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Chapter 18 ppt

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Chapter 18 ppt

1. 1. NumbersChapter 18
2. 2. Rule 1: Spell out single-digit wholenumbers. Use numerals for greater numbers than nine. Correct Examples We ordered nine PDAs and four tablets. Lakshmi prepared 60 letters.
3. 3. Rule 2:Be consistent within a category. For examples, if you choose numerals because one of the numbers isgreater than nine, use numerals for all the numbers in a category. If you choose to spell out numbersbecause one of the numbers is a single digit, spell out all numbers in that category. If you have numbers in different categories, use numerals for one category and spell the other.
4. 4. Correct Examples:Please order 12 boxers of business cards, 2reams of paper, and 11 boxes of envelopes Incorrect Examples: The company offers 15 different wellness seminars, each of which last two hours.
5. 5. Cardinal vs. OrdinalCardinal- one(1)two(2) Ordinal- 1st, 2nd,3rd
6. 6. Rule 3: With numbers that have decimal points, use acomma only when the number has five or moredigits before the decimal point. When writing out such numbers, use a comma where it would appear in the figure format. Use the word and where the decimal point appears in the figure format.
7. 7. Examples: \$15,768.13: Fifteen thousand, seven hundred sixty-eight dollars and thirteen cents. Note: When writing out the numbers that has nodecimal point use the comma where it appears in the numerical form Examples: 1,054 schools or 1054 schools; onethousand, fifty-four schools or one thousand fifty-four schools.
8. 8. Rules for Writing NUmbers Abbreviations Addresses Age Anniversaries
9. 9. AbbreviationsAlways use figures with abbreviations. No. 2 pencils 18 m Bldg 10
10. 10. AddressesUse words for street names from First through Tenthand figures or ordinals for street names through Tenth Third Street 14th StreetWrite house numbers in figures, except for numberone. One Main Street 13 Brook Avenue
11. 11. Addresses & Zip codesWhen figures are used for both the house number andthe street name, separate them with a dash 122-33rd streetUse figures for all zip codes and no commas.Zip code +4 code is a nine digit ZIP Code.54121-3612
12. 12. Age Use words to express general age Figures to express precise, legal and emphasis on age. We are advertising a new line of computer products with 5- and 6-year old children in mind.
13. 13. Anniversaries and Birthdays Spell out ordinal numbers of one to two words. Use figures that contain more than two words.It is our company’s 150th anniversary.
14. 14. Rule 4:Hyphenate all compound numbers from twenty-onethrough ninety-nine. Reword sentence if beginning number consists of more than two words.Examples: Forty-three persons were injured in the train wreck.Twenty-nine people won an award for helping their communities
15. 15. Consecutive NumbersUse figures for the larger of two adjacent number We ordered three 8-gallon sharps containers.
16. 16. Rule 5:Use cardinal numbers in month-day, month-year or month-day-year order. Use commas to separate the year from month and date.
17. 17. Examples: The phone interview is scheduled for June 30, 2011. Lonnie referred to an article on business weekly in the December 2010 issue. ( not dates necessary when the dates consists of a month and year only)Use ordinal numbers when the day comes before themonth or stands alone and the emphasis is on figure. The meeting is scheduled for the 30th of June. The 1st of April puts some people on edge.
18. 18. Rule 6:Decades may be spelled out and in lowercase.Example: During the eighties and nineties, the U.S. economy grew.
19. 19. Rule 7: Incomplete numerals- use an apostrophebefore the incomplete numeral not between the year and sCorrect: During the ‘80s and ‘90s the U.S. economy grew. Incorrect: During the ’80’s and ’90’s, the U.S. economy grew.
20. 20. Rule 8:Express in complete numerals. Don’t use an apostrophe between the year and the s.Example: During the 1980s and 1990s, the U.S. economy grew.
21. 21. Rule 9: Write Decimals in figures. Put a zero in front of thedecimal unless the decimal itself begins with a zero.Examples: The plant grew 0.79 of a foot in one year.The plant grew only .07 of a foot this year because of the drought.
22. 22. Rule 10 Always spell out simple fractions and use hyphens with them. Examples: One-half of the pies have beeneaten. A two-thirds majority is required for that bill to pass in Congress.
23. 23. Rule 11: A mixed fraction can be expressed in figures unless it is the first word of a sentence.Examples: We expect a 5 1/2 percentage wage increase. Five and one-half percent was the maximum allowable interest.
24. 24. Indefinite Numbers Spell out indefinite numbers.A few hundred voters turned out for the local election.
25. 25. Rule12: The simplest way to express large numbers is best.Round numbers are usually spelled out. Be careful to be consistent with a sentence.Correct: You can earn from one million to five million dollars. Incorrect: You can earn one million to \$5,000,000.
26. 26. Rule 12 Examples continued.... Correct: You can earn from five hundred to five million dollars.Correct: You can earn from \$5 hundred to \$5 million. Incorrect: You can earn from \$500 to \$5 million. Incorrect: You can earn from \$500 to five million dollars.
27. 27. Rule 13Use figures ( 1-10) to express measurements.No commas to separate measurement of two parts Examples: 75 yards (yd) 6 quarts 5 feet 11 inches Dimensions: 12-x15-foot rom or a room 12 x 15 feet
28. 28. Rule 14:Use figures to express amounts of moneyabove \$1. No decimal point or zeros after dollar amount in sentence.Example: The invoice includes \$2000 plus the sales tax of \$100 for a total of \$2100.
29. 29. Rule 15 Amounts of money under a dollar are expressed in figures with the word cents, except in statistical copy or when used together with amounts over a dollar. 79 cents or I have petty cash receipts for \$15.70, \$8.09 and \$.95.
30. 30. Percentages Use figures to express exact and approximate percentages. Write the word percent after the number. We offer trade discounts of 10,20, and 30 percent to our long-term customers.
31. 31. Political Divisions, Publications Use words to identify political subdivisions such as congressional districts or precincts. Tenth District representative First Precinct election returnsUse figures to express pages, paragraphs, chapters, lines, and verses in publications. Do not capitalize the words page, line, verse, or paragraph before the numbers. page 25, line 3 paragraphs 34-43
32. 32. Roman Numerals in Outlines and Reports Use roman numerals to subdivide items on outlines or reports.Align roman numerals at the right in an outline or list. Place a period after the numeral. I. WORKING WITH EXCEL GRAPHICSII. WORKING WITH LISTS AND DATABASES III. ANALYZING INFORMATION
33. 33. Roman Numerals as Literary Divisions, as Lowercase Use roman numerals to indicate the major parts of complete literary works such as volumes or chapters. Volume XIV Chapter V Use lowercase roman numerals to indicate page numbers in prefaces or in other materials that precede text materials. Please check page iii at the beginning of our catalog for more information about our shipping policies.
34. 34. Seniority TitlesUse roman numerals or arabic numerals for seniority titles.Do not set aside seniority titles with commas. Daniel Russell II or Daniel Russell 2d Mark Robbins III or Mark Robbins 3d
35. 35. Inclusive FiguresDo not shorten the second number in an inclusive set of figures unless page numbers or dates are used frequently in a document. pages 146-50 (frequent use) or pages 146-150 (general use) Do not shorten inclusive numbers under 100. pages 47-57
36. 36. Inclusive Figurescontinued Do not shorten the second number when the second number begins with a digit that is different from the first number. pages 123-328 Do not use a shortened form for the second number in any situation in which the first number ends in two or more zeros. pages 200-205
37. 37. Domestic Telephone Numbers Use figures for most telephone numbers. If acompany uses combinations of letters and numbers or all words, follow the company’s exact format.Use diagonals, parentheses, periods, or hyphens toseparate the area code from the rest of the number. 515/555.3456 (515) 555-3416 515.555.3416 515-555-3456
38. 38. Rule 16:Use numerals with the time of day when exact times are beingemphasized or when using A.M. or P.M.Example: Monica’s flight leaves at 6:22 A.M. Please arrive by 12:30 sharp. She had a 7:00 P.M. deadline.
39. 39. Rule 17: Spell out the time and date in text even with half and quarter hours. With o’clock; the number is always spelled out.Example: She gets up at four thirty before the baby wakes up. The baby wakes up at five o’clock in the morning.
40. 40. Rule 18:Express terms noon and midnight in words rather than 12:00 P.M. and 12:00 A.M.Example: I plan to take the workshop on Blackboard 9 that begins at noon.
41. 41. General Time Periods/ Business-Related Time Periods Use words to express general time periods such as years, months, weeks, and days except when the time period requires more than two words. During the past two years, we have increased our use of temporary employees. Our business is open 365 days a year.Use numbers to indicate a time period associated with payroll periods, discounts, and interest payments. We have a 3-year lease on this copy machine.