an initiator and a target.
General Architecture of NFC Enabled 
Mobile Phones
Host Controller(HC) 
•Heart of the NFC enabled mobile phone 
•Also called as baseband controller 
•HC interface Creates a bridge between the NFC Controller and the 
Host Controller 
•Sets the operating modes of the NFC controller through the HC 
Interface 
NFC Controller 
•Secure proximity transactions with external NFC devices 
•Secure Element is directly connected to NFC Controller
SECURE ELEMENT(SE) 
•Users and service providers assured that transaction takes place 
in protected environment 
•Combination of h/w, s/w, interfaces, and protocols embedded in a 
mobile handset 
•Enables secure storage 
•More secure for storing credential data than storing in removable 
storage locations
Non secure vs. secure NFC
SE option for an NFC enabled mobile phone are; 
1)Embedded hardware in a mobile device as an integral, non-removable 
part of the device. 
2) Secure Memory Card (SMC) as a secure storage area in a 
removable smart card. 
3)UICC as a physical smart card and may be the most popular 
one.
Secure element alternatives
Embedded hardware 
A smart card soldered onto the mobile phone that cannot be 
removed 
Level of security is high 
Embedded into the mobile phone during the manufacturing stage 
i.e. soldered 
Can be personalized but cannot be transferred to another device
Secure Memory Card 
It is a combination of a memory card and a smart card 
Large storage space 
More credential information can be stored 
Can be inserted into a new device easily
UICC 
Universal Integrated Circuit Card 
It is commonly known as a SIM 
Ensures the integrity and security of all kinds of personal 
data 
Can host as non-telecom applications such as payment, 
loyalty, ticketing, e-passport, and so on 
The cardholders can be reassured that transactions are 
executed with their personal information protected
Communication Modes 
Active mode- 
Inducing magnetic 
field 
In this mode, both devices with NFC chip can generate an 
electromagnetic field and exchange information with each other. 
Two NFC enabled devices transferring 
data in active mode
Passive mode- 
A passive device, such as an 
NFC tag, contains information 
that other devices can read but 
does not read any information 
itself, so there is only one 
active user. 
A NFC-enabled mobile phone is paired 
with a RFID-tagged "smart poster"
Operating Modes 
•Reader/Writer Operating Mode 
•Peer-to-Peer Operating Mode 
•Card Emulation Operating Mode
Reader/Writer Operating 
Mode
Read data and alter stored in NFC tags 
Can take appropriate actions on what stored in NFC 
tags 
Does not require a secure area 
The process only reads data stored inside the passive 
tag and writing data to the passive tag.
Protocol Stack Architecture of Reader/Writer 
Mode 
•Analog is related to RF characteristics of NFC devices 
and determines the operating range of devices. 
•Digital protocols refer to the digital aspects of standards, 
and define building blocks of the communication. 
•Tag operations indicate the commands and instructions 
used by NFC devices to operate NFC . 
•NDEF applications are based on NDEF specifications 
such as smart poster and reading product information from 
NFC enabled smart shopping fliers. 
•Non NDEF applications are vendor specific applications 
such as an electronic purse balance reader and contactless 
ticket reader which are not based on NDEF specifications.
NDEF message and NDEF 
record 
Eg): 
new NdefRecord(NdefRecord.TNF_MIME_MEDIA, "text/plain".getBytes(), new byte[0], 
"Hello, NFC World!".getBytes())
Permissions and 
preparation 
In order for an application to be able to use NFC hardware and software of a 
device, it must have the NFC permission, so add the following line to your 
AndroidManifest.xml: 
<uses-permission android:name="android.permission.NFC" /> 
Since NFC is a fairly new technology, it will not work with older versions of 
Android - according to developer.android.com, minimum API level 10 is 
recommended: 
<uses-sdk android:minSdkVersion="10" 
android:targetSdkVersion="17" /> 
If your application can’t do its work on non NFC-enabled devices, you can make 
sure that only compatible devices will see your app in the store: 
<uses-feature android:name="android.hardware.nfc" 
android:required="true" />
A simple write to a tag 
private boolean writeTag(final NdefMessage pMessage, final Tag pTag) 
{ 
Ndef ndef = Ndef.get(pTag); 
try { 
if (ndef != null) 
{ 
ndef.connect(); 
if (messageSize > ndef.getMaxSize()) 
{ 
logAndToast("Write failed - message size exceeds tag size"); 
return false; 
} 
if (!ndef.isWritable()) 
{ 
logAndToast("Write failed - tag is not writable"); 
return false; 
} 
ndef.writeNdefMessage(pMessage); logAndToast("Write completed"); 
return true; 
}
Peer-to-Peer Operating Mode
Protocol Stack Architecture of Peer-to-Peer 
Mode
Analog and digital protocols are lower layer protocols . 
LLCP allows the transfer of upper layer information units 
between two NFC devices . 
Protocol bindings provide standard bindings to NFC Forum 
protocols and allow interoperable use of registered 
protocols.
Simple NDEF exchange protocol allows exchange of NDEF 
messages. It is also possible to run other protocols over the 
data link layer provided by LLCP. 
Applications may run over the simple NDEF exchange 
protocol, other protocols, or NFC Forum protocols. Example 
applications are printing from a camera, business card 
exchange, and so on.
Card Emulation Operating 
Mode
Here NFC enabled mobile phone acts as a smart card. 
User touches the mobile phone to an NFC reader. 
The NFC reader initiates the communication. 
NFC mobile behaves like a standard smart card. 
NFC reader interacts with the payment applications on the 
Secure Element. 
Only card emulation mode uses SE efficiently and securely 
to perform functions that require high security.
APPLICATIONS OF NFC 
1) Touch and go 
Applications such as access control, where the user needs only to 
bring the device storing the ticket or access code close to the reader. 
A person gathering info 
about a movie using his 
NFC enabled Mobile 
Phone
2) Touch and Confirm 
Applications such as mobile payment where the 
user has to confirm the interaction by entering a 
password or just accepting the transaction.
3) Touch and Connect 
Linking two NFC-enabled devices to 
enable peer to peer transfer of data. 
4) A latest development is that NFC can 
be used to configure Wi-Fi networks 
through mobile devices.
Security Concerns with NFC Technology 
Eavesdropping 
 
Data Corruption and Manipulation 
Interception Attacks 
Theft
COUNTER MEASURES 
Use secure channel (only the authorized device could 
decode the encrypted information). 
 Some NFC devices “listen” for data corruption attacks and 
prevent them before they have a chance to get up and 
running. 
Use Active – Passive modes with encrypted keys 
Keeping phone’s password protected.
ADVANTAGES OF NFC 
High convenience to the user. 
Reduces cost of electronic issuance . 
Secure communication. 
No manual configuration and settings. 
No search and pair procedure. 
NFC can be used together with existing technologies 
like Bluetooth and thus act for longer range also. 
NFC uses are practically limitless.
DISADVANTAGES OF NFC 
The system has the limitation that it can be operated only with devices 
under a short range i.e. around 10 cm. 
The data transfer rate is very less at about 106kbps, 212 kbps and 
424kbps. 
Eavesdropping 
Data Corruption and Manipulation 
Theft
SOME DEVICES USING NFC TECHNOLOGY
Future Aspects 
Vehicle Ignition 
A NFC enabled vehicle can be unlocked and started just by tapping the User’s 
NFC device onto the vehicle, thus removing the need of keys. 
 Can find the health of vehicle by using specific apps 
Unlocking Door 
Smart keyless doors can be made by implementing NFC technology into doors, 
where a single tap of the device onto the door would unlock it
Conclusion 
NFC is implemented in most handheld devices now a days. 
 The advancements in mobile wireless technology and 
communication standards have enabled usage of contactless 
and NFC based payment models. 
The mobile wallet based payment model is gaining 
considerable momentum and is currently being seen as one of 
the key payment model. 
The mobile wallet technology enables the end-users to make 
payments with their mobile wallet accounts, without having to 
use credit or debit cards.
REFERENCES 
http://www.nfc-forum.org 
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Near_field_communication 
http://www.nfccommunication.org 
http://apcmag.com/inside-nfc-how-near-field-communication-works.html 
http://www.mobilecommercepress.com 
Google. "Google Wallet: How it Works." (Jan. 28, 2012) 
http://www.google.com/wallet/how-it-works.html#in-store 
Kessler, Sarah. "NFC Technology: 6 Ways it Could Change Our Daily Lives 
" Mash able “ . May 6, 2010. (Feb. 6, 2012) 
http://mashable.com/2010/05/06/near-field-communication/
THANK YOU!!!
QUERIES?

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Near Field Communication (NFC Architecture and Operating Modes)

  • 1. SECURE MOBILE TRANSACTIONS USING NEAR FIELD COMMUNICATION DEEPAK K.L Sree Chitra Thirunal College of Engineering
  • 2. NFC – What is it ???  NFC or Near Field Communication is a short range high frequency wireless communication technology.  A radio communication is established by touching the two phones or keeping them in a proximity of a few centimeters.  NFC is mainly aimed for mobile or handheld devices.  NFC is an extension of Radio frequency identification.  It is a form of contactless communication between devices.
  • 3. WHY NFC? Can replace your wallets NFC tags for task launcher Can transfer electric charge from one device to another device Can work along with Bluetooth Pairing Bluetooth devices in quick time
  • 4. Operating Ranges Distance: 10 cm or less Operates at rates ranging from 106kBit/s to 424 Kbit/s Lower power consumption
  • 5. WORKING OF NFC NFC is based on inductive-coupling. NFC works using magnetic induction between two loop antennas. A reader emits a small electric current, which creates a magnetic field . That field is received by a similar coil in the client device, where it is turned back into electrical impulses to communicate data. So, NFC use an initiator and a target.
  • 6.
  • 7. General Architecture of NFC Enabled Mobile Phones
  • 8. Host Controller(HC) •Heart of the NFC enabled mobile phone •Also called as baseband controller •HC interface Creates a bridge between the NFC Controller and the Host Controller •Sets the operating modes of the NFC controller through the HC Interface NFC Controller •Secure proximity transactions with external NFC devices •Secure Element is directly connected to NFC Controller
  • 9. SECURE ELEMENT(SE) •Users and service providers assured that transaction takes place in protected environment •Combination of h/w, s/w, interfaces, and protocols embedded in a mobile handset •Enables secure storage •More secure for storing credential data than storing in removable storage locations
  • 10. Non secure vs. secure NFC
  • 11. SE option for an NFC enabled mobile phone are; 1)Embedded hardware in a mobile device as an integral, non-removable part of the device. 2) Secure Memory Card (SMC) as a secure storage area in a removable smart card. 3)UICC as a physical smart card and may be the most popular one.
  • 13. Embedded hardware A smart card soldered onto the mobile phone that cannot be removed Level of security is high Embedded into the mobile phone during the manufacturing stage i.e. soldered Can be personalized but cannot be transferred to another device
  • 14. Secure Memory Card It is a combination of a memory card and a smart card Large storage space More credential information can be stored Can be inserted into a new device easily
  • 15. UICC Universal Integrated Circuit Card It is commonly known as a SIM Ensures the integrity and security of all kinds of personal data Can host as non-telecom applications such as payment, loyalty, ticketing, e-passport, and so on The cardholders can be reassured that transactions are executed with their personal information protected
  • 16. Communication Modes Active mode- Inducing magnetic field In this mode, both devices with NFC chip can generate an electromagnetic field and exchange information with each other. Two NFC enabled devices transferring data in active mode
  • 17. Passive mode- A passive device, such as an NFC tag, contains information that other devices can read but does not read any information itself, so there is only one active user. A NFC-enabled mobile phone is paired with a RFID-tagged "smart poster"
  • 18. Operating Modes •Reader/Writer Operating Mode •Peer-to-Peer Operating Mode •Card Emulation Operating Mode
  • 20. Read data and alter stored in NFC tags Can take appropriate actions on what stored in NFC tags Does not require a secure area The process only reads data stored inside the passive tag and writing data to the passive tag.
  • 21. Protocol Stack Architecture of Reader/Writer Mode •Analog is related to RF characteristics of NFC devices and determines the operating range of devices. •Digital protocols refer to the digital aspects of standards, and define building blocks of the communication. •Tag operations indicate the commands and instructions used by NFC devices to operate NFC . •NDEF applications are based on NDEF specifications such as smart poster and reading product information from NFC enabled smart shopping fliers. •Non NDEF applications are vendor specific applications such as an electronic purse balance reader and contactless ticket reader which are not based on NDEF specifications.
  • 22. NDEF message and NDEF record Eg): new NdefRecord(NdefRecord.TNF_MIME_MEDIA, "text/plain".getBytes(), new byte[0], "Hello, NFC World!".getBytes())
  • 23. Permissions and preparation In order for an application to be able to use NFC hardware and software of a device, it must have the NFC permission, so add the following line to your AndroidManifest.xml: <uses-permission android:name="android.permission.NFC" /> Since NFC is a fairly new technology, it will not work with older versions of Android - according to developer.android.com, minimum API level 10 is recommended: <uses-sdk android:minSdkVersion="10" android:targetSdkVersion="17" /> If your application can’t do its work on non NFC-enabled devices, you can make sure that only compatible devices will see your app in the store: <uses-feature android:name="android.hardware.nfc" android:required="true" />
  • 24. A simple write to a tag private boolean writeTag(final NdefMessage pMessage, final Tag pTag) { Ndef ndef = Ndef.get(pTag); try { if (ndef != null) { ndef.connect(); if (messageSize > ndef.getMaxSize()) { logAndToast("Write failed - message size exceeds tag size"); return false; } if (!ndef.isWritable()) { logAndToast("Write failed - tag is not writable"); return false; } ndef.writeNdefMessage(pMessage); logAndToast("Write completed"); return true; }
  • 26. Protocol Stack Architecture of Peer-to-Peer Mode
  • 27. Analog and digital protocols are lower layer protocols . LLCP allows the transfer of upper layer information units between two NFC devices . Protocol bindings provide standard bindings to NFC Forum protocols and allow interoperable use of registered protocols.
  • 28. Simple NDEF exchange protocol allows exchange of NDEF messages. It is also possible to run other protocols over the data link layer provided by LLCP. Applications may run over the simple NDEF exchange protocol, other protocols, or NFC Forum protocols. Example applications are printing from a camera, business card exchange, and so on.
  • 30. Here NFC enabled mobile phone acts as a smart card. User touches the mobile phone to an NFC reader. The NFC reader initiates the communication. NFC mobile behaves like a standard smart card. NFC reader interacts with the payment applications on the Secure Element. Only card emulation mode uses SE efficiently and securely to perform functions that require high security.
  • 31. APPLICATIONS OF NFC 1) Touch and go Applications such as access control, where the user needs only to bring the device storing the ticket or access code close to the reader. A person gathering info about a movie using his NFC enabled Mobile Phone
  • 32. 2) Touch and Confirm Applications such as mobile payment where the user has to confirm the interaction by entering a password or just accepting the transaction.
  • 33. 3) Touch and Connect Linking two NFC-enabled devices to enable peer to peer transfer of data. 4) A latest development is that NFC can be used to configure Wi-Fi networks through mobile devices.
  • 34. Security Concerns with NFC Technology Eavesdropping  Data Corruption and Manipulation Interception Attacks Theft
  • 35. COUNTER MEASURES Use secure channel (only the authorized device could decode the encrypted information).  Some NFC devices “listen” for data corruption attacks and prevent them before they have a chance to get up and running. Use Active – Passive modes with encrypted keys Keeping phone’s password protected.
  • 36. ADVANTAGES OF NFC High convenience to the user. Reduces cost of electronic issuance . Secure communication. No manual configuration and settings. No search and pair procedure. NFC can be used together with existing technologies like Bluetooth and thus act for longer range also. NFC uses are practically limitless.
  • 37. DISADVANTAGES OF NFC The system has the limitation that it can be operated only with devices under a short range i.e. around 10 cm. The data transfer rate is very less at about 106kbps, 212 kbps and 424kbps. Eavesdropping Data Corruption and Manipulation Theft
  • 38. SOME DEVICES USING NFC TECHNOLOGY
  • 39. Future Aspects Vehicle Ignition A NFC enabled vehicle can be unlocked and started just by tapping the User’s NFC device onto the vehicle, thus removing the need of keys.  Can find the health of vehicle by using specific apps Unlocking Door Smart keyless doors can be made by implementing NFC technology into doors, where a single tap of the device onto the door would unlock it
  • 40. Conclusion NFC is implemented in most handheld devices now a days.  The advancements in mobile wireless technology and communication standards have enabled usage of contactless and NFC based payment models. The mobile wallet based payment model is gaining considerable momentum and is currently being seen as one of the key payment model. The mobile wallet technology enables the end-users to make payments with their mobile wallet accounts, without having to use credit or debit cards.
  • 41. REFERENCES http://www.nfc-forum.org http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Near_field_communication http://www.nfccommunication.org http://apcmag.com/inside-nfc-how-near-field-communication-works.html http://www.mobilecommercepress.com Google. "Google Wallet: How it Works." (Jan. 28, 2012) http://www.google.com/wallet/how-it-works.html#in-store Kessler, Sarah. "NFC Technology: 6 Ways it Could Change Our Daily Lives " Mash able “ . May 6, 2010. (Feb. 6, 2012) http://mashable.com/2010/05/06/near-field-communication/