Fake fur is a type of textile fabric fashioned to simulate genuine animal fur. It is known as a pile fabric and is typically made from polymeric fibers that are processed, dyed, and cut to match a specific fur texture and color. First introduced in 1929, advances in polymer technology have tremendously improved fake furquality. Todays fake furs can be nearly indistinguishable from the natural furs they intimate.
Fur is one of the oldest known forms of clothing, and has been worn by men and women for a variety of reasons throughout history. These early attempts at imitation fur were made using hair from the alpaca, a South American mammal.
The true modernfake furs were notdeveloped until themid 1950s, with theintroduction ofacrylic polymers asreplacements foralpaca hair.
Fake furs are known as pile fabrics, which are engineered to have the appearance and warmth of animal furs. They are attached to a backing using various techniques. Although they can never match the characteristics of natural furs, fake furs do have certain advantages over their natural counterparts.
They are also highly resistant to heat, sunlight, soot, and smoke, are strong and resilient, and show good stability during laundering. Since they are thermoplastic polymers, they can be heat set. They resist mildew and are not susceptible to attack from insects. These polymers also have very low moisture absorbency and will dry quickly.
Naturally occurring fabrics are also used to make fake furs and improve the look and feel of the overall garment. These include materials such as silk, wool, and mohair. Cotton or wool, along with polypropylene, are typically used to make the backings to which the fibers are attached. Rayon, a semi synthetic fiber made from cellulose and cotton linters, is used to supplement acrylic and modacrylic fibers on the garment, as are polyester and nylon.
After the fake fur has been produced, the government requires that they are labeled as imitation fur fabrics. These labels are typically sewn in the inside of the garment and must be legible throughout the life of the product. In the final steps of fake fur manufacturing, the garment is put in the appropriate packaging and shipped to distributors.
To ensure the quality of fake fur, manufacturers monitor the product during each phase of production. This process begins with an inspection of the incoming raw materials and continues with the finished fibers that are produced in the polymerization reactions. These fibers are subjected to a battery of physical and chemical tests to show that they meet the specifications previously developed. Some of the characteristics that are tested include pH, appearance, density, and melting point. Other things such as fiber elasticity, resilience, and absorbency can also be tested.
The technology of producing fake furs has improved greatly since the early twentieth century. Future research will focus on developing new fibers and finishes. These polymeric fibers will have improved feel, look, and a lower cost.
The Himachal Pradesh government has started a training centre in this historic town on the banks of the Ravi river. In a bid to revive and preserve the famed Chamba Rumal and to revive its fading style of embroidery.
With the efforts of the government, Chamba Rumals are now available at all the emporia of the Himachal Pradesh government at Shimla, Delhi, Banglore, Chandigarh and Mumbai.
Besides the government, a few NGOs have also come forward to save this traditional art of Chamba. The efforts of the government and the NGOs has generated interest amongst local residents and presently there are about 500 women/girls who are receiving training in embroidery at the government training centre here.
With the efforts of the state governments science and technology department, the Chamba Rumal has now been patented. Earlier the department had got the Kullu shawl and Kangra tea patented.
Though the Chamba Rumal has a very old history but it was in 1884, under the patronage of Raja Umed Singh that this piece of art got a new thrust. Thereafter the traditional needlework on the Chamba Rumal became famous in the country and even abroad.
Some of the best Chamba Rumals can still be seen at the Victoria and Albert Museums in London. One such Rumal at one of the two museums is in the form of a wall hanging which depicts scenes from the Mahabharata.
The craftsperson involved in designing the Rumal usually drew inspiration from mythology, pahari miniatures, ragas and raginis, shrimad bhagwat, royal hunts and raslila, which they brought alive on a coarse piece of cloth with shimmering untwisted threads.
Both sides of the cloth are stitched simultaneously, so that space on both sides is filled up making the design on both faces look equally effective and similar in content, That is why this technique is called Dorukha, Persian for two-faced. Moreover, not a single knot is made in the thread.
The finished piece was fixed in a specially fashioned wooden frame with both sides having glass and moving. Today there is even a dearth of skilled carpenters who can make such beautiful frames.
In the year 1974, a master craftsman award was given to Maheshi Devi known as Adhyapika Jee by the then President of India and in 1993, Mrs. Lalita Vakil also received the award for the Chamba Rumal. Thereafter Chhimbi Devi and Kamla Nayar also received the state awards and recommendations of the Government of India for the rumal.
Luxury fabrics such as chiffon have been used since the 1700s in Europe to indicate status and wealth. Silk chiffon is an elegant, sheer fabric with a soft drape, stretch and shimmering appearance.
Chiffon was made exclusively of silk until nylon was invented in 1938. In 1958, polyester was produced and polyester chiffon became more widely used because of its cost and durability.
The word chiffon comes from the French word "chiffe," meaning "rag," and the fabric has a soft flowing texture. The S- or Z-twist of the threads is what gives the fabric its "stretch." Silk chiffon was once worn only by the wealthy as a sign of status. Now it is used in wedding dresses and evening gowns and for window treatments or on lampshades.
Because polyester chiffon costs less and is easier to care for, it is now more frequently used than silk in both bridal gowns and prom dresses. In cases where cost and practical concerns are not an issue, silk is still the fabric designers most often choose. While polyester is more durable than silk, it is harder to dye. Unlike silk, you may wash polyester chiffon, although hand washing is the preferable method.
Specialty chiffon fabrics, which have been crushed, textured and sequined, are also available in a wide range of colors. Chiffon fabric with a velvet stripe or decorative accent woven into the fabric is often used in dancing and ice skating costumes. In Romania, chiffon is a type of bleached cotton used to make shirts. In Germany and Austria, it is a durable linen fabric with a smooth finish, and is used for shirts and underwear.
Traditionally, silk chiffon has been used around the world. In 1986 the Textile Museum in Washington, D.C., displayed traditional, embroidered chiffon caftans from Saudi Arabia worn by townswomen in the privacy of their homes, demonstrating the worldwide appeal of the fabric.
Silk organza fabric is a uniquely sheer, lightweight and crisp silk which lends itself well to fashioning delightfully puffy sleeves or resplendent frontal pieces on bridal or other fine formal dresses.
Silk organza fabric is also exceptional when used as a stylish foil to the fabrics of other garments, whether worn under or over them.
The material is woven from lustrous silk yarn which has been given a somewhat more pronounced twist in its manufacture, thereby producing a silken fabric.
Silk organza fabric has a more moldable nature as well as a heightened sheen. Both qualities endow it with an exceptional usefulness among quality fashion silks.
It also doubles as a fabric of interest for home decors treatments such as those involving curtains, bedding and decorative trimmings.
Silk organza fabric is readily washable and easily pressed. Despite its distinctive stiffness, it will not scratch the skin and it resists fraying.
Pashmina wool has enthralled the Indian population as well as the whole world through its softness and warmth.
History of Pashmina wool narrates that this material continued to serve the people since ancient times. Pashmina is believed to have originated around 3000 years B.C.
It is a kind of art of weaving that was passed on from one generation to another to carry on the legacy. Thus the artistry of the ancient people was imbibed to the present Indian society. The word pashmina has a Persian origin and the term stands for wool.
Today the term "pashmina" can mean many different things in the Western world. Often "pashmina" simply describes the style of a soft wool shawl. Almost all pashminas found today are made with wool blends, cashmere and silk being the most popular.
• According to the History of Pashmina wool, the origination of the wool can be traced to Nepal many years back. The people of Nepal started weaving the fabrics for their warmth and especially for survival. Thus the threads of Pashmina began to comfort the people living in the temperate regions of India.
According to historical records, soft, intricately made cloth was used for the kings, emperors, and the aristocracy in ancient India.
Kashmir was the only place in India for over a period where the fiber could be woven into shawls. In addition to that Pashmina was supplied from Tibet to India. During the medieval period of India, production of Pashmina also reached a height from the benefaction of the Mughal rulers like Akbar and his successors, and also because of the patronage of the local government.
It was produced and traded for the benefits of the Indian craftsmen. However with the collapse of the Mughal Empire, the Europeans tried the overture of making pashmina a demand in the European society. Thus, Pashmina started to capture the aristocracy since the 15th century till recent times. The Europeans introduced trading pashmina to the western world where it became popular as cashmere wool from the word `Kashmir`.
In the modern times Pashmina wool has gained popularity all over the world. The material is exported as a finished product as the western market has created a great demand for this exquisite fabric. The textile became popular in the West in the late 1990s.
Over the years thus pashmina fabric has evolved into other, equally beautiful forms, such as the pashmina stoles, scarves, sweaters, mufflers and a host of other pashmina products.
At present Pashmina is available in quite a reasonable price, the garments made from it is presented with wonderful motifs and designs. Most of the dresses from Pashmina wool are woven on spun silk, giving it more suppleness and durability.