A Minor Project Report
CHHATTISGARH SWAMI VIVEKANAND
UNIVERSITY, BHILAI (C.G.), INDIA
in partial fulfillment
for requirement of degree
Bachelor of Engineering
Electronics & Telecommunication Engineering
DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS & TELECOMMUNICATION
RSR RUNGTA COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY,
Kohka, Kurud Road, Bhilai.
Submission Date: 14/11/2014
CERTIFICATE OF SUPERVISOR
This is to certify that the report of the minor project work submitted entitled
“DEVELOPMENT BOARD” carried out by DEEPA BHATIA bearing Roll No. :
3292811023 Enrollment No. AJ8501 carried out under my guidance and supervision
for the award of Degree in Bachelor of Engineering in Electronics &
Telecommunication of Chhattisgarh Swami Vivekananda Technical University, Bhilai
To the best of my knowledge the report
i) Embodies the work of the candidate herself/himself,
ii) Has duly been completed,
iii) Fulfills the requirem.ent of the Ordinance relating to the BE degree of the
iv) Is up to the desired standard for the purpose of which is submitted.
Mr. C.H Kranthi Kiran Mr. Satya Prakash Singh Bisen
Assistant Professor Assistant Professor
HOD ,ET&T,RSR RCET ET&T,RSR RCET
Forwarded to Chhattisgarh Swami Vivekananda University
Dr. P.S. Bokare
RSR RCET, BHILAI (C.G.)
CERTIFICATE BYTHE EXAMINER
This is to certify that the minor project work entitled “DEVELOPMENT BOARD”
Submitted by DEEPA BHATIA bearing Roll No. 3292811023 Enrollment No.
AJ8501 has been examined by the undersigned as a part the examination for the
award of Bachelor of Engineering degree in Electronics & Telecommunication of
Chhattisgarh Swami Vivekananda Technical University, Bhilai(C.G.),India.
Internal examiner External examiner
A formal statement of acknowledgment is hardly sufficient to express my
gratitude towards the personalities who have helped me to undertake and
complete this project.
Project in an organization like RSRRCET which is fuelled by the individuals
with so much zest and energy, “teaming” up to form a formidable force, was
in itself a true learning experience which is going to help me immensely in my
I hereby convey my thanks to all those who have rendered their valuable help,
support and guidance.
I am also thankful to Mr. Satya Prakash Singh Bisen, Assistant Professor for
the valuable help gave to gather the insight knowledge which otherwise would
not have been there.
I am highly thankful to Mr. CH Kranthi Kiran, HOD for helping me to
undertake a project in Embedded Systems and providing highly valuable
technical knowledge, constructive criticism and moral support.
Lastly, I bow before the almighty with folded hands.
7th SEM, ET&T
In modern technology most of the Industrial & Commercial applications uses an
embedded system. An embedded system is a system which performs a define works
accurately .Most of the embedded system usually use the microcontrollers to control
various operations. A development board is designed in a Printed Circuit Board
(PCB) having microcontrollers with its minimum circuits & also some peripheral
devices on board which gives various option to practice interfacing with different
modules such as seven segment display, LED & switches relays etc. The main
purpose of design this minor project i.e. Development Board is not only to design
Development Board but also to learn the basic of designing circuits in printed circuit
board (PCB) these enhance the technical skills which is required for an Electronics
engineers such as PCB layout designing using EDA softwares here we use Dip Trace
then after this etching , drilling , soldering testing interfacing and programming.
Firstly we have study about the basic of soldering and how power supply is design.
Which is to provide power supply to microcontrollers & different peripherals on
board. Also an LDR is used in light dependent circuit to sense the light.
The development board consists of different modules has been design and of all the
modules present in a single PCB board which help us to design in major project in
future. I had completed my minor project in given duration of time.
TABLE OF CONTENT
CONTENT PAGE NO.
CERTIFICATE OF SUPERVISIOR i
CERTIFICATE BY EXAMINER ii
LIST OF TABLES vi
LIST OF FIGURES vii
CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION 1
CHAPTER 2 SOLDERING 2
2.1 Introduction 2
2.2 Soldering Equipment 2
2.3 Soldering Technique 3-4
CHAPTER 3 POWER SUPPLY 5
3.1 Introduction 5
3.2 Working of Power Supply 6
CHAPTER 4 LDR CIRCUIT 7
4.1 Introduction 7
4.2 Basic LDR Circuit 7
4.3LDR Circuit Working 8
4.4Application of LDR 9
CHAPTER 5 DIPTRACE 10
5.3 Features 10
5.4 Dip Trace Software 11
A Development Board is a minimum circuit hardware which is designed in a printed
circuit board containing an 8051 microcontroller with some peripherals which can be
interfaced with different circuit. In our own development board we use relay, pull up
resistor, switches, transistors etc. It has the ability to accept and run the supplied
program. Initially technique of soldering should be learned which is done to assemble
the components on PCB.
Firstly we designed Power Supply and LED glowing which give us suppply of 5V and
12V. Power Supply uses a transformer for the supply. I had learned to make circuits
in simple circuit of glowing LDR all these are done in zero PCB board.
To prepare development board firstly we design the circuit PCB layout in the dip
trace software & trace it in a copper or glass PCB then the etching process is done by
dippingthe board in strong acid or moderate i.e FeCl3 to cut into the unprotected parts
of a metal surface to create a design in the metal. Now finally we drill the holes to
solder the required components in it respective positions. Also the used
microcontroller is an Atmel microcontroller AT889S52 .
Soldering was employed as early as 5000 year ago in Mesopotamia. Soldering is
defined as “the joining of metals by a fusion of alloys which have relatively low
melting points”. In other words ,we use a metal that has a low melting point adhere
the surface to be soldering together. Considering the soldering is more like gluing
with molten metal, unlike welding where the base metal actually melted and
combined. Soldering is also a must have skill for all sorts of electrical and electronics
work. It is also a skill that must be taught correctly and develop with practice.
Soldering was historically used to make jewelry item, cooking ware and tools as well
as other uses such as in assembling stained glass.
2.2 SOLDERING EQUIPMENTS
Soldering Iron- The soldering iron of the 15W to 30W range are good for
most electronic printed circuit board work .A soldering iron suited for printed
circuit board should be small tip and low heat capacity.
Fig-2.1 Soldering Iron
Solder:-For most PCB work, a solder with a diameter of 0.75MM to
1.00MM is desirable .Thicker solder maybe used and will allow we to solder
layer joint more quickly.
Flux:-Purpose of flux is to facilitate the soldering process. One of the
obstacle to a successful solder joint is an impurities at the site of joint like
dirt, oil etc. One of the earlier form of flux was char-coal.
2.3 SOLDERING TECHNIQUE
A clean surface is very important if we want a strong , low resistance soldering joint.
All surfaces to be soldered should be cleaned well 3m scotch brite pads are a good
choice as quickly remove surface tarnish but will not abrade the pcb material.If we
have particularly tough deposits on over board, then a fine grade of steel wool is
After the component and board have been cleaned , we are ready to place the
components onto the board. Unless our components ,we will probably not be placing
all the components onto the board and soldering them at once. Most likely we will be
soldering a few components at a time before turning the board over and placing more.
Apply a very small amount of solder to the tip of the iron.This helps conduct the heat
to the component and board ,but it is not the solder that will make up the joint.To heat
the joint we will lay the tip of the iron so that is rests against both the component lead
and the both. If we see the area under the pad starting to bubbled, stop heating and
remove the soldering iron because we are over heating the pad and it is in danger of
APPLY SOLDER TO THE JOINT
Once the component lead and solder pad has heated up, we are ready to apply the
solder .If everything is hot enough, the solder should flow freely around the lead and
pad .We will see the flux melt liquefy as well, bubble around the joint, flow out and
release smoke .Continue to add solder to the joint until the pad is completely coated.
Once the surface of the pad completely coated we can stop adding solder and remove
the soldering iron
INSPECT THE JOINT AND CLEANUP
Once the joint is made we should inspect it. Check the joints, shorts with the adjacent
pads or poor flow. If the joint checks out, now trim the lead use a small set of side
cutter and cut at the top of the solder joint.
TIPS AND TRICKS
Use heat sinks- Heat sinks are must for the leads of sensitive components
such as IC’s and transistors.
Keep the iron tip clean- A clean iron tip means better heat conduction and a
better joint. Keep the tip well tinned.
Double check joints-when assembling complicated circuits, it is good
practice to check joints after soldering them
Solder small parts first-Solder resistors, jumper leads, diodes and any other
small parts before we solder large part like capacitor and transistors. This
makes assembly much easier.
Install sensitive components last-Install CMOS ICs , MOSFETs and other
static sensitive components last to avoid damaging them during assembly of
Virtually every piece of electronic equipment in the world today is powered from
a DC source; this DC source may be either a battery or a power supply. Most
electronic equipment requires not only a DC power source but one that is well
filtered and well regulated as well three types of electronics power conversion
devices in common use today: the AC/DC power supply, the DC/DC convertor
and the DC/AC invertors. The mostly used power supply is AC/DC power
A Power supply is an electronics device that supplies electrical energy to an
electrical load. The primary function of a power supply is to convert one form of
electrical signal to another form and result, power supplies are sometimes
referred to as electric power convertors. Some power supply are discrete, stand
alone devices, whereas other are built into larger devices along with their loads.
Examples of the latter include power supplies found in desktop computers and
consumer electronics devices.
Fig 3.1:- Circuit Diagram of 5V & 12V Power Supply
A 5V & 12V DC is most commonly used. The above circuit shown in the figure,
uses a cheap integrated three-terminal positive regulator LM7805, and LM7812 and
provides high-quality voltage stability and quite enough current to enable the
TABLE -3.1 COMPONENTS USED:-
S.NO COMPONENTS QUANTITY
1. Step down transformer (1A). 1
2. Diodes IN4007 4
3. Capacitors 470µf ,1000µf,10µf 1,1,1
4. Voltage regulator for 12V LM7812 1
5. Voltage regulator For 5V LM780 1
6. Resistor 220Ω 1
7. LED 1
3.2 WORKING OF POWER SUPPLY:-
To provide a usable low voltage are the following conditions:
Reduce the mains ac (alternating current) voltage to lower level.
Convert this lower voltage from ac to dc (direct current)
Regulate the dc output to compensate for varying load(current demand)
Provide protection against excessive input/output voltages.
Fig 3.2- Power Supply
LIGHT DEPENDENT RESISTOR
4.1 . INTRODUCTION
The “light dependent resistor” (LDR) is also known as photoconductor, photo resistor
or photocell. It is a variable resistor whose value decreases with increasing incident
light intensity. Basically LDR of 2 types: - intrinsic and extrinsic LDR.
Basic LDR circuit is used to detect light which is used various application and various
field. There are several method to made LDR circuit like LDR with relay; LDR
without relay; LDR using transistor etc. The simplest method to design LDR circuit is
by using IC 741 opamp and a split circuit. In this circuit split circuit is used to give
supply to opamp of +12v and -12v to operate. This type of LDR circuit is used for
detecting the change in light levels and determining if it is ‘dark’ or ‘light’.
4.2 BASIC LDR CIRCUIT
Basic LDR circuit is used to detect light or change in light level. Basic LDR circuit
consist of op-amp 741 IC ,resistor ,split circuit etc
The LDR circuit designed by using IC 741 is very easy and inexpensive and the result
is satisfactory. The basic LDR circuit need some calibrated because it do not give
accurate measurement of light level. The LDR circuit using op-amp needs +12v and -
12v supply so the split circuit is provided to give supply by power supply designed
Fig-4.2 LDR Circuit With Split Circuit
TABLE 4.1COMPONENTS USED:-
S.NO. COMPONENTS QUANTITY
1 LDR 1
2 Resistor-10kΩ 5
3 Variable Resistor 1
4 Capacitor-10µF 2
5 IC 741 op-amp 1
6 LED 1
4.3 LDR CIRCUIT WORKING:-
Basic LDR circuit consist of Op-amp 741 and a variable resistor, LDR , and LED and
split circuit. The Op-amp is used as comparator whose inverting terminal is parallel
combination of 10k resistor and LDR and non inverting terminal is connected to 10K
resistor and variable resistor. This Op-amp circuit is connected to split circuit for the
supply split circuit consist of 2 resistor, 2 capacitor which split the supply in +12V
and -12V which is connected to 7 and 4 pin of Op-amp and its output pin is connected
to an LED through resistance.
In the circuit, the Op-amp act as a comparator circuit i.e. for the high value of input
on non-inverting and a zero value for both the input obtain a positive saturation and a
high on the inverting input obtain a negative saturation voltage .The output is always
either positive saturation or negative saturation. As the light fall over the LDR its
resistance decreases and a voltage drop created across the resistance R1 of 10K, in the
inverting terminal is kept open and this for a small rise in non-inverting terminal
voltage the output would be at positive saturation and the LED is reversed biased. In
the full darkness the resistance of LDR will be high and the voltage drops the
maximized. Whenever the full voltage drop the LDR the Op-amp can switch to
negative saturation and OFF the LED. Thus the circuit has a high sensitive to light a
small variation in LDR resistance can switch the LED ON
Fig 4.3- LDR Circuit
4.4 APPLICATION OF LDR :-
1. Smoke and fire detector.
2. Camera light meter.
3. Security alarms, for street lamps and clock radio.
4. Light intensity meter, for counting the package moving in the conveyor belt.
Dip Trace is EDA software for creating schematic diagrams and printed circuit
boards. The first version of Dip Trace was released in August, 2004. The latest
version as of July 21, 2014 is Dip Trace version 188.8.131.52. The interface and tutorials
are multi-lingual. In January of 2011, Parallax switched from Eagle to Dip Trace for
developing its printed circuit boards.
Schematic Design Editor
PCB Layout Editor
Shape-Based Auto router
3D PCB Preview, using Wings 3D format
Schematic and PCB Interaction
Advanced Verifications with real-time DRC
Real-Time 3D PCB Preview & STEP Export
Commitment to the future
Multi-sheet and hierarchical schematics
High-speed shape-based auto router
Smart manual routing tools
Wide import / export capabilities
5.4 DIPTRACE SOFTWARE: PCB LAYOUT
PCB Layout is high-level engineering tool for board design with smart manual
routing, shape-based auto router, advanced verification and wide import /
export capabilities. Design requirements are defined by net classes, class-to-
class rules and detailed settings by object types for each class or layer. Dip
Trace features design process with real-time DRC, which reports errors on the
fly before actually making them. Board can be previewed in 3D and exported
for mechanical CAD modeling.
PRINTED CIRCUIT BOARD
Etching is the process of using strong acid or mordant to cut into the unprotected
parts of a metal surface to create a design in intaglio in the metal (the original
process—in modern manufacturing other chemicals may be used on other types of
material). As an intaglio method of printmaking, it is, along with engraving, the
most important technique for old master prints, and remains in wide use today
6.2 STEPS OF PCB ETCHING PROCESS:
Step 1: Design
First we need to design the board using a service like Dip trace or we can even just
use Adobe Illustrator if you know exactly what we want. And remember to flip the
design once you have it complete before you print it out.
Step 2: Print out the design onto the shiny side of the glossy photo
Step 3: Sand the copper plate so there is a rough surface for the
design to stick to when transferred
Starting from this point on we should use surgical gloves to handle the copper plate
and etching solution, this helps avoid getting oils on the copper and chemicals on your
Step 4: Wash the copper with some water and let it dry
Step 6: Run the copper plate with the design face down through a iron
5-7 times until the plate is hot
This step is not as complicated as the title says. Switch on your cloths iron and turn
it to its highest setting. Place the printed paper over the board and start moving the
iron over it for 2-3 minutes. Now drop the board into a mug of water and peel off the
Step 7: After running the plate through iron place the plate into a
cold bath and agitate until the paper floats off
Step 8: Place the PCB into the etching solution and agitate for 25-30
minutes or until all the copper has dissolved around the design
Step 9: Once all the copper is gone rinse it in the water bath, let it
dry and use rubbing alcohol to whip off the ink transferred onto the
Step 10: And now you have a etched PCB board but you still need to
drill the holes
A general purpose 40 pin 8051 development board with onboard 16X2 LCD
support, 4 X general purposes LEDs, 4 X general purposes switches, RS232 Port for
serial interface with computer & other serial devices, reset switch, power status
LED. The board provides port extensions for all ports & also provides an empty hole
for each IO pin Further these board is perfect for learning, testing & development.
The board is compatible with the AT89S51/52, and the P89V51RD2
microcontrollers. The P89V51RD2 allows serial programming and can be
programmed directly with this board through a serial or USB connection without the
need for an external programmer.
7.2 FEATURES OF DEVELOPMENT BOARD
AT89S52 included (AT89S51 and P89V51RD2 also supported)
5V voltage regulator.
Power indicator LED.
MAX232 based TTL to RS232 Adaptor.
9 PIN D Type Female Connector for RS232 Communication.
10 PIN FRC Box Header for In Circuit Programming.
Pull ups on PORT0.
Free Protyping Area.
Fig 7.1- Basic Development Board
7.3 COMPONENTS USED IN BOARD:
A microcontroller is compact ‘microcomputer’ designed to govern the operation of
‘embedded systems’ in motor vehicles, robots, office machines, complex medical
devices, mobile radio transceiver, vending machines, home appliance, and various
other devices. A typical
Fig 7.2- Microcontroller
LCD (LIQUID CRYSTAL DISPLAY):-
An LCD display is specifically manufactured to be used with microcontrollers, which
means that it cannot be activated by standard IC circuits. It is used for displaying
different messages on a miniature liquid crysal display.
The onboard potentiometer below the LCD (labelled as LCD Contrast in the board
overview) controls the contrast of the LCD. Adjust it until the characters on the LCD
appear clearly by rotating the shaft of the potentiometer with a screw driver. The
characters on the LCD will be faint and not visible if the contrast is not set correctly.
The board provides an industry standard RS232 interface circuit which can be
used to connect the board to an external device with serial interface or to a computer
through a serial cable
Fig 7.4- MAX 232
The board by default comes with an onboard crystal oscillator circuit
consisting of a 11.0952 MHz quartz crystal and the required capacitors. If you would
like to use the microcontroller on a different speed, you may replace this crystal with
the crystal of the required frequency. Make sure you replace the capacitors also to
match the crystal you use.
Fig 7.5- Crystal Oscillator
General Purpose Switches
The onboard switches can be used to provide input signals to the
microcontroller. Switch1 -> P0.0, Switch2-> P0.1, Switch3-> P0.2, Switch4-> P0.3.
Every time the switch is pressed a low signal appears at the corresponding switch
LED which at other times has a high signal.
The board provides a reset switch which is connected such that it resets the
microcontroller every time it is pressed. Upon reset, all registers are set to their
default value and the program is executed from the beginning. The Reset switch is
provided in right angled package below the LCD.
External Pull-up Resistors for PORT0
All eight pins of PORT0 are by default connected to Vcc through a resistor of
All IO pins are brought out to male header pins for easy connections with
external circuits. Two parallel empty holes are also provided to each IO pin, which
can be used to solder in wires directly and provide easy expansion. The pin name and
any dual functions of each pin are also printed on the board next to each pin for easy
Programming the P89V51RD2 with the board
If you are using a P89V51RD2, you can program the microcontroller without
any external hardware programmer directly from Flash Magic programming software.
To program theP89V51RD2, the following steps should be followed –
Once the required program to be uploaded is compiled and the hex file is
generated, run Flash Magic and set the parameters on Flash Magic as follows:
Set COM port to the serial port to which the development board is
Connected (usually COM1)
Set Baud Rate to 9600 bps
Set Device to 89V51RD2
Set Interface as None(ISP)
Check “Erase Blocks used by Hex File”
Check “Verify after programming”
Connect the board to the computer using a serial cable.
Apply power to the board. You should see the Green Power LED light up
Select the Hex File to be uploaded on Flash Magic and click on Start
When you get a message indicating you to Reset Device into ISP Mode, reset
the microcontroller by pressing the Reset button on the development board
The Hex file will get uploaded to the microcontroller in a few seconds, after
which we may execute the program by resetting the device again.
Fig 7.6 PCB Layout of Development Board
Fig 7.7-Development Board
On the completion of this project titled “Development Board“we can conclude that we
have acquired much sophisticated knowledge regarding technical skills required for
electronic engineers. The development board can be used to develop any embedded
project based on 8051 microcontroller in a very much efficient way as the board is
having different options to interface various modules with 8051 microcontrollers so
the testing & debugging of hardware & firmware for any 8051 microcontroller based
embedded projects can be done easily on the development board..
The embedded systems which have virtually entered every place of our life, sight
from the time we work out on tread mills to the cases that we drive today. The
possibilities in this field are only in our imagination. Many of the embedded systems
are managed human controllers by some sort of man machine interface for example a
TV screen & a PC interface.
Various projects can be done using development board .we can interface different
modules such as GSM modules, GPS modules etc.Also we can add other peripherals
to extend our development board. By using same method other families of
microcontroller can be implemented such as ARM and PIC controllers for developing
& designing embedded system around the same controllers.
The universal boards result for various applications as follows:
Countdown Timer 7-segment display.
Character Generator Display LCD.
Speed Measurement of the DC Motor.
LED Glows as per the programming.
3. Diptrace tutorial from the software.
4. Muhammad Ali Mazidi, Janice Gillispie Mazidi and Rolin D. McKinlay “The
8051 microcontroller and embedded systems” pearson publication, second