Spectrum of interactive behaviors from antisocial to social to pro-social While antisocial and social interactive behaviors involve conflicts of different orders, peace in my opinion promotes pro-social behavior and probably has relatively minimal (even miniscular) degrees of conflict as a dimension to it.
SAL and NC900 mouse strains are selected for high aggression. They were exposed to interacting with a docile male opponent in their resident cages for 5 minutes. The behaviors described above were analyzed after scoring the videos run at 1/5th speed using the Noldus observer software. Further statistical analyses were done using first order Markov Chain analysis. Appeasement was not observed like in primates Period of observation was 5’ Species specific behaviors: Mice establish dominance by aggression Strains shown were highly aggressive Reunited male indulges in copulation behavior with the female of the pair NC100 strain allo-groomed the opponent throughout the interaction Group living environments with dominant/subordinate mice can be created to study tolerance (appeasement)/ dispersal behaviors
Costs of anti-social/social behaviors can be transcended to benefits observed in pro-social behaviors. The equivalent of these behaviors from Hinduism has been described below.
Qualities of each material nature and individual qualities as described by Bhagavad Gita. At the right end, is the description of how these natures are interchangeable, probably suggestive of behavioral plasticity.
Aggression And Peace Making Conference Dn
Conflicts & Peace From Mice to Men; West to East A Behavioral Perspective Aggression and peacemaking in an evolutionary context Deepa Natarajan, October 19, 2010 School of Behavioral and Cognitive Neuroscience faculty of mathematics and natural sciences Behavioural physiology
<ul><li>Maladaptive </li></ul>Adaptive Peace SOCIAL ANTI-SOCIAL PRO-SOCIAL Interactive Behavior - Concept October 19, 2010 Aggression and Peacemaking in an evolutionary context C O N F L I C T C R E A T E
SAL <ul><li>Interactive Behavior - (Mal/)adaptive behaviors in mice </li></ul>AW 22/ W 31 71 % Non-social exploration 114 Threat 246 Attack 215 Chase 243 Immobility 150 37 % 34 % 47 % 28 % 37 % 29 % 45 % 47% 10% 29 % Exhaustion Ritualistic Withdraw Exhaustion MALADAPTIVE ADAPTIVE Social Exploration 176 AW 150/ W 14 Non-social exploration 199 Threat 168 Attack 165 Chase 223 Immobility 147 58 % 47 % 18 % 12 % 28 % 56 % 21 % 34 % 31 % 32 % 39 % 33 % Moderate Intense, Cyclic Unwarned NC900 Natarajan et al 2009a, b, Natarajan and Carmaschi 2010 INFLEXIBLE FLEXIBLE October 19, 2010 Aggression and Peacemaking in an evolutionary context Social exploration 24
Interactive Behavior - Biomarker for (Mal/)adaptive behavior in mice Lesch et al 1996, Holmes et al 2002, Natarajan et al, in prep October 19, 2010 Aggression and Peacemaking in an evolutionary context SEROTONIN TRANSPORTER (5-HTT) Maladaptive conflicts in humans, SAL mice correspond to low 5-HTT expression and activity while adaptive conflicts in NC900 & allegedly adaptive 5-HTT +/+ mice correspond to relatively higher 5-HTT activity Human Placenta Serotonin +/+ mice Violence and antisocial behavior
<ul><li>Maladaptive </li></ul>Adaptive Peace SOCIAL ANTI-SOCIAL PRO-SOCIAL CRIME FAIRNESS ALTRUISM Tamo Rajo Sattva Energetically expensive investment Fairness/Sanctioning-Manipulation Conditional alliances - In-group association Abusive relationships/ Killing Damage to property Conflicts leading to wars Mindfulness in relationships, Here and now Pro-other (people, animal, environment) approach Out-group association Tolerance, Openness, Unity in Diversity TRANSCENDING COSTS to BENEFITS Integrating West/East principles - Concept Asura Daiva October 19, 2010 Aggression and Peacemaking in an evolutionary context ≅ Contemplative traditions have invested on peace and related personality traits
PEACE/Eastern Philosophy – Hinduism (1) Tamo Rajo Sattva/Daiva MATERIAL NATURE/ PERSONALITY DISPOSITIONS Ignorance Delusion, Madness, Indolence, Folly Unlimited expectations, Parochial passion Happiness Knowledge, Awareness, Fearlessness Truthfulness Charity Self-control, Nonviolence, Freedom from anger, Tranquility, Aversion to faultfinding, Freedom from covetousness, Compassion for all living entities Simplicity, Gentleness, Modesty, Steady determination, Vigor, Forgiveness Freedom from envy and from the passion for honor Asura Pride, arrogance, conceit, anger, harshness, ignorance, do not know what is to be done and what is not to be done. Self-centric, engage in unbeneficial, horrible works meant to destroy the world. Gratification of the senses is the prime necessity. Consequently, their anxiety is immeasurable. Bhagavad Gita, Chapter 15-17 October 19, 2010 Aggression and Peacemaking in an evolutional context
PEACE/ Eastern Philosophy – Hinduism (2) Bhagavad Gita, Chapter 6 HOW IS TRANSCENDENCE ACCOMPLISHED ? October 19, 2010 Aggression and Peacemaking in an evolutionary context By constant regulation of the mind
patram puspam phalam toyam yo me bhaktya prayacchati tad aham bhakty-upahrtam asnami prayatatmanah "If one offers Me a leaf, a flower, fruit or water, with love and devotion, I will accept it.” Gita, 9.26 Acknowledgements My mice Han de Vries Doretta Caramaschi Dirkjan Saaltink Tim Fawcett Sietse de Boer Jaap Koolhaas Staff, Students RuG, UMCG Douglas Fry Peter Verbeek Pauline Vincenten Johan M.G. van der Dennen Richie Davidson October 19, 2010 Aggression and Peacemaking in an evolutionary context For a copy of my thesis, contact me at email@example.com