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  1. 1. TETRA Quick Guide Press Backgrounder September 2004 What is TETRA? TETRA is an abbreviation of TErrestrial Trunked RAdio. It is the only official European Standard for digital Professional Mobile Radio (PMR). Accordingly, TETRA is a global standard for radio communication in the same way that GSM is the mobile telephony standard. TETRA was developed to meet the needs of the most demanding professional radio users who need fast one- to-one and one-to-many radio communication using voice and data in their daily work. Users are typically public safety and security organisations like police, fire and rescue forces, ambulance services, frontier guards and other professional cellular users like transportation companies, courier services, energy utilities, airports and so on. Most TETRA networks for public safety and security (PSS) users such as police, fire and rescue services are government owned. Other networks are either privately owned or run by network operators who invest in the network and sell communications services to private companies and government agencies. Terrestrial Trunked Radio (TETRA) standard Professional Mobile Radio communications have been in use for much longer than cellular telephony and thus the equipment base has not been extensively standardised, as is the case with GSM telephony. Digital technologies are now creating a discontinuity in the marketplace and to reverse this process, the TETRA standard was introduced as the first truly open system standard for digital PMR. TETRA was developed by the European Telecommunications Standards Institute (ETSI) and has been rapidly adopted on other continents from the Americas to the Far East. The TETRA standard has created an open, multi-vendor market with several competing suppliers producing compatible equipment. Even though the TETRA standard is now ready and equipment is being delivered, standardisation work continues to enhance the capability with high speed Internet access and other leading edge developments in mobile communications. Data services complement the voice services TETRA is a unique combination of group voice communications (one-to-many), mobile telephony and mobile data services accessible from one radio device. TETRA supports short data and status messaging, as well as Internet Protocol for packet data services. TETRA also supports generic and tailored data applications for each user organisation, such as command & control systems, automatic vehicle location, database queries, reporting, professional WAP solutions,image transfer and many more. 1 © Nokia 2004 TETRAQuickGuide.doc
  2. 2. TETRA Quick Guide Press Backgrounder September 2004 Communications that organisations can depend on Public Safety and Security organisations require the highest levels of reliability and availability in their communications. PMR networks provide communications in extreme situations that may cause other communications networks to fail. For example, thunderstorms or earthquakes often cause wide area or even nationwide blackouts in electricity production and distribution and restoring power may take days or even weeks. In such conditions, public services are typically blocked by heavy traffic or are totally out of operation. PMR systems are designed to ensure operations in these situations. All critical network elements are duplicated to ensure continuous operation. User and call priorities are designed to give priority to critical communication. Reliability is a key criterion in the design of PMR radios. These can be used in harsh environmental conditions and are much more rugged than cellular handsets. PMR radios also allow so-called direct mode (DMO) or radio-to-radio (walkie-talkie) operation outside the network’s normal coverage area. From small private networks to nationwide multi multi-agency networks Like cellular networks, PMR networks use base stations connected to mobile exchanges. PMR networks can be divided into three main categories: private networks, commercial PMR networks and public safety and security networks. Public safety and security networks are typically nationwide networks providing PMR communications for police, frontier guard, fire, ambulance and other emergency services. These networks are typically financed from public funds. Nationwide networks consist of tens of switches and hundreds or thousands of base stations. It is crucial that the entire network functions seamlessly from border to border. Commercial networks are often also called Professional Cellular networks, because their operating philosophy is similar to commercial cellular networks like GSM. The operator invests in the network and sells the PMR service to professional firms like transportation, taxi and bus companies, security services, courier companies and similar organisations. Professional Cellular networks typically offer nationwide coverage. Private networks are owned and often operated by the organisations themselves. These networks may be relatively small, consisting of a minimal number of TETRA switches (normally only one) and a few base stations covering a limited geographical area like an industrial plant. However, they can also extend over thousands of square kilometres, for example oil fields or for power companies and will require more network elements. Global market As the adoption of the TETRA standard expands from Europe to other continents both east and west, the market potential grows accordingly. The biggest network deployments to date have been under-taken by European Public Safety and Security organisations, which are planning nationwide shared networks to cover 2 © Nokia 2004 TETRAQuickGuide.doc
  3. 3. TETRA Quick Guide Press Backgrounder September 2004 most of Western and Central Europe, and commercial network operators building radio network coverage to sell services to mobile business workforces. Vital for this development is the European harmonisation of TETRA radio spectrum that was completed in cooperation with NATO. In Europe the frequency band 380-400 MHz is reserved for TETRA for public safety and security use. The 410-430 MHz band is reserved for TETRA for commercial PMR use. Outside Europe the 800 MHz band has become a dominant frequency band for TETRA. The biggest network projects are today located in Belgium, Finland (nationwide coverage installed and in operation), Spain, France,, Germany, Ireland, the Netherlands, Norway and Hong Kong, with others to follow. Several system suppliers such as Nokia, Motorola, Marconi, Siemens and Rohde & Schwarz are providing TETRA network equipment and radios. A test programme initiated and facilitated by the TETRA Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) Association ensures compatibility between these manufacturers’ equipment. TETRA MoU has almost 200 member organisations. TETRA is a true multi-vendor market with a global PMR standard both in the public safety and the commercial segments. Further information can be found from the TETRA MoU website www.tetramou.com and HTU UTH www.nokia.com/tetra U U 3 © Nokia 2004 TETRAQuickGuide.doc
  4. 4. TETRA Quick Guide Press Backgrounder September 2004 Why TETRA? The main reason for adopting PMR services is their special functions, such as group calls (one-to-many), advanced group configuration, instant communications without call set-up delay and maximum security. Another specialised service is dispatching which helps an organisation manage its field operations and related communications. For public safety organisations security is fundamental and requires authentication of the network’s users as well as encryption of voice and data communication. For many organisations, being able to control network resources is crucial. Furthermore, PMR services cost less than other communications. TETRA has been developed specifically to meet these PMR requirements. The TETRA standard offers the best technological basis for the construction of public safety systems Further information on TETRA technology and the Nokia TETRA solutions are available in: www.tetramou.com HTU UTH www.nokia.com/tetra U U 4 © Nokia 2004 TETRAQuickGuide.doc
  5. 5. TETRA Quick Guide Press Backgrounder September 2004 The Nokia TETRA Solution The Nokia TETRA Solution combines all the technology benefits of the TETRA standard with tremendous ease of use and high performance. Nokia TETRA is based on our leading know-how and experience of digital mobile communications. The Nokia TETRA Solution encompasses all the necessary network infrastructure equipment for switching, base stations, dispatching and network management - all fully supported by a wide range of customer services. Nokia’s innovative handheld and mobile TETRA radios offer functions that exceed the needs of different user groups. Future-proof technology Nokia is a world-leading supplier of TETRA systems and has supplied the majority of today’s operational TETRA networks. Nokia TETRA architecture ensures that the system can be readily updated to meet future needs. The Nokia TETRA System implements IP data and voice services in an architecture that is similar to that of GPRS and 3G cellular networks. The Nokia TETRA system also uses a fully scalable and distributed IP architecture which provides IP packet data and applications connectivity, dispatching data workstation architecture and interfaces, TETRA specific user/group configuration and real-time user tracking as well as distributed network management. This is achieved because system functions are implemented by software, enabling new developments and enhancements to be easily introduced without disturbing the network. From dedicated networks to shared networks In the past, PMR users have built their own networks, designed to suit their own needs. This resulted in a large variety of overlapping private networks, each with its own frequencies and ways of working. The possibilities for cooperation were minimal. This was also an expensive way to build networks. With the latest digital technology, this old way of doing things can be swept away. PMR users can now share a network and benefit from improved services and lower costs without sacrificing their security. 5 © Nokia 2004 TETRAQuickGuide.doc
  6. 6. TETRA Quick Guide Press Backgrounder September 2004 From self-provided to service-provided PMR users now have a more financially viable alternative to providing their own radio network. A reliably managed, operator-run network gives users a fast and cost-effective way to access new network services. From proprietary solutions to open standards Until now, digital trunked radio technology was only available as a proprietary solution from specific manufacturers. With the advent of open standards for PMR, users can source their network from many vendors, ensuring greater choice, more cost-effectively and with higher quality. Compatibility between all TETRA vendors is essential for the market success of users, operators and manufacturers. The Nokia TETRA solution is available on all major frequency bands - 380 MHz, 410 MHz and 800 MHz. Services to help build nationwide networks Nokia TETRA products are backed by Nokia Professional Services, which help to ensure fast and efficient roll- out of nationwide networks. Nokia has a proven track record, built up over several years, of building mobile networks around the world. Applications are vital for user organizations and to aid the development of new, advanced services Nokia has introduced its TETRA Wireless Solution Developer Programme (TWISP). This provides the latest technical information and support for third party application developers. Professional WAP over TETRA Wireless Application Protocol (WAP) is the de-facto world standard for presenting and delivering wireless information and telephony services on mobile phones and other wireless terminals. Nokia TETRA supports WAP with two bearers and is superb for accessing critical database information from the field. TETRA digital radio technology not only improves the efficiency of public safety operations, it makes possible entirely new ways of working. Using the Professonal Portal with TETRA enables organisations to introduce dozens or even hundreds of new applications with the minimum of disruption. Nokia Professional Portal provides remote real-time access to mission-critical data and information. Users can access data with TETRA terminals including a WAP browser, as well as via the web and/or WAP browsers in PCs and PDAs. Professional Portal is a highly effective way to offer personalised applications. 6 © Nokia 2004 TETRAQuickGuide.doc
  7. 7. TETRA Quick Guide Press Backgrounder September 2004 Common questions about Professional Mobile Radio (PMR) and TETRA Q1: What does 'trunked radio' mean? A1: In a trunked radio system like TETRA, the radio channels are in a common pool and the TETRA system automatically allocates the radio channels to the radio users at the beginning of each call. The user does not need to know what channel he or she is using. This automatic channel allocation from a common pool is called trunking and systems using this method are called trunked mobile radio systems. Channel allocation with TETRA is far more efficient than in GSM networks, which results in a more cost- effective network. Q2: How does TETRA differ from the conventional radio systems used in the past? A2: TETRA offers some major advantages over conventional radio systems. Ease of use and security: In TETRA, groups are defined in the TETRA users' radios in advance and communication between group members takes place simply by selecting the group with a rotary switch or menu keys and pushing the press-to-talk button on the radio. Only those radio users belonging to the same group hear and can participate in the communication. In a conventional radio system there is no intelligent switching in the network. All users with their radio tuned to the same frequency or channel can hear each other. Users must also agree in advance which channel they use, usually selected with a rotary knob on top of the radio. Hence, there is no call privacy in a conventional radio system. Person-to-person calls: In TETRA, individual calls work the same way as in cellular systems such as GSM. It is easy to make a call direct to another person and call privacy is also achieved. TETRA brings the convenience of conventional cellular telephony and the advantages of radio communications. In a conventional radio system, individual person-to-person private calls are not possible. Higher quality: Unlike analogue based conventional radio systems, TETRA is fully digital, giving better voice quality, more advanced data features and more efficient use of valuable frequency spectrum. Q3: What is a dispatcher? A3: A dispatcher is a person who manages field operations in a PMR network. Typically the dispatcher has a special graphical workstation, which helps to control communications in the field. For example, in a police organisation the dispatcher manages radio communication with the mobile units in the field, gives task orders and instructions and receives information from the field force as either voice or data messages. The graphical dispatcher workstation helps to easily perform the communication and get an overview of each unit’s status in the field. 7 © Nokia 2004 TETRAQuickGuide.doc
  8. 8. TETRA Quick Guide Press Backgrounder September 2004 Nokia offers a complete range of dispatching workstations: from office to mobile dispatching. Q4: Does TETRA use the same base stations and exchanges as GSM? A4: No, TETRA has its own infrastructure such as base stations and exchanges. TETRA has special functions such as group communication, dispatching and almost instant communications set-up time, which GSM cannot offer. In addition, TETRA is designed for ultimate operational reliability in unusual conditions. Q5: What are the key differences between TETRA and Tetrapol? A5: In spite of its name, Tetrapol has nothing to do neither with the TETRA standard nor with TETRA technology. TETRA is an open standard whereas Tetrapol is a proprietary PMR solution supplied by one company only. TETRA is based on Time Division Multiple Access technology whereas Tetrapol uses Frequency Division Multiple Access technology. In general TETRA is more frequency efficient and has more efficient data services than Tetrapol. The benefits of a market based on open standards and multiple vendors are obvious. Q6: Is TETRA a global standard? A6: Yes, TETRA has been recognised as the new digital standard for Professional mobile radio communication almost everywhere in the world. Originally the standard was developed in Europe but it has been quickly adopted in Asia-Pacific, Latin-America, Australia and Africa. Q7: Is TETRA available in the USA or Canada? A7: No, Nokia is currently not licensed to market TETRA radio technology in the USA or Canada. Q8: Has Nokia delivered TETRA Solutions also outside Europe? A8: Yes, Nokia is a major supplier of TETRA systems globally. TETRA has been accepted as an industry standard in China and Nokia has been awarded several contracts on mainland China as well as in Hong Kong.. The Middle East, South-East Asia and Latin America are other growing TETRA markets for Nokia. See the latest Nokia TETRA references at: www.nokia.com/networks/references U U 8 © Nokia 2004 TETRAQuickGuide.doc
  9. 9. TETRA Quick Guide Press Backgrounder September 2004 TETRA Glossary AI - Air interface, the transmission media between a base IP - Internet Protocol. station and an end user terminal ISI - Inter System Interface, the interface to connect TETRA All IP - IP based cellular access and core network, where all networks together enabling end user terminal operation in services (voice, data, multimedia) are carried over an IP more than one network. connection from the cellular terminal to an IP server or another IP capable cellular terminal. Current mobile LMR - Land Mobile Radio, also PMR networks carry voice over circuit switched connections, while IP data is emerging with GPRS. Nokia TETRA network PC - Professional Cellular business (see ProCell) uses IP technology extensively in its network architecture and offers IP services for data applications including PMR - Professional Mobile Radio, also LMR Internet and intranet access. ProCell - Professional Cellular API – Application Programming Interface, enables easy integration of external applications with the Nokia TETRA PSS - Public Safety & Security; mainly authorities System TBS - Nokia TETRA Base Station Authentication - method by which the network ensures that TETRA - TErrestial Trunked RAdio the terminal is genuine and specifically belongs to the network in question TETRA MoU - The TETRA Memorandum of Understanding (MoU). The TETRA MoU Association represents organisations CC&B – Customer Care & Billing from all over the world. The TETRA MoU's objective is to DCK encryption - Encryption using Dynamic Cipher Key support and promote the TETRA standard worldwide and to provide a forum to share and exchange information and DMO - Direct Mode Operation i.e. communication directly ideas amongst a wide variety of individuals who share a from radio-to-radio common interest in the success of the standard. DXT - Nokia Digital Exhange for TETRA WAP - Wireless Application Protocol. DWS - Dispatcher Workstation WAP over TETRA - Wireless Application Protocol (WAP) is the de-facto world standard for presenting and delivering ETSI - European Telecommunications Standards Institute wireless information and telephony services on mobile phones and other wireless terminals. Nokia TETRA supports IOP - Interoperability, the ability of end user products to WAP and is superb for accessing critical database function and move between TETRA networks regardless of information from the field. the manufacturer 9 © Nokia 2004 TETRAQuickGuide.doc