2292 Afr. J. Bus. Manage.and convince the customer about Takaful products. attract and gain customers. Since then until now, mostThese problems will lead to low sale productivity, insurance companies or Takaful operators will use andecrease agents motivation to give full commitment as a agent to assist in increasing product sales (Dubinsky etgood agent and it is not impossible they tend to leave this al., 1988).industry. It shows that leadership behavior among agentsis essential in order to be good agents. Thus, agentshave a major impact in the financial success of a Takaful LITERATURE REVIEWoperator. Because of that, Takaful operators should givemore attention in order to have an aggressive agent with Leadership has been defined in terms of individual traits,a positive attitude and effective performance as a whole behaviour, influence over other people, interaction pat-in the future. terns, role relationships, occupation of an administrative The performance of Islamic insurance, well known as position, and perception by others regarding legitimacy ofTakaful, has showed a remarkable growth from time to influence (Yukl, 2010).time. It can be seen by a lot of Takaful operators in the Stogdill (1974) defines leadership behaviour as thatpresent day and an average growth rate is 20% per year which leaders use to influence a group of people towards(Lim et al., 2010). As a result, it is an interesting subject the achievement of goals. Leadership is an interactionto be discussed. The Takaful industry has a huge between two or more members of a group that oftenpotential to be emphasized. However, there are still many involves a structuring or restructuring of the situation andpeople who do not know what Takaful is, and the term the perceptions and expectations of members, and isTakaful itself seems unfamiliar since it is an Arabic term. concerned with three things; leaders, followers and theirFurthermore, this is one of the challenges which must be interactions (Hasbullah, 2008). Some other definitions arefaced and answered by the Takaful industry; for it to be as follows:well known. Other than that, the important role played by agents 1. Leadership is “the behaviour of an individual when hebecome an interesting issue to be analyzed in order to is directing the activities of a group toward a shared goal”find out how agents leadership behaviour like initiating (Hemphill and Coons, 1957).structure, consideration, representative and persuasive- 2. Leadership is “a particular type of power relationshipness impact on the performance of Takaful industry as a characterized by a group member‟s perception thatwhole. Nowadays, distribution system for life insurance another group member has the right to prescribe beha-has been changed dramatically over time. Traditional viour patterns for the former regarding his activity as amethods for selling insurance have been substantially group member” (Janda, 1960).modified and new marketing models have emerged 3. Leadership is “an interaction between persons in which(Rejda, 2003). Although, some insurers employ a new one presents information of a sort and in such a mannermarketing system such as direct mail, print, that the other becomes convinced that his outcome willtelemarketing, broadcast advertising or internet to market be improved if he behaves in the manner suggested ortheir products and services, a traditional method, that is, desired” (Jacobs, 1970).agents, seem to be the driving marketing force for most 4. Leadership is “the initiation and maintenance ofcompanies (Dubinsky et al., 1988). structure in expectation and interaction” (Stogdill, 1974) This study is setting out to examine the impact of 5. Leadership is “the influential increment over and aboveleadership behaviour among Takaful agents on the per- mechanical compliance with the routine directives of theformance of Takaful industry in Malaysia. The objectives organization” (Katz and Kahn, 1978).of the study are: 6. Leadership is “the process of influencing the activities of an organized group toward goal achievement” (Roach1. To identify whether there is a relationship between and Behling, 1984).agents‟ leadership behaviour (initiating structure, con- 7. Leadership is the “the process of influencingsideration, representative and persuasiveness) and the employees to work toward the achievement of objectives”performance of Takaful industry in Malaysia. (Lussier, 1990).2. To determine the impact of leadership behaviour 8. Leadership is “the ability to influence a group towardamong agents on the performance of Takaful industry in the achievement of goals” (Robbins, 1993).Malaysia. 9. Leadership as an interpersonal process through which a leader directs the activities of individuals or groupsThis research focuses on the impact of leadership towards the purposeful pursuance of given objectivesbehaviour among Takaful agents on the performance of within a particular situation by means of communication.Takaful industry in Malaysia through the initiating (Gerber et al., 1996).structure, consideration of an agent of the customer, how 10. Leadership as the behaviour of an individual whenthe agent acts as representative and good spokesman that person is directing and coordinating the activities of a(persuasiveness) for the Takaful agency in order to Group toward the accomplishment of a shared goal
Hamid et al. 2293(Rowden, 2000). The studies fell short, most notably in the lack of Slocum et al. (2008) argue that when people think of establishing a clear causal relationship. Did high„leaders‟, they often think of famous people in the position considerate behavior cause more productive followers orof power. But not all leaders are as famous as the CEOs did more productive followers cause higher considerateof America‟s largest companies. Leaders can be found at behavior from the leader? The more studies that wereall levels of an organization and in all spheres of life. completed using the LBDQ, the more inconsistent theAlthough we focus here on leaders in business, much of results. Lastly, the most significant development to comewhat has been learned about leadership has come from out of the OSU studies was that effective leaders areobservations and research on political leaders, religious considerate to their followers. This was not “an earth-leaders, and even student. Leadership is an influence shattering” revelation. Shortly after Ohio State startedrelationship between leaders and followers who strive for examining behavioral leadership, the University ofreal change and outcomes that reflect their shared Michigan began similar studies (Benson, 1998).purposes. It takes many forms and can be used for a Referring to Yuki (1981), initiating structure concernswide variety of purposes (Slocum et al., 2008). the degree to which a leader directs subordinates, clarify Different concepts between researchers in their field their roles and plans, coordinates, problem solves,study of leadership will lead to different interpretation of criticizes and pressure them to perform better. Thus,the results and meaning. However, in particular, it has initiating structure is manifested by task-orientedbeen argued that follower perceptions are critical behavior. Another definition for initiating structure isbecause only those who are perceived as leaders are leader initiating structure which is the degree to which aallowed the discretion and influence to lead effectively supervisor defines his/her own role and the roles of(Lord and Maher, 1993). Thus, leaders can only be subordinates toward attainment of the groups goals.effective only if followers are willing to be led. Some examples include assigning tasks, specifying pro- cedures, planning and scheduling work, communicating the importance of meeting deadlines, and maintainingLeadership behavior definite standards of performance (Stodgill, 1963). Keller (2006) argues that initiating structure has been seriouslyTwo leadership behavior dimensions are initiating struc- neglected in the past 15 years. Similarly, Judge et al.ture and consideration. According to Benson (1998), Ohio (2004) referred to initiating structure as the "forgottenState University (1940‟s) pioneered behavioral leadership one" of leadership research since 1987 and suggestresearch. The goal of these studies was to identify those there should be a renewed interest in this leadershipleadership behaviors necessary for effective leadership. style.The studies concentrated on relating specific leadership Supervisory consideration is the degree to which abehaviors to attainment of group or organizational goals. superior develops a work climate of psychologicalInitially, over 1800 behaviors were brainstormed as support, mutual trust and respect, helpfulness, andessential. This list was subsequently paired to a more friendliness. Some examples include finding time to listenmanageable 150 behaviors, and then, factor analysis was to employees problems, consulting with workers onused to further refine the behaviors into two large important issues, treating employees as equals, andcategories: considerate and initiating structure. being willing to accept a workers suggestion (Stodgill, Considerate behaviors are similar to group mainte- 1963). Thus, supervisory consideration lends congenialitynance behaviors, while initiating behaviors resemble to the work environment that can both enhance workerstask-oriented behaviors. Ohio State University (OSU) emotional needs, as well as the development of socialsought to establish a relationship between leader beha- involvements.viors and leader effectiveness. A questionnaire called the Prior researchers such as Churchill et al. (1985)Leadership Behavior Description Questionnaire (LBDQ) suggest that initiating structure and consideration arewas used to demonstrate the relationship. The survey generally inversely associated with role conflict andwas given to subordinates of 57 production foremen. The ambiguity. Published research has ascertained that jobhypothesis was that foremen could be considered the satisfaction and performance tends to be positivelymost effective leaders when they had low rates in both related to initiating structure and consideration.voluntary turn over and written grievances. The findings As stated by Kasturi (2006), performance of anweren‟t surprising; foremen with high levels of organization is the outcome of activities of individuals andconsiderate behavior tended to have more favorable units of the organization. Except for the externaleffectiveness rating while similarly, foremen with low influences on individual behavior and personal traits,initiating structure behavior had more favorable effective- organizations can either influence or control all factorsness ratings. The conclusion was that a relatively high affecting the performance of individuals and units throughdegree of considerate behavior with a relatively low formal and informal means. Some of the formal means ofdegree of initiating structure behavior led to the most controlling units‟ activities are structure, operatingeffective leaders in the organization (Benson, 1998). manuals, standard operating procedures, charters, and
2294 Afr. J. Bus. Manage.budgets. Greater influence on individuals can be Dependent variablesexercised informally through communication, work i) Initiating structure: The degree to which a leader directsculture, management style. subordinates, clarify their role and plans, coordinate problem In a comprehensive review of salesperson performance solves, criticizes and pressure them to perform better.studies, Churchill et al. (1985) note that performance has ii) Consideration: the degree, to which a leader is supportive,traditionally been defined in terms of salesperson friendly and considerate of subordinates, consults with them,behavior which has been evaluated in light of its represents their interests, has open communication with them andcontributions to the goals of the organization. Dubinsky et recognizes their contribution. iii) Representation: The degree to which a leader is speaks andal. (1988) defined performance as the manner in which acts as the representative of the group.the individual executes his or her tasks, responsibilities iv) Persuasiveness: The degree to which a leader is usingand assignments. Previous investigations have persuasion and argument effectively; exhibits strong convictions.discovered that performance generally, is positivelyrelated to initiating structure and consideration. Independent variables Performance of insurance company in financial terms isnormally expressed in net premium earned, profitability Performance of Takaful industry in Malaysia (the manner in whichfrom underwriting activities, annual turnover, return on the individual executes his/her tasks, responsibilities andinvestment, return on equity etc. These measures can be assignments).classified as profit performance measures and invest-ment performance measures (Kasturi, 2006). Budget HYPOTHESISvariances measure the financial performance of eachunit. Performance of each branch includes both financial H1: Initiating structureand non-financial performance. Financial performance forbranches can be divided as profit performance and H1: There is a relationship between initiating structure and theinvestment performance. These are expressed in terms performance of takaful industry in Malaysia.of turnover, gross and net profits, return on investment,return on capital employed, etc. (Kasturi, 2006). Some of H2: Considerationthe non-financial performance measures may includegrowth in number of policies, market share of the branch H2: There is a relationship between consideration and theor division in the local area, company‟s market share in performance of takaful industry in Malaysia.total, number of branches and divisions, Speed in policyprocessing, speed in delivery of the policy notes, timely H3: Representationreminders to the customers, number of drop outs fromthe policies, growth in products and product lines, H3: There is a relationship between representation and thecustomer satisfaction, speed in settlement of claims, performance of takaful industry in Malaysia.employee training, research and development, marketintelligence and surveys, number of policies per agent, H4: Persuasivenessagents training, retention of efficient agents, etc. (Kasturi,2006). H4: There is a relationship between persuasiveness and the performance of takaful industry in Malaysia.RESEARCH METHODOLOGY DATA ANALYSIS AND FINDINGS170 questionnaires were distributed to respondents which comefrom the agents of Takaful operator in Malaysia. The questionnairewas designed into two parts, that is, Parts A and B. Part A was In conducting this research, 170 questionnaires weredivided into 5 sections which contained initiating structure, distributed and 73.5% (125) of the questionnaires wereconsideration, representation, persuasiveness (independent returned back by the cooperative respondents withvariable) and Takaful performance (dependent variable). Part B is answered results. High response rate was due to selfdemographic factors where the respondent background was collection, directly from the agents.collected such as gender, age, race, religion, Takaful operator The results of data analysis are divided into fourrespondent work for, work position, duration work in the industryand through the currently Takaful agency and empowerment status. different parts, which are frequencies analysis, reliability In this study, the target populations are agents of Takaful analysis on related variables engaged in the study,operator in Malaysia. The reason for using a sample, rather than multiple regression to see the most important leadershipcollecting data from the entire population, is self evident. Studying a behaviour factors impact on the dependent variable andsample is likely to produce more reliable results. 170 people were the analysis on correlation in order to identify whetherselected randomly among agents of Takaful operator in Malaysia. The Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS) 17.0 is used there is any relationship between independent variablesto analyze the data obtained from the sample of population. The (initiating structure, consideration, representation andtypes of data analysis technique consist of frequency distribution, persuasiveness) and dependent variable (performance ofreliability, regression analysis and correlation. Takaful industry).
Hamid et al. 2295 Table 1. Cronbach‟s alpha reliability coefficients for the variable. Variable Cronbach’s alpha Number of items Initiating structure 0.952 9 Consideration 0.764 7 Representation 0.932 5 Persuasiveness 0.813 7 Performance 0.859 9 The result indicates that the Cronbach‟s alpha for the agency within 1 to 2 years. It is followed by 29.6% ofindependent and dependent variable is 0.922. The closer respondents who worked less than a year. It is alsothe reliability coefficient gets to 1.0, the better. In general, stated that only 22.4% respondents work within 3 to 5the overall reliabilities coefficient is 0.922, which is good. years. Lowest data are those who work within 6 to 10Therefore, the consistency reliabilities of the measure years from a total of 11.2% respondents. Mostly, 64.8%used in this study can be considered to be good. of respondent are full-time agents. Based on Table 1 and 2, it shows that male respon- Table 3 shows descriptive statistics of the respondents.dents contribute to a larger percentage which is 59.2% as It may be mentioned that all variables were tapped on acompared with female respondents (40.8%). Most (44%) 7-point scale. From the results, it may be seen that theof the respondents are among 20 to 29 years old. 26.4% mean on initiating structure is about somewhat agreerespondents are among 30 to 39 years old. There are (5.9778) on a 7-point scale, as was the mean on con-22.4% respondents who were aged between 40 to 49 sideration (5.2091). Representation is also aboutyears old. 6.4% of respondents are in the range of 50 somewhat agree at 5.9696 on a 7-point scale, relativelyyears or over. A respondent in the age range of less than same with mean of persuasiveness (5.7577). The mean20 years is only 0.8% which contributes to the lowest age of 5.8818 on 7-point scale for performance of Takafulrange of respondents. It is also clearly stated that most of industry indicates that most of the respondents arethe respondents in this study consist of Malay which somewhat agree on the level of performance of Takafulstands at 92.8% (116), followed by 6.4% (8) Chinese res- industry. The minimum of 1.44 indicates that there arepondents and only 0.8% (1) of the respondent come from some who seriously disagree with the performance ofIndian race. This indicates that 92.8% of respondents are Takaful industry at all and the maximum of 7.00 indicatesMuslims and the rest of 7.2% respondents are non- that some are seriously agree with the performance ofMuslim. Takaful industry in Malaysia. Question five asked about the Takaful operator repre- Table 4 presents the correlation between all indepen-sented by the respondents. Result presents that majority dent variables and dependent variable. Based on the(37.6%) of the respondents are from Etiqa Takaful table, it shows that there is significant and high positiveBerhad. This is followed by 34.4% of the respondent relationship between initiating structure and performancerepresenting Takaful Ikhlas Sdn. Bhd. There are about of Takaful industry in Malaysia. The value of the Pearson15.2% of the respondents who come from Prudential correlation is 0.732 significant at 0.000 level (any valueBSN Takaful Berhad and 8.8% from Syarikat Takaful less than 0.050 are significant).Malaysia Berhad. There are 2.4% of respondents from However, there is significant and moderate positiveothers Takaful operators, while only 0.8% of respondents relationship between considerations with the dependentcome from CIMB Aviva Takaful Berhad and MAA Takaful variables (performance of Takaful industry in Malaysia).Berhad. Next, result also shows that most (76.8%) The value of the Pearson correlation is 0.567 significantrespondents are from ordinary agents, followed by the at 0.000 level (any value less than 0.050 are significant).agency managers (16%). Only 7.2% of the total Furthermore, the relationship between representation andrespondents consist of unit managers. persuasiveness with dependent variable is significant and The next question describes the duration of agents high positive relationship. The correlation value forwork in Takaful industry. Most (33.6%) of the representation and persuasiveness is 0.764 and 0.834respondents had experience of 1 to 2 years in the Takaful significant at 0.000 levels.industry. This was followed closely by 28.8% respondents Thus, it can be concluded that there is a positivewho had worked less than 1 year. A total of 23.2% relationship between leadership behaviour factorsrespondents were working in the industry for 3 to 5 years. (initiating structure, consideration, representative andAt least 2.4% of the respondents get involved in the persuasiveness) among agents and performance ofindustry for more than 10 years. Information about Takaful industry in Malaysia.duration of respondent working through this Takaful Multiple regression technique is used to determineagency has also been collected. It is found that majority which one is the main factor of leadership behaviourof 36.8% respondents have been working on this Takaful among agents that contributes to the performance of
2296 Afr. J. Bus. Manage. Table 2. Summary of frequency analysis. Profile Description Frequency Percent Male 74 59.2 Gender Female 51 40.8 Under 20 1 0.8 20-29 55 44.0 Age 30-39 33 26.4 40-49 28 22.4 50 or Over 8 6.4 Malay 116 92.8 Race Chinese 8 6.4 Indian 1 0.8 Muslim 116 92.8 Religion Non-Muslim 9 7.2 CIMB Aviva Takaful Berhad 1 0.8 Prudential BSN Takaful Berhad 19 15.2 Syarikat Takaful Malaysia Berhad 11 8.8 Takaful operator Takaful Ikhlas Sdn. Bhd. 43 34.4 MAA Takaful Berhad 1 0.8 Etiqa Takaful Berhad 47 37.6 Others 3 2.4 Ordinary agent (representative) 96 76.8 Position Unit manager 9 7.2 Agency manager 20 16 Less than 1 year 36 28.8 1-2 years 42 33.6 Long work in 3-5 years 29 23.2 6-10 years 15 12 More than 10 years 3 2.4 Less than 1 year 37 29.6 1-2 years 46 36.8 Long work through 3-5 years 28 22.4 6-10 years 14 11.2 Full-time 81 64.8 Empowerment status Part-time 44 35.2Takaful industry in Malaysia. Initially, the inter corre- agents that are initiating structure, consideration,lations among the four variables are taken into account. representation and persuasiveness as well. According to Table 5, the R (0.855) is the correlation of Table 6 indicates whether the proportion of variancethe four variables with the dependent variable. As shown explained by the model summary is significant or other- 2in the table, R (0.731) is the explained variance. It wise. Furthermore, it shows whether the overall effect ofmeans that 73.1% of the variance in performance of four independent variables on performance is significantTakaful industry in Malaysia has been significantly or not. From Table 6, it is important to emphasize the factexplained by the four leadership behaviour factors among that p value is significant at 0.000 which is below 0.05
Hamid et al. 2297 Table 3. Descriptive statistics. Variable N Minimum Maximum Mean Std. deviation Initiating structure 125 2.44 7.00 5.9778 0.78504 Consideration 125 2.43 7.00 5.2091 0.96645 Representation 125 1.40 7.00 5.9696 0.94359 Persuasiveness 125 1.86 7.00 5.7577 0.81748 Performance 125 1.44 7.00 5.8818 0.80542 Table 4. Pearson correlation. Variable IS CON REP PER PEF Initiating Structure (IS) 1 0.584** 0.791** 0.794** 0.732** Consideration (CON) 0.584** 1 0.484** 0.664** 0.567** Representation (REP) 0.791** 0.484** 1 0.778** 0.764** Persuasiveness (PER) 0.794** 0.664** 0.778** 1 0.834** Performance (PEF) 0.732** 0.567** 0.764** 0.834** 1 Table 5. Model summary. 2 2 Model R R Adjusted R Standard error of the estimate a 1 0.855 0.731 0.722 0.42452 a Predictors: (constant), PER, CON, REP, IS. Table 6. ANOVA. Model Sum of squares df Mean square F Sig. a 1 Regression 58.813 4 14.703 81.588 0.000 Residual 21.626 120 0.180 Total 80.438 124 a Predictors: (constant), PER, CON, REP, IS; bdependent variable: PEF Table 7. Coefficients. Unstandardized coefficients Standardized coefficients Model t Sig. B Standard error Beta 1 (Constant) 0.856 0.300 2.854 0.005 Initiating structure 0.057 0.091 0.055 0.623 0.534 Consideration 0.028 0.054 0.033 0.513 0.609 Representation 0.230 0.073 0.270 3.161 0.002 Persuasion 0.550 0.093 0.558 5.938 0.000 a Dependent Variable: Performance of Takaful industry.level. Thus, we can conclude that the overall model is Based on Table 7, it shows which one among the foursignificant. That is, the variables (initiating structure, variables influences most the variance in performance ofconsideration, representation and persuasiveness) have Takaful industry in Malaysia, that is to say, the mosta significant combined effect on the dependent variable important factor. The column beta shows that the highest(takaful performance). value in the beta under column standardized coefficients
2298 Afr. J. Bus. Manage.is 0.558 for persuasion among agents which is significant Hameed S, Nahar HS (2006), A Review of Takaful Accounting Regulations and Practices in Malaysia. www.scribd.comat 0.000 levels. Compared to other factor such as Hemphill JK, Coons AE (1957). Development of the leader behaviorrepresentation, it shows the value of 0.270 and significant description questionnaire. In RM Stogdill and AE Coons (Eds),at level of 0.002. The lowest value is 0.033 for the Leader behavior; Its description and measurement. Columbus OH:consideration at significant level 0.609. It can be explain Bureau of Business Research, Ohio State University. Insurance Annual Report, 2005.that the main factor contribute to the performance of Jacobs TO (1970), Leadership and exchange in formal organizations.Takaful industry in Malaysia is persuasion among agents. Alexandria, VA: Human Resources Research Organization.JAMIN The overall model explained that 73.1% of variance in Report 1998.overall performance of Takaful industry in Malaysia, was Janda KF (1960). Towards the explication of the concept of leadership in terms of the concept of power. Hum. Relat., 13, 345-363.revealed to be statistically significant (F (4, 120) = Kasturi R (2006). Performance Management in Insurance Corporation.81.588, p < 0.001). J. Bus. Adm. Online, 5(1), 157-163. Katz D, Kahn RL (1978). The social psychology of organizations. (2nd ed.) New York: John Wiley. Keller R (2006). Transformational Leadership, Initiating Structure, andConclusion Substitutes for Leadership: A Longitudinal Study longitudinal study of Research and Development Project Team Performance. J. Appl.This study shows that leadership behaviors have Psychol., 91(1): 202-210.significant relationship with Takaful performance. Those Lim J, Muhammad FI, Yura C (2010). History, Progress and Future Challenge of Islamic Insurance (Takaful) In Malaysia.additional data may help all parties, which are related to Lord RG, Maher KJ (1993). Leadership and Information Processing:Takaful industry, that is, regulators such as Bank Negara, Linking Perceptions and Performance, Unwin Hyman, Boston, MA.agencies and agents himself can play the role in Lussier RN (1990). Human Relations in Organizations, Dow Jonesenhancing the performance among Takaful agents. Irwin, Homewood, IL. Rejda GE (2003). Principles of Risk Management and Insurance, 8th It is very useful to conduct a research for a Takaful Edition, Addison Wesley, Pearson Education Inc., 25: 519.company and take the agent himself as respondent. This Roach CF, Behling O (1984). Functionalism: Basis for an alternateis because Takaful agents are those who have ex- approach to the study of leadership. In J.G. Hunt, D.M. Hosking, C.A.perience with the customer to sell the product. Therefore, Schriesheim, & R. Stewart (Eds.), Leaders and managers : International perspectives on managerial behavior and leadership.their contribution and opinion may help very much in Elmsford, NY: Pergamon Press.improving the product level and performances of Takaful Robbins SP (1993). Organizational Behavior, 6th ed., Prentice-Hall,industry as a whole. Studies directly linking leadership Englewood Cliffs, NJ.behaviour and performance agents should be carried out Rowden RW (2000). The relationship between charismatic leadership behaviours and organizational commitment. Leadersh. Organ. Dev.in more detail in the near future. This can be done by J., 21(1): 30–35.using a larger sample size in order to raise awareness of Slocum JW, Jacson SE, Hellriegel D (2008). Competency-Basedthe importance of having the Takaful agent who has good Management. Mason, OH: Thomson South western.leadership behaviour. Stogdill RM (1963). Manual for the Leader Behavior Description Questionnaire--Form XII. Columbus, OH: Bureau of Business Research, Ohio State University. Stogdill RM (1974). Handbook of Leadership: A Survey of the Literature,REFERENCES New York: Free Press. Stogdill RM (1974). Handbook of Leadership: A Survey of Theory andBenson LM (1998). Leadership Behaviors at Air War College, Maxwell Research, Free Press, New York, N.Y. Air Force Base, Alabama. Yukl G (2010). Leadership in Organizations, 7th Edition, New Jersey:Churchill GA Jr., Ford NM, Hartley SW, Walker OC Jr (1985). The Pearson Education. Determinants of Salesperson Performance: A Meta-Analysis. J. Mark. Res., XXII: 103-118.Dubinsky AJ, Childers TL, Skinner SJ, Gencturk E (1988). Impact of Sales Supervisor Leadership Behavior on Insurance Agent Attitudes and Performance. J. Risk, Insur., 55:132-144.Gerber PD, Nel PS, Van Dyk PS (1996). Human Resource Management, 3rd Edition. Johannesburg: International Thompson Publishing.