A Review of Water Management and Disaster Risk Reduction (DRR) in Lower Middle Income Countries.


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This paper will focus on a review of the challenges and opportunities for Water Manage-ment and Disaster Risk Reduction in post disaster environments in lower middle Income Countries . The review will draw on grass roots experience from both Indonesia and Philippines.

The paper will outline the cost effectiveness of proactive strategies that consider disaster risk reduction as an integrated component of water management (as strongly indicated in AusAID policy for DRR.)

From Indonesia the reviewed will focus on how SurfAid International has cut into a niche corporate sector to attract funds to support social and environmental services in post dis-aster environments. The paper will look at three programs implemented in parallel by SurfAid International building health wellbeing and self-reliance of remote island communi-ties. Efforts from IWRM projects in Davao will also be consider and how they have pro-duced unintended, but welcome, outcomes in build the resilience of upland communities. Opportunities for better integration between water management and DRR will then be pre-sented.

The Symposium main theme which aims "to identify business opportunities for water sec-tor to integrate into an expanding environmental services industries" will be tackled by looking at the challenges in funding and sustaining funding for water management in post disaster environments. We will review the increasing role of the philanthropy in supporting recovery from disasters and the need to shift from responsive to proactive strategies for disaster management. The paper will present how water management and DRR strategies are both compatible and necessary to enable sustainable development, particularly in dis-aster prone SE Asia.

Finally the paper will apply these lessons and project a vision of how HELP Basins could become a local catalyst, creating a demand for water knowledge services that guides wa-ter actors to be proactive in engage a full spectrum of stakeholders for a truly diversified water business environment that is focus on social, economic and environment outcomes.

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  • Three key program areas health, water and emergency preparedness. Being in a high risk region we also have PSS and ER programs
  • SurfAid are the main proponent behind joining HELP Network
  • Disaster risk reduction is all about investigating in tangible risk reduction measures that reduce vulnerability and protect development gains
  • Looking at the disaster cycle from the from disaster lens. Unfortunately a emergencies still tends to be the common start for DM efforts. Here will look at the entry points for integrating water and DM.
  • SurfAid & communities emergency preparedness activities : erected signposts pointing to an evacuation site. Children participated in earthquake simulation drills at school families prepared emergency bags with essential documents and emergency items.
  • However with seismic oscillations , the water level usually comes back to the pre-earthquake value within minutes or tens of minutes after the earthquake,
  • Communities have suffered due to loss of access to water but reported benefits of reduced number f mosiquito on the islands and simialarly drops in malaria rates on the inlands.
  • The earthquake of 8.6M w occurred at 16:09:36 UTC (11:09:36 P.M. local time) on 28 March 2005. The hypocenter was located at 2 ー 04′35″N 97 ー 00′58″E  /  2.07639 ー N 97.01611 ー E , 30 kilometres (19 mi) below the surface of the Indian Ocean , where subduction is forcing the Indo-Australian Plate to the south-west under the Eurasian plate 's Sunda edge. The earthquake lasted for about two minutes in total. In the twenty-four hours immediately after the event, there were eight major aftershocks, measuring between 5.5 and 6.0. On the Indonesian island of Nias , off the coast of Sumatra, hundreds of buildings were destroyed by the earthquake. The death toll on Nias was at least one thousand, with 220 dying in Gunungsitoli , the island's largest town. Nearly half of Gunungsitoli's population (27,000) fled the town.
  • Considering Risk in IWRM is not new, but the full integration of disaster management as an integral component water management maybe. In the current climate of increasing disasters reported and the additional risk add by climate change means we can no longer not consider disaster management when we talk of water management. And no where in the world is more pertinent than SE Asia’s small island and moonsoon regions.
  • Today we will share lessons from W sumatra
  • A Review of Water Management and Disaster Risk Reduction (DRR) in Lower Middle Income Countries.

    1. 1. Water Management and Disaster Risk Reduction (DRR) Omdiyar Fund
    2. 2. <ul><li>Disaster Management and Water Management </li></ul><ul><li>Comparison of Water and Disaster Management at Community Level </li></ul><ul><li>Case study 1: Earthquakes & Impact on Groundwater on Small Coral Islands </li></ul><ul><li>[Ch]Trends of Aid in Post- disaster Environments </li></ul><ul><li>[Op]Case Study 2: SurfAid Model and Role of Philanthropy for Tapping Funds </li></ul><ul><li>Lesson Learnt </li></ul>Overview
    3. 3. SurfAid International <ul><li>Vision is to improve the health, well-being, and self-reliance of people living in isolated regions. </li></ul><ul><li>Mission is to … develop and synthesize a series of proven , high impact, and cost effective approaches that create lasting improvements … in the health and wellbeing …. of individuals and communities at … increasing scale. </li></ul>
    4. 4. Program focus <ul><li>Health </li></ul><ul><li>Water and sanitation </li></ul><ul><li>Emergency Preparedness </li></ul><ul><li>Emergency Recovery </li></ul><ul><li>Psycho- Social Support </li></ul>
    5. 5. Site locations
    6. 6. History of Earthquakes in Western Sumatra
    7. 7. Part 1: Disaster Management and Water
    8. 8. West Sumatra Islands Basin <ul><li>Joined the HELP UNESCO River Basin Network during the third call in 2008 </li></ul><ul><li>The Basin is at early stage in development </li></ul><ul><li>Stakeholder participation is ongoing at the village and local government levels </li></ul><ul><li>Strives to become a leader in the global network with a focus on </li></ul><ul><ul><li>‘ water, health and emergencies.’ </li></ul></ul>
    9. 9. Hydrology for the Environment, Life and Policy To deliver social, economic, and environmental benefit to stakeholders through sustainable and appropriate use of water by directing hydrological science towards improved integrated catchment management basins Real people Real catchments Real answers
    10. 10. Disaster Risk Management Cycle IWRM INTEGRATION WatSan Supply & management Emergency Water & Sanitation
    11. 11. Disaster Risk <ul><li>arises when hazards interact with vulnerabilities & resilience </li></ul>
    12. 12. Hazards, Vulnerability, & Resilience
    13. 13. Hydro Meteorological Risk <ul><li>Weather-related hazards accounted for over 76% of natural disasters over the last two decades. </li></ul><ul><li>Climate change is highly likely to increase the frequency and severity of weather-related hazards </li></ul>
    14. 14. Disasters Reported <ul><li>Time trend of reported natural disasters, 1975–2008 </li></ul><ul><li>Source: Disaster Risk Reduction policy AusAID 2009. </li></ul>195/ year 365/ year
    15. 15. History of Earthquakes in Western Sumatra
    16. 16. A prepared community <ul><li>Being prepared for disasters saves lives </li></ul><ul><li>2 earthquakes in September 12 and September 13, 2007 measuring 8.4 and 7.9 on the Richter scale </li></ul><ul><li>The earthquakes destroyed 50 per cent of the small village and more than 60 houses </li></ul><ul><li>There were no casualties from about 150 families and a population of 625 </li></ul>North Pagai Padang, W Sumatra
    17. 17. Prepared communities in Mentawai <ul><li>SurfAid & communities emergency preparedness activities </li></ul><ul><li>erected signposts pointing to an evacuation site. </li></ul><ul><li>Children participated in earthquake simulation drills at school </li></ul><ul><li>families prepared emergency bags with essential documents and emergency items. </li></ul>
    18. 18. Cost effectiveness <ul><li>World Bank and IFRC have found that for each dollar invested in disaster risk reduction, two to ten dollars are saved in avoided or reduced disaster response and recovery costs. </li></ul>
    19. 19. Comparisons between DRR & IWRM
    20. 20. Comparison of community based DRR & IWRM
    21. 21. Part 2: Earthquake Impacts on ground water of small Islands
    22. 22. History of Earthquakes in Western Sumatra
    23. 23. Earthquakes and Groundwater <ul><li>Seismic waves have two main types of effects on groundwater levels: oscillations , and &quot;permanent&quot; offsets </li></ul><ul><li>Wells may exhibit seismic oscillations from for any earthquakes of M7 occurring within a distance of 3000-4000 km </li></ul><ul><li>Wells that exhibit &quot;long-term&quot; offsets tend to do so for larger, nearer earthquakes </li></ul>
    24. 24. Post Earthquake dry well - Hinako Islands
    25. 25. Raised Reef
    26. 26. Raised Reef 2
    27. 27. Nias Earthquake 8.6Mw 2005
    28. 28. Post Disaster Nias <ul><li>8.6M w Earthquake on March 28th 2005 </li></ul><ul><li>Massive structural damage to natural and man made environments </li></ul><ul><li>Massive influx of humanitarian aid </li></ul><ul><li>Nias in 2010 has on undergone massive reconstruction with roads and health infrastructure ‘ built back better’ but </li></ul><ul><li>many basic needs of remote communities remains unmet </li></ul>
    29. 29. History of Earthquakes in Western Sumatra
    30. 30. Trends in Aid
    31. 31. Challenges in post disaster envrons <ul><li>Continuing funds streams after post disaster period </li></ul><ul><li>Sustainability of short sectoral focused programs </li></ul><ul><li>Challenges in bringing the interventions to scale </li></ul>
    32. 32. Object 2 of Malaysia HELP Symposium <ul><li>aims to identify business opportunities for water sector to integrate into an expanding environmental services industry </li></ul><ul><li>A model of successful engagement of private sector to support environmental services in post disaster environments </li></ul>
    33. 33. Op 1: Tapping Philanthropy Finding a niche & opening the tap
    34. 34. SurfAid International <ul><li>Started in 2000 with a vision to be the Surf Industry’s “vehicle of choice for humanitarian response” </li></ul><ul><li>Recognized a gap and sought to become the conscience for the industry </li></ul><ul><li>In 2010 we celebrate 10 years </li></ul>
    35. 35. SurfAid approach in Nias <ul><li>In post disaster Nias worked with UNICEF to build 100 latrines and water facilitates </li></ul><ul><li>Between 2008 - 2009 massive withdraw of aid organization from Nias </li></ul><ul><li>Yet many inaccessible communities remained with improved access to sanitation or drinking water </li></ul><ul><li>Committed funds were withdrawn </li></ul><ul><li>SurfAid long term commitment to the Area and the people </li></ul>
    36. 36. Commitment, Concepts & connections , National Field International Collaboration and feedback Social Entrepreneurial Spirit
    37. 37. Donor Cluster for water in post disaster environment <ul><li>Funded by Omidyar Network with NZAID and AusAID. </li></ul><ul><li>Opportunity to join HELP UNESCO </li></ul><ul><li>Opportunity to shift community focus from dole out to self empowerment </li></ul><ul><li>Opportunity to focus on behavior change and build foundation for sustainable changes </li></ul><ul><li>Committed delivery of 64 improved water and sanitation facilities (21 latrines) </li></ul>
    38. 38. Latrines built Donor Target = 21 Latrines Community Target = 337 latrines Current total = 257 Latrines
    39. 39. Lessons Learnt and Opportunities
    40. 40. 1. DRR can and should be Integrated in WM
    41. 41. 2. Water & Sanitation in post disaster <ul><li>Reduces human suffering </li></ul><ul><li>Improves environmental quality </li></ul><ul><li>Should be seen and used as an entry point for more holistic water management </li></ul><ul><li>‘ Build back better’ - not just physically but socially, economically and environmentally. </li></ul>
    42. 42. 3. potential to integrate business sector 1. Local Catalysts Tapping Philanthropy Source: Driving innovation from the base of the Pyramid, S Hart Corporate Engagement
    43. 43. ‘ Disaster risk reduction is everybody’s business. Only by investing in tangible risk reduction measures can we reduce vulnerability and protect development’ Ban Ki Moon, Secretary-General of the United Nations, 2008