Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.

Laqu9107 (1) (2) (1) (1)

383 views

Published on

xx

Published in: Business
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

Laqu9107 (1) (2) (1) (1)

  1. 1. WORK GROUPS, TEAMS, CONFLICT AND NEGOTIATION: THEORIES AND MODELS Persuasive Report
  2. 2. Table of Contents Introduction..................................................................................................................................... 2 Work Groups and Teams Identification.......................................................................................... 2 Conflict and negotiations Identification.......................................................................................... 5 Analyzing relationship between work groups and teams, conflict and negotiations...................... 7 Evaluating impact of work groups and teams on organization culture........................................... 8 Evaluating impact of conflict and negotiations on organization culture ...................................... 10 Conclusion .................................................................................................................................... 11 References..................................................................................................................................... 13 Appendix....................................................................................................................................... 18
  3. 3. Introduction This persuasive essay has been based on analyzing the nature of working groups, teams, conflict and negotiation in an organization. Work groups and teams identification will be provided by the model of Wilfred given on group experiences with respect to Bruce Tuckman model. The development stages by Scott Peck will be explained as a model to understand group and team experiences. Furthermore, conflict and negotiations section will be explained by understanding the relationship between them in order to analyze their influence on groups and teams. Then focus will be laid on understanding the influence of work groups and teams on organization culture with respect to influence on groups and teams in the management of employees (Elden 2011). Critical analysis of each of these models using real examples will be done in order to understand the true relationship of each of these attributes with regard to organization culture and its structure in the globalized world. Work Groups and Teams Identification Defining Work groups: According to Schein, work groups are employees of an organization working in aggregation to each other with a focus on individual goals. Defining teams: Teams on the other hand are defined as members of organization grouped together to focus on shared belief and goal. Teams often fail in organizations and those organizations implementing teams in their work places require to have a balanced perception on team benefits and its limitations (Cotton 2005). Analyzing the term “Teams” According to Robinson, 1994 and Thamhain, 1988, a team can be defined as an aggregate of people but every group does not get qualified to be known as a team (Robinson et al 1994). As per Katzenbach and Smith, 1994, however a team is a group of people consisting of varied skills having an aim at a general purpose, goals of performance and general approach to which each member is accountable in a mutual manner (Katzenbach and Smith, 1994). Working in team, as per Thamhain, 2004 is a process involving symbiotic relationship that leads towards enhanced results that is even more than the individual performance integration.(Thamhain, 2004) As per Bailey et al 2000, however,
  4. 4. effective teams are those which produce results of high quality even in adverse conditions (Bailey et al 2000).. Task oriented and characteristics such as oriented by people are only some of the features of an effective team (Bailey et al 2000). From this perspective, it becomes important to analyze team with the help of certain models such as Bruce Tuckman model of change (Cordery et al 2011). This model was known as the model of 4 stages designed to study the decision making process in ideal groups which requires to occur in the form of 4 designed stages (Elmuti 2013). (Figure 1: Tuckman’s model of 4 stages: Work Group) (Source: (Elden 2011)) Tuckman's (1965) group improvement model attracts regard for unique periods of gathering change and advancement normally alluded to as the forming, storming, norming and performing stages. Tuckman (1965) accepts the group advancement procedure can be sub-cognizant however in the event that the gathering is mindful of the stages then the group can be more powerful all the more quickly. This snappier additional execution is quite compelling in task administration. Pioneers ought to have the capacity to distinguish the cycle of their group to know when it is prone to be the most astounding performing and additionally when it will have a tendency to need inspiration. The forming stage includes distinguishing the undertaking and finishing it. The gathering accumulates data about the errands and other colleagues. There is exchange on the standard authoritative methodologies and individuals are concerned with schedules and hierarchical issues. Tuckman (1965) does not accept that there is much errand
  5. 5. achievement at this stage, so maybe not the best stage for a task administration group to wait in. As the group propels into the storming stage, the gathering parts contend among themselves, whether they concur or not on the quick errands to be performed. There is dissension, strain and powerplays. These stages according to Tuckman were inclusive of forming, storming, norming and performing as described in the above figure (Elloy et al 2010). The model explains that as development in a team takes place, it moves towards maturity, attains enhanced capabilities, establishes relationships and several leadership style changes take place (Dion 2009). This is the time in team’s development stage when a successor leader may be produced by a team and the leaders previously made can move towards development of another new team (Cotton 2005). Stage 1 is forming where there is high dependence of the team on leaders and there is less agreement on the goals of the team when not suggested by the leader (Costa 2010). There is also no clear idea about team roles and responsibilities. A lot of doubts in team members exist which the leader needs to address without ignoring processes. The second stage is storming wherein decision making begins but making decisions is difficult. This is also the stage when conflicts arise and the leader needs to clarify every question imposed by the team members in order to prevent conflicts from growing. Compromising should be kept as a priority by coaching being given by the leader (Devine 2010). Stage 3 is norming wherein agreement begins to form and leader facilitation is enhanced. Individual team members acknowledge their roles and responsibilities due to which conflict does not arise. Performing is the fourth stage where teams are aware strategically and have knowledge of what they further need to do. There is a shared vision of the team members and they do not require consistent supervision of the leader. Adjourning is the 5th stage of the model wherein team break-up takes place when successful completion of team task has been attained (Idrissou et al 2011a). The leadership style in this stage is empathetic. Insecurity is a common feeling amongst team members in this stage leading towards anxiety and anger which may often become conflict.
  6. 6. Analyzing work groups According to Scott Peck, on the contrary to Tuckman’s model, is the development model of groups. A group with several strangers aggregated together for creating a group has to be face 3 different phases (Idrissou et al 2011a). The first phase is pseudo-community wherein the important dynamic lies in avoidance of conflict. Group members are in harmony to each other and try to avoid any conflict. Group members deliberately try to behave as good as possible to let everything function in a smooth manner. The stage can be characterized by generalization and platitudes (Bonito et al 2002). Chaos is the second phase of this model where the individual differences slightly start to emerge. Further in the stage the group moves into conflict of deliberate nature in order to show superiority of one group member over the other. Members in this phase often blame the leader and try to get him or her replaced. Emptiness is the third phase and it is only by this phase that a group can finally move to its final phase of forming a true group (Craps et al 2004). Conflict and negotiations Identification According to Gray et al, 2007, Conflict is defined traditionally as the incompatible activity perception between work groups with regard to aims, perceptions and beliefs which can cause a barrier towards effective goal achievement (Grey et al, 2007). The basis of conflict (as cited in Bonito et al 2002) is on interaction. Putnam, 1985, led towards delineating conflict management to be termed as negotiation characterized through exchanging proposals or counterproposals as a way to reach a settlement which satisfies the work groups and involved teams (Bailey 2007). Conflict involves different perceptions according to Lewitt et al 2010 which are inclusive of traditional perception, human relations and conflicting interactionist views (Craps et al 2004). According to Figure 2, Conflict Resolution stages by negotiation are not only essential for an organization but also for individual members in a team or a group. The figure clearly illustrates that there are 5 stages by which conflict can be resolved. However, there are five stages of conflict itself (Bonito et al, 2002). The first stage is the latent stage where people can be under conflict without knowing that they are.
  7. 7. (Figure 2: Conflict Resolution Stages by Negotiation) (Source: (Davis et al 2011)) There comes a point, often after a stalemate is reached, where the parties decide to try negotiation to attempt to resolve the conflict. The process of initiating negotiation can be difficult as it may be interpreted as a sign of weakness. This is one reason why it is often useful for third parties to become involved. The timing of this step is crucial. Resolution can only be achieved if the parties are willing to negotiation. In order for the conditions to be ripe, there must be both a perception on all sides that the present course is unsustainable, and a perception that there is a suitable "way out" of the conflict. In some instances, participants realize their course of action cannot succeed and they initiate discussion. At other times, outside interveners may bring the parties to the negotiating table. The timing is critical however, because if negotiation is started too early, before both parties are ready, it is likely to fail. And repeated failed negotiation efforts reinforce the notion that the conflict is intractable and can make resolution more difficult by discouraging further efforts. Negotiation may lead to a settlement, but may also simply lead to a pause in the conflict. If the latter, there is a relatively good chance the conflict may cycle back to escalation at a later time.
  8. 8. Negotiations generally go through a series of stages: each group decides on its position; determines its alternatives. Once together with the other party, they share their positions, consider options, exchange concessions, perhaps reach an accord, and implement it. A number of theories have emerged to understand negotiating tactics, their strengths and weaknesses, as well as how to respond to them. Generally speaking, negotiations are complex, drawn-out processes and a broad range of factors make each somewhat unique. Their shape depends upon the procedures that have become institutionalized, the number of parties and number of representatives present, the scope of issues under discussion, the degree to which it is part of a broader framework of negotiations, and the extent to which they are taking place in the public eye. Example: An employee from customer care department wrongly acknowledges the complaint of a client. This is still not known to the customer nor the manager and the conflict has not arisen still but it will (Davis et al 2011). The second stage is the perceived stage of conflict. Felt stage is the third stage after which are the stages namely, manifestation and aftermath. As per figure 2, the first stage to resolve conflict is to analyze first the condition and situation (Bodtker et al, 1997). The second stage lies in cognition and personalization. The third, fourth and fifth stages are connected to each other and without the completion of third, the fourth and fifth stages cannot follow because at the third stage the initial conflict barriers are removed. Analyzing relationship betweenwork groups and teams, conflict and negotiations According to Putnam and Roloff, negotiation takes place when more than one parties interdependently perceive the goals of work groups to be incompatible (Aarts et al 2013). This leads towards the requirement to negotiate in the situation to reach a mutual satisfaction perception. Fisher et al, 1991 (as cited in Baron et al 2006), describe negotiation to be characterized through interdependence which exists at the time of conflict between two or more
  9. 9. than two parties as these parties essentially require to work cooperatively even though they are fighting to meet different ends (Bean et al 2006). O Hair et al, 2010, however presented in their research that there exists a relationship between negotiation and communication to solve conflicts between work groups and teams (Bijlsma et al 2011). With proper planning and communication in a structured manner, it becomes possible to negotiate (Lewicki et al 2011). However, according to Lee et al, 2005, work group’s influences in effective management of employees which was proved by using dominant patterns of behavior, work group’s dynamics and elaborate conflicts leading towards adverse impact on the organization culture (Andisani 2008). The impact of work teams and groups works is either adverse or positive, depending upon the manner in which teams are managed effectively within organization cultures. Empirical evidences have helped in supporting the relationship existing between conflicts and productivity of team along with team satisfaction but (Banker et al 1996), these conflicts cannot be resulted into effective management of employees unless negotiation process is made applicable (Cohen 2004). The relationship between work group and conflict as described by the researchers of Columbian University states that work groups have group dynamics involved in them but without effective management of these work groups and team works, conflict is bound to exist (Carron et al 2003). Evaluating impact of work groups and teams on organizationculture Most issues in work places arise not because employees do not have the capability of performing their work appropriately but because employees in work groups and teams often cannot get along with other employees (Caron et al 2010). This is the main impact of work groups and teams on effective management of employees within an organization culture. Teams and work groups are often diversified in nature and employees react differently to this diversification. Experiences of life and culture are two factors that in turn influence work groups and teams and these two factors are actually responsible for the reaction of each member in the group and team (Argyris 2007). The problem of diversity is a significant one and this has also been explained with the help of a conceptual problem.
  10. 10. According to Kozlowski and Klein, 2000, an impact of conceptual problem is faced by groups and teams working together to achieve a goal. This impact is negative in nature and it affects the performance and productivity of group members and team members. Additionally, Kozlowski et al, 2000 it has been clearly stated that coordination lacking between members of team mostly leads towards team failures and inefficient management of team. In addition, there is a significant impact of team work and group work on the way in which team members and group members are managed effectively (Bailey et al 2000). When working in a team, members in a team can have various perceptions, some team members may work more while others don’t work at all and in some situations team work may often take more time (Bailey et al 2000). These are some barriers imposed by working in teams and groups on effective team member or group member management (Aarts et al 2013). (Figure 5: Team effectiveness model) (Source: Caron et al 2010) The Figure 5 represents team effectiveness model wherein it is clearly evident that within the competitive environment of an organization, design and processes allocated to a team are the basics that lead towards finally effectiveness in team management (Andisani 2008). This model helps in analyzing the basic elements such as enhanced systems of communication and proper
  11. 11. style of leadership can be implemented as per the size and composition of a team by developing and norming the team for effective management (Caron et al 2010). An example here can be quoted here of Apple which has been known across the world in all competitive realms to be a culture mediator as the organization has been founded on strong beliefs, set of patterns, responsibilities and values (Carron et al 2010). In this globalized world, the requirement is to avoid cultural clash because teams and work groups are formulated of diverse backgrounds and cultures (Asah et al 2012). Apple on the contrary has managed to imbibe the cultural perspective in the minds of its members that it is important to focus on a shared goal (Andisani 2008). When teams and work groups conflict with each other at Apple, a negotiation process is implemented such as arbitration or mediation which are both third party models of negotiation to manage conflict. Evaluating impact of conflict and negotiations on organizationculture The impact of Conflict and negotiation is evident on the process of effective employee management (Argyris 2007). This influence is caused by the conflicting interests of team members and group members that does not allow the group or team to produce something positive to reach to the goal oriented (Van Paassen 2011b). The first impact of conflict on effective management of employees is deteriorated performance of employees. However, conflict and negotiation are both processes that do slow the general functions of an organization (Van Paassen 2011b). The relationship between conflict and negotiation is evident from this perspective but this relationship adversely affects management of diverse employees because members of the groups as well as the teams have a tendency to fall into conflict when cultural diversity is present (Bijlsma et al, 2011). In such a situation, it is the duty of a leader to negotiate the conflict and resolve it. Negotiation on the other hand, impacts management of employees by distracting their focus from organizational goals and their individual goals. Negotiation from the perspective of Thibaut and Walker, 1975 paradigm, can be best done by adopting mediation and arbitration as third party processes of Negotiation (Van Paassen 2011b). An example here can be of Enron when the company was only a company dealing with pipelines and it mainly lost the contract of setting up itself in India because authorities in the local environment of India felt that the organization is trying the fasten up the negotiation process (Hamilton et al 2010).
  12. 12. Conclusion Individual members of organizations that are either working without work group collaboration of team work, all involve different perspectives and beliefs but when working under the same organization, culture of an organization often influences the way in which people think, believe and respond (Drucker 2008). As evident from the perspective of this persuasive report, there exists an evident relationship between culture of an organization with attributes such as discussed i.e work groups and teams, conflict and negotiation (Francois et al 2007). Work groups and teams are different to each other even though they are often used interchangeably (Andrisani 2008). In a working group, each member works on their shared visions and goals rather than working to achieve individual goals whereas in a team work, the focus of individual members is on their goals and objectives. Conflict and negotiation on the other hand are both related to group work and team work (Applebaum 2014) (Bean et al 2006). The influence of working groups and team work is evidently seen as positive as well as negative (Antoni 2010). When members in a team or a group are not managed effectively then it leads towards development of conflict which not only hampers the productivity of a team but also an organization on the whole. Groups ought to be perceived and coordinated inside their associations (Pearce & Ravlin 1987). Associations need to unmistakably characterize their desires and instruments of responsibility for all groups (De Meuse & Futrell 1990). Hierarchical society needs to change imparted qualities into behavioral standards (Brill 1976). For instance, group achievement is encouraged by a society that fuses imparted encounters of achievement. In times of financial realism, there may be social clash and conflict between standards of keeping up clinical benchmarks and holding fast to the health awareness association's mission (Firth-Cozens 1998). Colleagues with higher status likewise have less respect for group standards and may intensify inward clash (Kane 1975). Collaboration is a complex sensation. Strong authoritative structures and ideal individual commitments set the scene for compelling collaboration. Health awareness groups require a reasonable reason that fuses particular symptomatic gatherings and parts of patient consideration. At the point when groups have an acceptable reason that is steady with the association's mission, they can be all the more obviously coordinated, backed and resourced. Further, key arranging procedures can elucidate the arrangement of different groups inside human services associations.
  13. 13. Authority styles and examples need to be unequivocal and suitable to the group's formative stage. In a perfect world, the group pioneer ought to be properly gifted and all colleagues require unmistakably outlined and vital parts. Groups are more effective with the base number of parts to meet their motivation and participation ought to be consistently cleared up in light of patient needs. Colleagues should at the same time perceive and esteem their commitment to the group. With sufficient self knowledge, people can trust and admiration the commitments of their partners. Consistent formal and casual contact helps parts to perceive their own and others' commitments to patient consideration. At the point when people feel sure of the requirement for all colleagues, they comprehend the profits of filling in as a group. Over the long haul, duty fortifies compelling cooperation. When groups have created clear structures, they have to keep up express techniques through concurred and formal frameworks of correspondence and co-appointment. Predictable training and backing for group building and improvement ought to be available for all social insurance specialists. At the point when all colleagues are strong, make choices mutually and oversee clash, the group is more powerful. Both people and the group need standard criticism and distinguishment of their advancement towards the group's objectives. At last, there is a need to manufacture and keep up powerful groups to amplify the master abilities of social insurance experts in gathering complex patient needs. Group advancement and execution can be advanced through training if there is learning of the most essential attributes of cooperation in human services settings. Patient consideration will at last be upgraded through the co-ordinated endeavors of compelling health awareness groups. Robinson, G., & Robinson, S., 1994, Notes and handouts for project management course sponsored by the School of Engineering Science and presented by the department of Continuing Studies, Simon Fraser University, pp.6-14. Thamhain, H.J., 2004, Linkages of project environment to team performance: Lessons for team leadership. International Journal of Project Management, 22(7), pp 533-544.
  14. 14. References 1. Aarts, N., Vodouhe, S., & Leeuwis, C., 2013, Trust and hidden conflict in participatory natural resources management: The case of the Pendjari national park (PNP) in Benin. Forest Policy and Economics. 27, 65-74. 2. Asah, S. T., Bengston, D. N., Wendt, K., & Nelson, K. C., 2012, Diagnostic reframing of intractable environmental problems: case of a contested multiparty public land-use Conflict, Journal of Environmental Management, 108, 108-119. 3. Argyris, C., 2007, Personality and organization: The conflict between system and the individual. New York: Harper and Row. 4. Andrisani, P. J., 2008, Work attitudes and labor market experience: Evidence from the national longitudinal surveys. New York: Praeger. 5. Antoni, C. H., 2010, Social and economic effects of introducing semi-autonomous work groups. Zeitschrift fur Arbeits and Und Organisationspsychologie, 41(3), 131-142. 6. Applebaum, E. & Batt, R., 2014, The new American workplace: Transforming work systems in the United States. Ithaca, NY: Cornel ILR Press. 7. Bailey, T., Berg, P., and Kalleberg, A., 2000, Manufacturing advantage: Why higher performance work systems pay off. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press. 8. Bandura, A., 2012, Self-efficacy mechanism in human agency, The American Psychologist, 37(2), 122-147 9. Banker, R. D., Field, J. M., Schroeder, R. G., & Sinha, K. K. (1996). Impact of work teams on manufacturing performance. Academy of Management Journal, 29(4), 867-890. 10. Baron, R. M. & Kenny, D. A., 2006, The moderator-mediator variable distinction in social psychological research: Conceptual, strategic and statistical considerations. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 51, 1173-1182. 11. Bean, C. J., & Hamilton, F. E., 2006, Leader framing and follower sense making: Response to downsizing in the brave new workplace. Human Relations, 59 (3), 321-349.
  15. 15. 12. Bijlsma, R. M., Bots, P. W. G., Wolters, H. A., & Hoekstra, A.Y., 2011, An empirical analysis of stakeholders' influence on policy development: The role of uncertainty handling. Ecology and Society, 16 (1), 51. [online] URL: http://www.ecologyandsociety.org/vol16/iss1/art51/ 13. Bodtker, A. M., & Jameson, J. K., 1997, Mediation as mutual influence: Reexamining the use of framing and reframing. Mediation Quarterly, 14 (3), 237–249. 14. Bonito, J. A., & Sanders, R. E., 2002, Speakers' footing in a collaborative writing task: A resource for addressing disagreement while avoiding conflict. Research on Language and Social Interaction, 35 (4), 481-514. 15. Bailey, D. E., 2007, What makes teams work: Group effectiveness research from the shop floor to the executive suite, Journal of Management, 23(3), 239-290. 16. Brill NI 1976, Teamwork: Working Together in the Human Services, JB Lippincott, Philadelphia. 17. Craps, M., & Dercon, G., 2004, How issues get framed and reframed when different communities meet: A multi-level analysis of a collaborative soil conservation initiative in the Ecuadorian Andes. Journal of Community & Applied Social Psychology, 14 (3), 177- 192. 18. Carron, A. V., Brawley, L. R., Eys, M. A., Bray, S., Dorsch, K., Estabrooks, P., Hall, C. R.,Hardy, J., Hausenblas, H., Madison, R., Paskevich, D., & Patterson, M. M., 2003, Do individual perceptions of group cohesion reflect shared beliefs?, Small Group Research, 34(4), 468-496. 19. Cohen, S. G., 2004, Designing effective self-managing work teams. In M. M. Beyerlein and D. A. Johnson, (Eds.), Advances in Interdisciplinary Studies of Work Teams, 1, Greenwick, CT: JIA Press, 103-118. 20. Cordery, J. L., Mueller, W. S., & Smith, L. M., 2011, Attitudinal and behavioral effects of autonomous group working: A longitudinal field study, Academy of Management Journal, 34(2), 464. 21. Costa, C. C., 2010, Work team trust and effectiveness, Personnel Review, 32(5), 605- 423. 22. Cotton, J. L., 2005, Participation's effect on performance and satisfaction, Academy of Management Review, 20(2), 276-278.
  16. 16. 23. Davis, R., and Franks, G., 2011, The Costs of Conflict with Local Communities in the Extractive Industry, Presented at the First International Seminar on Social Responsibility in Mining: Santiago, Chile, Available at: http://www.shiftproject.org/publication/costs- conflict-local-communities-extractive-industry 24. De Meuse KP & Futrell D 1990, ‘Work Teams: Applications and Effectiveness’, American Psychologist, vol 45, no 2, pp 120-133. 25. Dewulf, A., & Bouwen, R., 2012, Issue framing in conversations for change: Discursive interaction strategies for "doing differences". The Journal of Applied Behavioral Science, 48 (2), 168-193. 26. Druckman, D., 2009, Message framing surrounding the Oslo I accords, The Journal of Conflict Resolution, 53 (1), pp 119-145. 27. Drake, L. E., & Donohue, W. A., 1996, Communicative framing theory in conflict resolution. Communication Research, 23 (3), pp 297-322. 28. Donohue, W. A., 2003, The promise of an interaction-based approach to negotiation, International Journal of Conflict Management, 14 (3/4), pp 167-176. 29. Donohue, W. A., 2011, An interactionist approach to frames. In W. A. Donohue, R. G. Rogan & S. Kaufman (Eds.), Framing matters: Perspectives on negotiation research and practice in communication, pp. 34-50, New York: Peter Lang 30. Devine, D. J., 2010, A review and integration of classification systems relevant to teams in organizations. Group Dynamics: Theory, Research and Practice, 6(4), 291-310. 31. Dion, K. L., 2009, Group cohesion: From ìfield of forcesî to multidimensional construct, Group Dynamics: Theory, Research, and Practice, 4(1), 7-26. 32. Dorman, C. & Zapf, D., 2009, Social support, social stressors at work, and depressive symptoms: Testing for main and moderating effects with structural equations in a three wave longitudinal study. Journal of Applied Psychology, 84(6), 874-884. 33. Drucker, P., 2008, The coming of the new organization. Harvard Business Review, 66(1), 45- 53. 34. Elden, M., 2011, Political efficacy at work: The connection between more autonomous forms of workplace organization and a more participatory politics, The American Political Science Review, 75(1), 43-58.
  17. 17. 35. Elloy, D. F., and Terpening, W., 2010, A causal model of burnout among self-managed work team members. Journal of Psychology, 135(3), 321-334. 36. Elmuti, D., 2013, Impact of Internet aided self-managed teams on quality of work-life and performance. Journal of Business Strategies, 20(2), 119. 37. Farrell, A. D., 2004, Structural equation modeling with longitudinal data: strategies for examining group differences and reciprocal relationships. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 62, 3, 477-487. 38. Esacove, A. W., 2004, Dialogic framing: The framing/counter-framing of ‘partial-birth’ abortion. Sociological Inquiry, 74 (1), 70-101. 39. Eys, M. A., Bray, S., Dorsch, K., Estabrooks, P., Hall, C. R.,Hardy, J., Hausenblas, H., Madison, R., Paskevich, D., and Patterson, M. M., 2003, Do individual perceptions of group cohesion reflect shared beliefs?, Small Group Research, 34(4), 468-496. 40. Firth-Cozens J 1998, ‘Celebrating teamwork’, Quality in Health Care, vol 7, supplement, pp S3-S7. 41. François, G., Pahl-Wostl, C., Taillieu, T., 2007, A framing approach to cross disciplinary research collaboration: Experiences from a large-scale research project on adaptive water management. Ecology and Society, 12 (2), 14. [online] URL: http://www.ecologyandsociety.org/vol12/iss2/art14/ 42. Gray B., Putnam, L., & Bouwen, R., 2011a, An interactional approach to framing in conflict and negotiation. In W. A. Donohue, R. G. Rogan & S. Kaufman (Eds.), Framing matters: Perspectives on negotiation research and practice in communication, pp. 7-33, New York: Peter Lang 43. Griffin, M. A., Patterson, M. G., & West, M. A., 2009, Job satisfaction and teamwork: The role of supervisor support. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 22(5), 537-550. 44. Guzzo, R. A. & Dickson, M. W., 2006, Teams in organizations: Recent research on performance and effectiveness. Annual Review of Psychology, 47, 307-338. 45. Hackman, J. R., 2007, The design of work teams. In J. W. Lorsch (Ed.), Handbook of Organizational Behavior, Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall. 46. Hamilton, B. H., Nickerson, J. A., & Owan, H., 2010, Team incentives and worker heterogeneity: An empirical analysis of the impact of teams on productivity and participation. The Journal of Political Economy, 111(3), 465-497.
  18. 18. 47. Harter, J. K., Schmidt, F. L., & Hayes, T. L., 2002, Business-unit-level relationship between employee satisfaction, employee engagement, and business outcomes: A meta- analysis, Journal of Applied Psychology, 87(2), 268-279. 48. Haskins, M. E. & Liedtka, J., 2008, Beyond teams: Toward an ethic of collaboration. Organizational Dynamics, 26(4), 34-51. 49. Hoobler, G. D., 2002, Relational frames and their ethical implications in international negotiation: An analysis based on the Oslo II negotiations, International Negotiation, 7 (2), pp 143-167. 50. Idrissou, L., Aarts, N., van Paassen, A., & Leeuwis, C., 2011a, The discursive construction of conflict in participatory forest management: The case of the Agoua Forest restoration in Benin. Conservation and Society, 9 (2), 119-131. 51. Kane RA 1975, Interprofessional Teamwork, Syracuse University, New York. 52. Kärreman, D., & Alvesson, M., 2001, Making newsmakers: Conversational identity at work. Organization Studies, 22 (1), 59-89. 53. Katzenbach, J.R and Smith, D.K, 1994, The Wisdom of Teams: Creating the High- Performance Organization. HarperBusiness. 54. Mancero, M., Cárdenas, G., & Sucozhañay, D., 2011b, Fragmentation and connection of frames in collaborative water governance: A case study of river catchment management in Southern Ecuador. International Review of Administrative Sciences, 77 (1), pp 50-75. 55. Pearce JA & Ravlin EC 1987, ‘The Design and Activation of Self-Regulating Work Groups’, Human Relations, vol 40, no 11, pp 751-782. 56. Putnam, L. L., Lewicki, R., Aarts, N., Bouwen, R., & Woerkum, van, C., 2009, Disentangling approaches to framing in conflict and negotiation research: A meta- paradigmatic perspective. Human Relations, 62 (2), pp 155-193. 57. Roberto, A. J., 1993, Relational development as negotiated order in hostage negotiation, Human Communication Research, 20 (2), pp 175-198. 58. Thamhain, H.J. (2004). Linkages of project environment to performance: Lessons for team leadership. International Journal of Project Management, 22(7), 533-544. 59. Tuckman, B. (1965). Developmental sequence in small groups. American Psychological Association, Psychological Bulletin, 63(6), pp. 384–399.
  19. 19. 60. Van Paassen, A., 2011b, From cohesion to conflict in participatory forest management: The case of Ouémé Supérieur and N'Dali (OSN) forests in Benin. Forest Policy and Economics, 13 (7), 525-534. 61. Wills, T. A., 2005, Stress, Social Support and the Buffering Hypothesis, Psychological Bulletin, 98(2), 310-357. Appendix Table 1: Models of Negotiation

×