Anthrax ppt deepa

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Anthrax ppt deepa

  1. 1. BACILLUS SPECIES BACILLUS ANTHRAX DEEPA BABIN ASST PROF MICROBIOLOGY TMC Kollam
  2. 2. Anthrax Anthrax is a serious zoonotic disease that can affect most mammals and several species of birds, but is particularly important in herbivores. The word anthrax is derived from a Greek word meaning charcoal or carbuncle. Anthrax, the disease, likely originated 6,000 to 7,000 years ago in Mesopotamia and Egypt, where agricultural civilization was first recorded• Malignant Pustule, Malignant Edema, Woolsorters’ Disease, Ragpickers’ Disease, Maladi Charbon, Splenic Fever
  3. 3. BACILLUS ANTHRAX Morphology• Large, gram-positive, non-motile rod• Two forms – Vegetative, Spore(ENDOSPORES)• Over 1,200 strains• Sheep Blood agar- non-hemolytic colonies with “Medusa head” appearance Center for Food Security and Public Health, Iowa State University, 2011
  4. 4. The Spore• Sporulation requires: – Poor nutrient conditions – Presence of oxygen• Spores – Highly resistant to heat, cold, chemical disinfectants, – Survive for decades – Taken up by host and germinate• Lethal dose 2,500 to 55,000 spores Center for Food Security and Public Health, Iowa State University, 2011
  5. 5. History Sverdlovsk, Russia, 1979• 94 people sick – 64 died ,Soviets blamed contaminated meat• President Yeltsin admits outbreak related to military facility Aum Shinrikyo - Tokyo, 1993 Japanese religious cult “Supreme truth” Attempt at biological terrorism Released anthrax from office building Vaccine strain used No human injuries Center for Food Security and Public Health, Iowa State University, 2011
  6. 6. U.S., 2001 Center for Food Security and Public Health, Iowa State University, 2011
  7. 7. Virulence factors Capsule Toxins 3-Protective antigen (PA), edema factor (EF) & lethal factor (LF)• Capsule- Glycocalyx – Sticky, gelatinous polymer external to cell wall• Made up of D-glutamic acid• Non-toxic on its own• Only encapsulated B. anthracis virulent• Most important role during establishment of disease – Protects against phagocytosis & lysis during vegetative state
  8. 8. 2001-anthrax letter Vellore 1990(epizootic sheeps)INDIA 1990-2001 1990-
  9. 9. Human Transmission• Cutaneous – Contact with infected tissues, wool, hide, soil – Biting flies• Inhalational – Tanning hides, processing wool or bone• Gastrointestinal – Undercooked meat Center for Food Security and Public Health, Iowa State University, 2011
  10. 10. Human Transmission• Textile mills• Wool sorters• Bone processors• Slaughterhouses• Laboratory workers Center for Food Security and Public Health, Iowa State University, 2011
  11. 11. Animal Transmission• Bacteria present in hemorrhagic exudate from mouth, nose, anus• Oxygen exposure – Spores form – Soil contamination• Sporulation does not occur in a closed carcass• Spores viable for decades Center for Food Security and Public Health, Iowa State University, 2011
  12. 12. Mechanism of Infection• Anthrax spores enter body• Germinate & multiple in lymph nodes• PA, EF, LF excreted from bacteria• PA binds to TEM8.• EF and/or LF binds• Complex internalized by endocytosis• Acidification of endosome• Death probably results from high levels of bacteria secreting LF toxins in blood
  13. 13. Cutaneous Anthrax• 95% of all cases globally• Incubation: 2 to 3 days• Spores enter skin through open wound or abrasion• Papule vesicle ulcer black eschar-Malignant pustules• Hide porters disease(dock workers)• Case fatality rate 5 to 20%• Untreated – septicemia and death Center for Food Security and Public Health, Iowa State University, 2011
  14. 14. Day 6Day 2Day 4Day 6Day 6 Day 10 Center for Food Security and Public Health, Iowa State University, 2011
  15. 15. Gastrointestinal Anthrax• Incubation: 2 to 5 days• Severe gastroenteritis common – Consumption of undercooked or contaminated meat• Case fatality rate: 25 to 75% Center for Food Security and Public Health, Iowa State University, 2011
  16. 16. Pulmonary Anthrax-Wool sorters disease• Incubation: 1 to 7 days• Initial phase – Nonspecific (mild fever, malaise)• Second phase – Severe respiratory distress – Hemorrhagic pneumonia, death in 24 to 36 hours• Case fatality: 75 to 90% (untreated) Center for Food Security and Public Health, Iowa State University, 2011
  17. 17. Lab Diagnosis in Humans• Identification of B. anthracis – Blood, skin, secretions• Culture• PCR• Serology – ELISA• Nasal swabs – Screening tool Center for Food Security and Public Health, Iowa State University, 2011
  18. 18. Treatment• Penicillin – Most natural strains susceptible• Additional antibiotic options – Ciprofloxacin • Treatment of choice in 2001 • No strains known to be resistant – Doxycycline• Course of treatment: 60 days Center for Food Security and Public Health, Iowa State University, 2011
  19. 19. Prevention and Control• Humans protected by preventing disease in animals −Veterinary supervision −Trade restrictions• Improved industry standards• Safety practices in laboratories• Post-exposure antibiotic prophylaxis Center for Food Security and Public Health, Iowa State University, 2011
  20. 20. Vaccination• Cell-free filtrate• At risk groups – Veterinarians – Lab workers – Livestock handlers – Military personnel• Immunization series – Five IM injections over 18-week period – Annual booster Center for Food Security and Public Health, Iowa State University, 2011

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