Alfred Hitchcock, the price of gas, and the incidence of foodborne disease in the United States Jeffrey LeJeune, Food Anim...
Shiga toxin-producing  E. coli (STEC) An emerging disease <ul><li>1982  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Severe abdominal cramps </li...
What is special about O157? <ul><li>Attachment  to intestinal cells </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Via intimin ( eae  gene) </li></...
Disease Transmission in Humans <ul><li>Foods of bovine origin:  hamburger, roast, salami, raw milk </li></ul><ul><li>Other...
Public’s Back to Nature Mentality
Farm-to-Table Approach to  Food Safety <ul><li>E. coli  O157 tracked to cattle </li></ul><ul><li>Bovine prevalence linked ...
How to control  E. coli  in cattle <ul><li>Control transmission between farms </li></ul><ul><li>Control replication within...
Control Between Farms A B
Hypothesis <ul><li>European Starlings contribute to the prevalence of  Escherichai coli  O157 on dairy farms </li></ul>
Methods <ul><li>Experimental carriage by birds </li></ul><ul><li>Transmission studies between starlings and cattle </li></...
Doylestown Sterling Orrville Lime Lakes Roost 7:12 AM 7:25 AM 7:27 AM 7:30 AM 8:02 AM 7:32 AM Doylestown Staging Area 3.5 ...
Sterling 0.5 Miles
Doylestown Sterling Orrville 6:51 PM 6:30 PM 5:59 PM 5:50 PM 5:45 PM 5:30 PM Lime Lakes Roost Staging Area 4 Miles
Results <ul><li>Association between bird populations and bovine prevalence:  More Birds, more O157 </li></ul><ul><li>Match...
Between cow, within farm control <ul><li>Prevalence on individual farms often remains stable for years: frequently high, o...
Bedding and  E. coli  <ul><li>Bedding material linked to coliform mastitis </li></ul><ul><li>Sawdust bedding linked to hig...
Sand Recycling <ul><li>Hypothesis:  Recycled sand bedding is populated with bacterial communities suppressive to  E. coli ...
Heat-labile suppression  Fresh In-use Washed Dry Fresh In-use Washed Dry <ul><li>T-RFLP analysis of bacterial communities ...
Results <ul><li>TRFs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cytophaga-Flexibacter-Bacteriodetes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gamma proteobact...
Within Cow 4.4% 3.1% Corn Barley 15 pen pairs <ul><li>Probiotics, Vaccination </li></ul><ul><li>Bacteriophage Therapy </li...
Distillers’ Grains
Within Cow Control <ul><li>Hypothesis: </li></ul><ul><li>Different feed components provide specific nutrients to the hind ...
Effect of DGs on  E. coli  O157
Additional Methods <ul><li>Determine available nutrients in mucin of cattle fed different diets </li></ul><ul><li>Determin...
Results <ul><li>Initial results indicate specific microbial communities associated with </li></ul><ul><ul><li>DG vs. corn ...
Take- Home Messages <ul><li>Multiple factors interplay on the safety of the food supply </li></ul><ul><li>Holistic approac...
Acknowledgements and Collaborators <ul><li>Bird Study </li></ul><ul><ul><li>David Pearl, U of Guelph </li></ul></ul><ul><u...
LeJeune Lab
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Incidence of Foodborne Disease in the US

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  • Foods of bovine origin, primarily hamburger are the most common source of infection in identified outbreaks Other foods such as milk and salami have also been implicated in outbreaks Foods presumably cross-contaminated with beef such salads Apple cider has been a source of many outbreaks; the exact method of contamination remains unknown, possibly the use of contaminated apples Drinking and recreational water supply are important sources of infection in humans, the largest US outbreak in Cabool, Missouri was attributed to contaminated water. Person to person contact can transmit disease-a mode of transmission which is more common in child care facilities Due to the high association of human disease and beef consumption, cattle are considered central in the epidemiology of human disease. So the questions arises how does beef become contaminated and what can we do to control the incidence of human disease?
  • This animation (that starts by a single mouse click) shows an approximate route for Bird 20 from the Lime Lakes Roost site to it’s main activity area near Dave Steiner’s dairy, its capture site. Note that on the morning flight into the main activity area that it only takes 20 minutes from roost to dairy. This was on October 4 th , 2007.
  • Bird 20 on October 4 th . These were its locations (N = 36) between 8:30 AM to 5:30 PM (daily main activity period) in 15-minute intervals.
  • Bird 20 on October 4 th , 2007 on its return to the Lime Lakes Roost. Note that the return to roost is much more leisurely than the morning flight to its daily activity site. This is an animated slide that starts upon a mouse click.
  • Incidence of Foodborne Disease in the US

    1. 1. Alfred Hitchcock, the price of gas, and the incidence of foodborne disease in the United States Jeffrey LeJeune, Food Animal Health Research Program OARDC
    2. 2. Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC) An emerging disease <ul><li>1982 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Severe abdominal cramps </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bloody diarrhea </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No fever </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Edema in intestine </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No usual pathogens isolated </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>History of recent hamburger consumption </li></ul></ul><ul><li>1993 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>600 people affected </li></ul></ul>
    3. 3. What is special about O157? <ul><li>Attachment to intestinal cells </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Via intimin ( eae gene) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Production of toxin </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Shiga toxin </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Also O26, O111, O145, O45, O103, O111 </li></ul>
    4. 4. Disease Transmission in Humans <ul><li>Foods of bovine origin: hamburger, roast, salami, raw milk </li></ul><ul><li>Other foods: apple cider, salads, deer jerky </li></ul><ul><li>Drinking/recreational water </li></ul><ul><li>Person-to-person </li></ul><ul><li>Direct cow-to-person </li></ul><ul><li>Environment-to-person </li></ul>
    5. 5. Public’s Back to Nature Mentality
    6. 6. Farm-to-Table Approach to Food Safety <ul><li>E. coli O157 tracked to cattle </li></ul><ul><li>Bovine prevalence linked to carcass prevalence </li></ul>
    7. 7. How to control E. coli in cattle <ul><li>Control transmission between farms </li></ul><ul><li>Control replication within individual cows </li></ul><ul><li>Control transmission between cows, within farms </li></ul>A B A B A B
    8. 8. Control Between Farms A B
    9. 9. Hypothesis <ul><li>European Starlings contribute to the prevalence of Escherichai coli O157 on dairy farms </li></ul>
    10. 10. Methods <ul><li>Experimental carriage by birds </li></ul><ul><li>Transmission studies between starlings and cattle </li></ul><ul><li>Radio telemetry of birds </li></ul><ul><li>Bird census vs. bovine Prevalence (150 farms) </li></ul><ul><li>Molecular sub-typing of isolates </li></ul>
    11. 11. Doylestown Sterling Orrville Lime Lakes Roost 7:12 AM 7:25 AM 7:27 AM 7:30 AM 8:02 AM 7:32 AM Doylestown Staging Area 3.5 Miles
    12. 12. Sterling 0.5 Miles
    13. 13. Doylestown Sterling Orrville 6:51 PM 6:30 PM 5:59 PM 5:50 PM 5:45 PM 5:30 PM Lime Lakes Roost Staging Area 4 Miles
    14. 14. Results <ul><li>Association between bird populations and bovine prevalence: More Birds, more O157 </li></ul><ul><li>Matching of E. coli O157 isolates between farms </li></ul><ul><li>Impact- Application: Results will predict if bird control will have impact on E. coli O157 carriage in cattle. </li></ul>
    15. 15. Between cow, within farm control <ul><li>Prevalence on individual farms often remains stable for years: frequently high, or frequently low </li></ul><ul><li>Role for management to influence E. coli ? </li></ul>A B
    16. 16. Bedding and E. coli <ul><li>Bedding material linked to coliform mastitis </li></ul><ul><li>Sawdust bedding linked to higher E. coli O157 </li></ul>3.1% 1.4% E. coli O157 less prevalent on among cattle in sand-bedded herds ( P =0.05)
    17. 17. Sand Recycling <ul><li>Hypothesis: Recycled sand bedding is populated with bacterial communities suppressive to E. coli O157 </li></ul>
    18. 18. Heat-labile suppression Fresh In-use Washed Dry Fresh In-use Washed Dry <ul><li>T-RFLP analysis of bacterial communities </li></ul><ul><li>Regression Analysis of abundance of TRF and suppression </li></ul><ul><li>Cloning and sequencing of TRFs </li></ul>
    19. 19. Results <ul><li>TRFs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cytophaga-Flexibacter-Bacteriodetes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gamma proteobacteria </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Firmicutes </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Impact-Application </li></ul><ul><li>Isolating these organisms, and enriching for their presence in bedding may be a way to control E. coli O157 in the farm environment. </li></ul>
    20. 20. Within Cow 4.4% 3.1% Corn Barley 15 pen pairs <ul><li>Probiotics, Vaccination </li></ul><ul><li>Bacteriophage Therapy </li></ul><ul><li>Grain vs. Hay feeding ??? </li></ul>A B
    21. 21. Distillers’ Grains
    22. 22. Within Cow Control <ul><li>Hypothesis: </li></ul><ul><li>Different feed components provide specific nutrients to the hind gut that influence microbial populations that either promote or suppress E. coli O157 carriage by cattle . </li></ul>
    23. 23. Effect of DGs on E. coli O157
    24. 24. Additional Methods <ul><li>Determine available nutrients in mucin of cattle fed different diets </li></ul><ul><li>Determine preferred carbohydrate sources of E. coli O157 </li></ul><ul><li>Determine association between : </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>feed-mucin carbohydrates- E. coli O157- microbial communites </li></ul></ul></ul>
    25. 25. Results <ul><li>Initial results indicate specific microbial communities associated with </li></ul><ul><ul><li>DG vs. corn feeding </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>E. coli O157-positive and E. coli O157-negative animals </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Impact- Applications </li></ul><ul><li>Identifying microbial populations inhibitory to E. coli O157 can aid in the control of the organism in the live animal. </li></ul>
    26. 26. Take- Home Messages <ul><li>Multiple factors interplay on the safety of the food supply </li></ul><ul><li>Holistic approach critical in weighing costs and benefits </li></ul><ul><li>Interdisciplinary teams valuable to answer complex questions </li></ul>
    27. 27. Acknowledgements and Collaborators <ul><li>Bird Study </li></ul><ul><ul><li>David Pearl, U of Guelph </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Jeff Homan George Linz, USDA Wildlife Services </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>USDA NRI Grant 2006-01227 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Bedding Study </li></ul><ul><ul><li>McSpadden Gardener & Lab </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Steve Abedon, Dept Microbiology, OSU Mansfield </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>OARDC SEEDs Interdisciplinary Grant </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Distillers’ Grain </li></ul><ul><ul><li>McSpadden Gardener Plant Pathology, OSU </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Steve Loerch, Animal Sciences, OSU </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>USDA, AFRI 2009-03960 </li></ul></ul>
    28. 28. LeJeune Lab

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