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Power semiconductor devices

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Basic Things of semiconductor Devices...
Then, it's remember of basic things....

Published in: Engineering, Business, Technology
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Power semiconductor devices

  1. 1. Power Semiconductor Devices Power Electronics Power Semiconductor Devices1
  2. 2. A brief survey of power semiconductor devices Power Electronics Power Semiconductor Devices2 ● Power diodes ● Power MOSFETs ● Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistors (IGBTs) ● Thyristors (SCR, GTO) ● On resistance vs. breakdown voltage vs. switching times ● Minority carrier and majority carrier devices
  3. 3. The power diode Power Electronics Power Semiconductor Devices3 Appearance Construction Symbol
  4. 4. Reverse-biased power diode Power Electronics Power Semiconductor Devices4
  5. 5. Forward-biased power diode Power Electronics Power Semiconductor Devices5
  6. 6. Typical power diode characteristics Power Electronics Power Semiconductor Devices6
  7. 7. Typical diode switching waveforms Power Electronics Power Semiconductor Devices7
  8. 8. Types of power diodes Power Electronics Power Semiconductor Devices8 Standard recovery Reverse recovery time not specified, intended for 50/60Hz Fast recovery and ultra-fast recovery Reverse recovery time and recovered charge specified Intended for converter applications Schottky diode A majority carrier device Essentially no recovered charge Model with equilibrium i-v characteristic, in parallel with depletion region capacitance Restricted to low voltage (few devices can block 100V or more)
  9. 9. Characteristics of several commercial power rectifier diodes Power Electronics Power Semiconductor Devices9
  10. 10. The power MOSFET Power Electronics Power Semiconductor Devices10 Appearance Symbol n-channel p-channel
  11. 11. The construction of Power MOSFET Power Electronics Power Semiconductor Devices11
  12. 12. MOSFET: Off state Power Electronics Power Semiconductor Devices12
  13. 13. MOSFET: On state Power Electronics Power Semiconductor Devices13
  14. 14. MOSFET body diode Power Electronics Power Semiconductor Devices14
  15. 15. Typical MOSFET characteristics (1) Power Electronics Power Semiconductor Devices15
  16. 16. Typical MOSFET characteristics (2) Power Electronics Power Semiconductor Devices16
  17. 17. Power MOSFET switching waveform Power Electronics Power Semiconductor Devices17
  18. 18. A simple MOSFET equivalent circuit Power Electronics Power Semiconductor Devices18
  19. 19. Characteristics of several commercial power MOSFETs Power Electronics Power Semiconductor Devices19
  20. 20. MOSFET: conclusion Power Electronics Power Semiconductor Devices20 ● A majority-carrier device: fast switching speed ● Typical switching frequencies: tens and hundreds of kHz ● On-resistance increases rapidly with rated blocking voltage ● Easy to drive ● The device of choice for blocking voltages less than 500V ● 1000V devices are available, but are useful only at low power levels(100W) ● Part number is selected on the basis of on-resistance rather than current rating
  21. 21. The Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistor (IGBT) Power Electronics Power Semiconductor Devices21 Appearance Symbol
  22. 22. The construction of IGBT Power Electronics Power Semiconductor Devices22
  23. 23. The equivalent circuit of IGBT Power Electronics Power Semiconductor Devices23
  24. 24. Typical IGBT characteristics Power Electronics Power Semiconductor Devices24
  25. 25. IGBT switching waveform Power Electronics Power Semiconductor Devices25
  26. 26. Current tailing in IGBTs Power Electronics Power Semiconductor Devices26
  27. 27. Characteristics of several commercial devices Power Electronics Power Semiconductor Devices27
  28. 28. Conclusions: IGBT Power Electronics Power Semiconductor Devices28 ● Becoming the device of choice in 500-1700V applications, at power levels of 1-1000kW ● Positive temperature coefficient at high current —easy to parallel and construct modules ● Forward voltage drop: diode in series with on-resistance. 2- 4V typical ● Easy to drive —similar to MOSFET ● Slower than MOSFET, but faster than Darlington, GTO, SCR ● Typical switching frequencies: 3-30kHz ● IGBT technology is rapidly advancing —next generation: 2500V
  29. 29. The Thyristor (silicon controlled rectifier, SCR) Power Electronics Power Semiconductor Devices29 Appearance Symbol
  30. 30. The equivalent circuit and construction of thyristor Power Electronics Power Semiconductor Devices30
  31. 31. Typical thyristor characteristics Power Electronics Power Semiconductor Devices31
  32. 32. Thyristor switching waveform Power Electronics Power Semiconductor Devices32
  33. 33. Why the conventional SCR cannot be turned off via gate control Power Electronics Power Semiconductor Devices33
  34. 34. The Gate Turn-Off Thyristor (GTO) Power Electronics Power Semiconductor Devices34
  35. 35. Summary: Thyristors Power Electronics Power Semiconductor Devices35 ● The thyristor family: double injection yields lowest forward voltage drop in high voltage devices. More difficult to parallel than MOSFETs and IGBTs ● The SCR: highest voltage and current ratings, low cost, passive turn-off transition ● The GTO: intermediate ratings (less than SCR, somewhat more than IGBT). Slower than IGBT. Slower than MCT. Difficult to drive. ● The MCT: So far, ratings lower than IGBT. Slower than IGBT. Easy to drive. Still emerging devices?
  36. 36. Summary of power semiconductor devices Power Electronics Power Semiconductor Devices36 1. Majority carrier devices, including the MOSFET and Schottky diode, exhibit very fast switching times, controlled essentially by the charging of the device capacitances. However, the forward voltage drops of these devices increases quickly with increasing breakdown voltage. 2. Minority carrier devices, including the BJT, IGBT, and thyristor family, can exhibit high breakdown voltages with relatively low forward voltage drop. However, the switching times of these devices are longer, and are controlled by the times needed to insert or remove stored minority charge. 3. Energy is lost during switching transitions, due to a variety of mechanisms. The resulting average power loss, or switching loss, is equal to this energy loss multiplied by the switching frequency. Switching loss imposes an upper limit on the switching frequencies of practical converters.
  37. 37. Two classifications based on carriers Power Electronics Power Semiconductor Devices37 Classification I Classification II

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