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10 karapatan ng batang pilipino

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10 karapatan ng batang pilipino

  1. 1. ©Prentice Hall, 2001 Chapter 13 1 FoundationsFoundations of Controlof Control
  2. 2. ©Prentice Hall, 2001 Chapter 13 2 Learning OutcomesLearning Outcomes • Define control • Describe three approaches to control • Explain why control is important • Define the control process • Analyze the three types of control
  3. 3. ©Prentice Hall, 2001 Chapter 13 3 Learning OutcomesLearning Outcomes • Describe an effective control system • Identify contingency factors in the control process • Learn the dysfunctional side of controls • Describe how national differences affect the control process • Study ethical issues in employee monitoring
  4. 4. ©Prentice Hall, 2001 Chapter 13 4 Three ApproachesThree Approaches to Control Systemsto Control Systems MarketMarket ControlControl MarketMarket ControlControl ClanClan ControlControl ClanClan ControlControl BureaucraticBureaucratic ControlControl BureaucraticBureaucratic ControlControl
  5. 5. ©Prentice Hall, 2001 Chapter 13 5 Managerial Decisions in the Control ProcessManagerial Decisions in the Control Process Identify Causes Identify Causes Correct Performance Correct Performance Variance Acceptable? Variance Acceptable? Revise Standard Revise Standard Standard Attained? Standard Attained? Standard Acceptable? Standard Acceptable? Yes Yes Yes No No No Compare Performance to Standard Compare Performance to Standard Measure Performance Measure Performance ObjectivesObjectives StandardStandard Do NothingDo Nothing Do NothingDo Nothing
  6. 6. ©Prentice Hall, 2001 Chapter 13 6 InformationInformation PeoplePeopleFinancesFinances OperationsOperations What ManagersWhat Managers MeasureMeasure
  7. 7. ©Prentice Hall, 2001 Chapter 13 7 Defining an Acceptable Range of VariationDefining an Acceptable Range of Variation AcceptableAcceptable Upper LimitUpper Limit StandardStandard AcceptableAcceptable Lower LimitLower Limit AcceptableAcceptable Range ofRange of VariationVariation t t+1 t+2 t+3 t+4 t+5t t+1 t+2 t+3 t+4 t+5
  8. 8. ©Prentice Hall, 2001 Chapter 13 8 Mid-Western Distributors’ Sales for JulyMid-Western Distributors’ Sales for July (in hundreds of cases)(in hundreds of cases) Heineken Molson Beck’s Moosehead Labatt’s Corona Amstel Light Dos Equis Tecate Total Cases 1,075 630 800 620 540 160 225 80 170 4,300 913 634 912 622 672 140 220 65 286 4,464 (162) 4 112 2 132 (20) (5) (15) 116 164 Brand Standard Actual Over (Under)
  9. 9. ©Prentice Hall, 2001 Chapter 13 9 Do NothingDo NothingDo NothingDo Nothing TakingTaking ManagerialManagerial ActionAction TakingTaking ManagerialManagerial ActionAction CorrectCorrect PerformancePerformance CorrectCorrect PerformancePerformance ReviseRevise the Standardthe Standard ReviseRevise the Standardthe Standard
  10. 10. ©Prentice Hall, 2001 Chapter 13 10 InputInputInputInput ProcessesProcessesProcessesProcesses OutputOutputOutputOutput FeedforwardFeedforward ControlControl AnticipatesAnticipates ProblemsProblems FeedforwardFeedforward ControlControl AnticipatesAnticipates ProblemsProblems ConcurrentConcurrent ControlControl Corrects ProblemsCorrects Problems as They Happenas They Happen ConcurrentConcurrent ControlControl Corrects ProblemsCorrects Problems as They Happenas They Happen FeedbackFeedback ControlControl Corrects ProblemsCorrects Problems after They Occurafter They Occur FeedbackFeedback ControlControl Corrects ProblemsCorrects Problems after They Occurafter They Occur Three Types of ControlThree Types of ControlThree Types of ControlThree Types of Control
  11. 11. ©Prentice Hall, 2001 Chapter 13 11 Qualities of an EffectiveQualities of an Effective Control SystemControl System • Accuracy • Timeliness • Economy • Flexibility • Understandability
  12. 12. ©Prentice Hall, 2001 Chapter 13 12 Qualities of an EffectiveQualities of an Effective Control SystemControl System • Reasonable criteria • Emphasis on exceptions • Strategic placement • Multiple criteria • Corrective action
  13. 13. ©Prentice Hall, 2001 Chapter 13 13 Contingency Factors in Control SystemsContingency Factors in Control Systems Organization Size Position and Level Degree of Decentralization Organizational Culture Importance of an Activity Small Large Informal, personal management Formal, personal management High Low High Low Open Closed High Low Contingency Variable Control Recommendations Many complex criteria Few, easy-to-measure criteria Increased number of controls Reduced number of controls Informal, self-control Formal, external controls Elaborate, comprehensive controls Loose, informal controls
  14. 14. ©Prentice Hall, 2001 Chapter 13 14 Adjusting ControlsAdjusting Controls for National Differencesfor National Differences TechnologyTechnology and theand the ComparabilityComparability of Dataof Data DistanceDistance and theand the FormalityFormality of Controlsof Controls
  15. 15. ©Prentice Hall, 2001 Chapter 13 15 DysfunctionalDysfunctional ControlsControls Inflexible Controls Unreasonabl e Standards
  16. 16. ©Prentice Hall, 2001 Chapter 13 16 InformInform EmployeesEmployees Have aHave a Written PolicyWritten Policy Monitor forMonitor for Business ReasonsBusiness Reasons Ethical IssuesEthical Issues and Controland Control Questions of PrivacyQuestions of Privacy

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