Cereal: Wheat and oat

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Wheat and oat. What, Why, When, How

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Cereal: Wheat and oat

  1. 1. Cereals Wheat and Oat
  2. 2. Wheat vs. Oat Characteristics Wheat Oat Kingdom Plantae Plantae Order Poales Poales Family Poaceae Poaceae Subfamily Pooideae Pooideae Genus Triticum Avena
  3. 3. Wheat (Triticum aestivum) & Oat (Avena sativa)
  4. 4. Harvesting maturity Wheat and Oat
  5. 5. Harvesting maturity Wheat Oat
  6. 6.  Reached when the maximum amount of dry matter has accumulated in the developing kernel.  However, it vary greatly and is not a reliable way to determine the physiological maturity. Wheat
  7. 7.  Visual indicators that accurately predict the attainment of this important stage. Appearance of a dark layer of cells  Another visual indicator of physiological maturity is loss of green. Peduncle Kernel (including crease) glumes
  8. 8. China (18% of world production) United States (8% of world production) Winter wheat Planted from mid- September through October. Planted from mid-August through October. Harvested from mid-May through June. Harvested from mid-May to mid-July. Spring wheat Planted from mid-March through April. Planted from April through May. Harvested from mid-July to mid-August. Harvested from mid- August to mid-September. Harvesting Period
  9. 9.  From two to five feet (60 to 150cm) tall  Have narrow, blade-like leaves six to nine inches (15 to 23 cm) long The flower cluster is a panicle, a delicate stalk that branches into small stems called spikelet Oat
  10. 10. Harvesting Period Planting Warmer areas January - April Cooler areas September - October Harvest
  11. 11. Harvesting Techniques Wheat and Oat
  12. 12. Harvesting Techniques • Modern and traditional methods of both wheat and oats often depends upon the scale of production. • Self-propelled mechanical threshers may be may be found in use in all activities. • For foods and sales purpose, some of the harvesting techniques are reaping by hand-pulling of plants or cycling, stoking, and stacking of straw followed by threshing. • In small-scale farming situations, wheat are by stationary mechanical threshers. Wheat
  13. 13. • Oats usually are cut with a grain binder. • Header and the combined harvester- threshers are little used for a few form. • Combine-harvester are efficient and economical. • If oats are exceedingly short/badly lodged, cutting with a mower sometimes is necessary. • If oats are lodged, it is sometimes is practicable to cut them in one direction with a binder. Oat
  14. 14. Combine harvester Grain binder Hand pulling
  15. 15. Stooking, also known shocking Sickle bar mower
  16. 16. Quality Grading Wheat and Oat
  17. 17. Grading Factors ~ Kernels are damaged if the groats are fireburnt, heated, frost-damaged, insect damaged, sprouted, mildewed, green, badly weather stained, affected by fusarium or are otherwise damaged. ~ Weather stained and/or mildewed groats are considered damaged if there is significant brown or black discoloration on 50% or more of the groat or the discoloration penetrates into the groat. WHEAT & OAT Damage
  18. 18. ~ infections of grain heads also were observed in 9% of the wheat fields surveyed. Ergot infections are also favored by wet weather at flowering of the grain crop. ~ Binburnt kernels are blackened as a result of severe heating in storage. A cross of a binburnt kernel is smooth and glossy. A binburnt kernel is similar in weight to sound kernel. ~ Kernels with black point have a distinct dark brown or black discoloration of the whole germ and surrounding area. Ergot Binburnt kernels (BBT) Black point (BLK PT)
  19. 19. ~ Musty grain has an unpleasant damp, stale and mould aroma. It often arises through grain being affected by mould which may or may not be visually apparent in the grain. ~A fungal disease that affects wheat.FHB is not only reduces yield, but also because it reduces the quality and feeding value of grain. In addition, the FHB fungus may produce mycotoxins, including deoxynivalenol (also known as DON or vomitoxin), that when ingested, can adversely affect livestock and human health. Musty Fusarium head blight (FHB) or scab
  20. 20. Handling Process Wheat and Oat
  21. 21. Handling Processes • To ensure the bacteria, mold, undesired seeds, infested kernels, shrunken and broken kernels and other foreign material do not contaminate the mill products or damage the equipment. • First step in the processing of oat grains. • To Remove impurities Cleaning and Grading
  22. 22. • Removal and separation of husk from the grain, to obtain oat groats. • The cleaned raw oats are fed to a large machine, which throws the grains to a hard surface cause separation of the hull from the kernel called groat Dehulling
  23. 23. Kilning • The process of absorbing the moisture from the grains. • Kilning also gives a nutty flavor to the oats Kilning
  24. 24. Sizing and Cutting • The groat are fed to sizing systems, where machines separate the groats as per their size. • After separate the large groats, the small groats and the broken pieces are directed to the cutting system. • Sifters are used to sort out small and large pieces. • In case of shortage of broken pieces, whole oat groats are cut into required sizes using steel blades. Sizing and cutting
  25. 25. • To separate the branny cover and germ of the wheat kernel from the endosperm • Two method involve: oat bran milling and whole flour milling. • In the fist method, oat groats are send through roll stands, which separate the bran from the flour. In this process result in two products: oat bran and oat flour without bran. • Second method is used exclusively to produce whole oat flour from the groats. Milling
  26. 26. • This process result in the production of oat flakes or rolled oats. • Whole or steel cut oats are steamed (for softening) and then passed to the rolling mill, which is usually, two large corrugated rolls spinning at the same speed in opposite directions. Flaking
  27. 27. • A process that adjust the moisture level of wheat before milling, achieves a mellow endosperm and tough bran. • To equalize the hardness of the different kernels in the wheat mix before processing. Conditioning
  28. 28. How are they packed? Wheat and Oat
  29. 29. Oat • Packaged in printed paperboard cartons, protective liners, and the necessary adhesives. Also delivered unfolded, or stacked on pallets. • The liners, also supplied by outside sources, must be durable and impermeable to moisture or moisture vapour. • Most common type of liners are made of high-density polyethylene (HDPE) film. Wheat • Wheat are stored in moisture-proof, food grade packaging, polyethylene bags, plastic buckets, or cans. • Normally manufactured in high-density polyethylene (HDPE) or polypropylene materials. • Stored in approximately 4.536 kg bags to easier manipulate, facilitates rotation, and allows easy inspection of the grain. For commercial use Wheat Oat
  30. 30. Transportation and Cargo • Both wheat and oats are mainly transport by bulk containers, also as bagged cargo (example: seed) in standard containers. However, compliance with limits for the water content of the cargo and container must be ensured to prevent deterioration. • Average bulk density Wheat:75 kg/hectolitre Oats: 50 kg/hectolitre • Installation of false bulkhead at the secondary containers provides safe access to the container and supports the stowed grain independently of the doors, withstand the rigours of carriage by all forms of transport during its journey from origin to destination. • Use of liners are important to avoid contact with painting, floor sanding or flaky paint. • Example of liners: composites water resistant paper, polyethylene film, and foils.
  31. 31. How are they stored?Wheat and Oat
  32. 32. Wheat and oat • Stored in a dry place (less than 60 percent humidity). • Moisture level below 12% • Lower the grain temperature below 15°C. • Keep out of dust and insects. • Stored in a cool dry environment away from bright light. • Store away from products with strong scent. • Before being stored in containers, it must be fumigated in order to destroy weevil eggs and other microorganisms living in the wheat and oat. • In conditions of high air moisture, high grains moisture and high temperatures, deterioration of wheat and oat occurs faster (Nora, 1992). Wheat and Oat
  33. 33. The end product before reaches customers
  34. 34. Part 2 Market Survey
  35. 35. Characteristics Hypermarkets (Giants) Supermarkets (Hock Kee Seng) Private retail business ( Treleaf) Where On the display rack in food section On the display rack in food section On the display rack in food section In what In their original box and plastic sachets In their original box and plastic sachets In their original box and plastic sachets Next to what Biscuits Powdered milk Biscuits Storage conditions Room temperature Room temperature Room temperature The commodity/product’s shelf life? One year One year One year Quality of the commodities In good condition In good condition Moderate Cereals: Wheat
  36. 36. Characteristics Hypermarket ( Giant) Supermarket (Hock Kee Seng) Private retail business (Treleaf) Where On the display rack in food section On the display rack in food section On the display rack in food section In what In their original can and plastic sachets In their original can and plastic sachets In their original can and plastic sachets Next to what Fruit jam Powdered milk Dried Snacks Storage conditions Room temperature Room temperature Room temperature The commodity/product’s shelf life? One year One year One year Quality of the commodities In good condition In good condition Moderate Cereals: Oat
  37. 37. Product DisplayWheat and Oat
  38. 38. Hypermarket:Giant
  39. 39. Supermarket: Hock Kee Seng
  40. 40. Private Retail Business: Treleaf
  41. 41. Recommendations • Keep away from chemical products such as detergent and soap. • Keep away cereal products from odour products. • Stored in cool and dry place. • Departmentalization are required for customer convenience, especially for groceries and private business retailer.
  42. 42. Conclusion • Cereal products have a longer shelf life in dried condition. • Cool and dry atmosphere suitable for storing as it inhibits the insects infestation and fungus infection.
  43. 43. • Wegulo, S.N & Carlson, M.P. (n.d) Ergot of Small Grain Cereals and Grasses and its Health Effects on Humans and Livestock. Retrieved from http://ianrpubs.unl.edu/live/ec1880/build/ec1880.pdf • Bloomberg (2013) Wheat Extends Slide to 18-Month Low as Frost-Damage Risks Fades. Farm Journal. Retrieved from http://www.agweb.com/article/wheat • Peter R Shewry, N. G. (2002). The structure and properties of gluten: an elastic protein from wheat grain. Philosophical Transactions Royal Society Lond B Biol Sci, 133-142. • Randal K. Taylor, M. D. (1995). Harvesting wheat. United States: Department of Biological and Agricultural Engineering. • Gutkoski L.C. et al. (n.d.). 9th International Working Conference on Stored Product Protection: Drying and storage conditions in white oat grains quality. Retrieved from http://spiru.cgahr.ksu.edu/proj/iwcspp/pdf2/9/6276.pdf References
  44. 44. • Wiersma, J. (2010). How to Easily Tell Wether Wheat Is Physiological Mature. University of Minnesota, USA. • Kowalski, C. (2014). Wheat - Planting and Harvest Seasons for Wheat Crops. About.com. • Mcmullen, M.S. (2000). Handbook of Cereal Science And Technology 2nd Edition, Revised And Expanded.

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